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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers
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The Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 50, Issue 12 - Dec 2013
Volume 50, Issue 11 - Nov 2013
Volume 50, Issue 10 - Oct 2013
Volume 50, Issue 9 - Sep 2013
Volume 50, Issue 8 - Aug 2013
Volume 50, Issue 7 - Jul 2013
Volume 50, Issue 6 - Jun 2013
Volume 50, Issue 5 - May 2013
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Volume 50, Issue 3 - Mar 2013
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Volume 50, Issue 1 - Jan 2013
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An Iterative Two-Dimensional Equalizer for Bit Patterned Media Storage Systems Based on Contraction Mapping
Moon, Woosik ; Im, Sungbin ; Park, Sehwang ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 50, issue 6, 2013, Pages 3~8
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2013.50.6.003
Bit patterned media (BPM) storage is one of the promising technologies to overcome the limitations of the conventional magnetic recording. However, there are some problems in a high areal density BPM storage, inter-track interference, inter-symbol interference and noise which are severely degrading performance of the system with reducing the bit error rate. In this paper, we present a simple iterative two-dimensional equalizer based on the contraction mapping theorem to mitigate these adverse effects. Furthermore, we examine that the channel characteristics of the proposed two-dimensional equalizer satisfies the convergence conditions. In the simulation we demonstrate the bit separation characteristics of the one-dimensional equalizer and the two-dimensional equalizer and evaluate the BER performance of the proposed equalizer comparing with the conventional equalizers. According to the results of experiments, the proposed equalizer is an promising equalizer with maintaining proper complexity for a high areal density BPM storage.
Performance Analysis of Optimal Tracking Load Balance Scheme in Hierarchical LTE Networks
Jeon, Minsu ; Jeong, Jongpil ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 50, issue 6, 2013, Pages 9~21
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2013.50.6.009
Tracking is a process which explores user equipment (UE) in the area of tracking in terms of cells. In this paper, two tracking schemes based on macrocell-microcell tiers in hierarchical LTE networks, PMMT and IMMT, are evaluated. In this network, UE can receive a signal from macrocells and overlapping microcells, and can be called from each macrocell or microcell-tier in the PMMT. Also, the UE can be called from the combined macrocell-tier and microcell-tier in the IMMT. Finally, we analyze the optimization of load balance between marcocell-tier and microcell-tier, and an analytical model is developed to evaluate those two arrangements.
Performance Analysis of IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee System in Various Channel Environments
Moon, Sangmi ; Kim, Bora ; Malik, Saransh ; Kim, Youngil ; Yeo, Kunmin ; Kim, Daejin ; Hwang, Intae ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 50, issue 6, 2013, Pages 22~32
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2013.50.6.022
Wireless Sensor Network(WSN) has attracted great interest recently and the necessity of ZigBee has appeared to standardize and apply the upper layer specification based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard specification in industrial field. Currently, there are many studies about the IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee communication channel. And it is subject of interest to analyze the performance in various channel environments. In this paper, we propose channel models through the analysis of the IEEE 802.15.4 radio wave propagation characteristics in various channel environments. Also, we have analyzed the performance of the IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee for the standard of physical layer of 2.4GHz band in each channel environments.
A Point-based Resource Distribution Scheme and Its Characteristics for Mobile P2P Streaming Service
Kim, Yangjung ; Chong, Ilyoung ; Han, Chimoon ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 50, issue 6, 2013, Pages 33~42
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2013.50.6.033
In the early stage of P2P, the technology was limited to narrow usage of file sharing, but currently, P2P technology has become essential to maximize the efficiency between associated technologies without additional deployment of high costly infrastructure and also the burden of the server. Especially, P2P media streaming service is a highly attractive service to mobile users. which requires a higher quality in the mobile environment in accordance with the development of technology of wired network as well as better mobile terminals. However, P2P technology should consider the trade-off between 'peer selfishness' and QoE for providing fairness. The P2P system also try to maximize the resource utilization through an incentive mechanism for service differentiation and encourage peers to contribute continuously for improving the overall system performance. In this paper, we propose an point-based incentive mechanism based on peer's contribution level and energy availability for service differentiation. We also introduce that the proposed mechanism efficiently enhances the system performance as the peer with incentive using contribution and energy obtains more effective resource distribution.
Design of L-Band Cylindrical Active Phase Array Antenna Using Bent Dipoles
Lee, Man-Gyu ; Kwon, Ickjin ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 50, issue 6, 2013, Pages 43~55
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2013.50.6.043
In this paper, we propose a cylindrical active phased array antenna of Beam Steering Characteristics in the horizontal plane(H-plane) and vertical plane(E-Plane) on the cylinder form array structure. We design the bent dipole antenna of the cylindrical array structure adapted excellent mutual-coupling characteristics, designed and manufactured the cylindrical array antennas and power combiner/divider unit for power dividing and combining on the antenna. The radiating elements array spacing of Cylindrical array antenna were determined to avoid grating lobes at half power beam steering. Beam steering of the antenna was implemented with 6-bit phase shifter in the transceiver and have been designed based on the characteristics the antenna beam steering at -24 degrees to 24 degrees horizontal, vertical 0 degrees to 36 degrees beam steering. A cylindrical active phased array antenna that produced for verification the performance of the antenna are measured radiation characteristics in accordance with beam steering at L-Band.
High Gain Metamaterial Patch Antenna for 2.4GHz Band using New Metamaterial Single-Layer
Park, Kwan-Young ; Yang, Seung-In ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 50, issue 6, 2013, Pages 56~61
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2013.50.6.056
In this paper, a high gain patch antenna using a single layer metamaterial superstrate with a near-to-zero refractive index (n) is proposed. Simulations for an ordinary patch antenna and our proposed metamaterial patch antenna were conducted. Our proposed metamaterial patch antenna was implemented and measured. The gain of our proposed metamaterial patch antenna is 6.77dB higher than that of an ordinary patch antenna.
Gauss-Newton Based Estimation for Moving Emitter Location Using TDOA/FDOA Measurements and Its Analysis
Kim, Yong-Hee ; Kim, Dong-Gyu ; Han, Jin-Woo ; Song, Kyu-Ha ; Kim, Hyoung-Nam ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 50, issue 6, 2013, Pages 62~71
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2013.50.6.062
The passive emitter location method using TDOA and FDOA measurements has higher accuracy comparing to the single TDOA or FDOA based method. Moreover, it is able to estimate the velocity vector of a moving platform. Recently, several non-iterative methods were suggested using the nuisance parameter but the common reference sensor is needed for each pair of sensors. They show also relatively low performance in the case of a long range between the sensor groups and the emitter. To solve this, we derive the estimation method of the position and velocity of a moving platform based on the Gauss-Newton method. In addition, to analyze the estimation performance of the position and velocity, respectively, we decompose the CRLB matrix into each subspace. Simulation results show the estimation performance of the derived method and the CEP planes according to the given geometry of the sensors.
Control Architecture for N-Screen Based Interactive Mutli-Vision System
Sarwar, Ghulam ; Ullah, Farman ; Yoon, Changwoo ; Lee, Sungchang ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 50, issue 6, 2013, Pages 72~81
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2013.50.6.072
In this paper, we propose the architecture and user interaction mechanism to implement N-Screen services on Multi-Vision System (MVS) that are not supported in existing systems. N-Screen services enable users to control the MVS displays through any of their devices and share contents among MVS displays and user's active-devices with service continuation at any location. We provide N-Screen interactive services on MVS by introducing N-Screen interaction & session management server and agent. Furthermore, we present some examples of the protocols such as application launching, user interaction for service control and visualcasting to support N-Screen services. In addition, we explain the N-Screen service scenarios for providing split sessions on user's active-devices and launching metadata content on any of his devices at any location supported by these protocols. The simulation result demonstrates the feasibility and performance improvement of the proposed visualcasting mechanisms.
The Analysis of Total Ionizing Dose Effects on Analog-to-Digital Converter for Space Application
Kim, Tae-Hyo ; Lee, Hee-Chul ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 50, issue 6, 2013, Pages 85~90
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2013.50.6.085
In this paper, 6bit SAR ADC tolerant to ionizing radiation is presented. Radiation tolerance is achieved by using the Dummy Gate Assisted (DGA) MOSFET which was proposed to suppress the leakage current induced by ionizing radiation and its comparing sample is designed with the conventional MOSFET. The designed ADC consists of binary capacitor DAC, dynamic latch comparator, and digital logic and was fabricated using a standard 0.35um CMOS process. Irradiation was performed by Co-60 gamma ray. After the irradiation, ADC designed with the conventional MOSFET did not operate properly. On the contrary, ADC designed with the DGA MOSFET showed a little parametric degradation of which DNL was increased from 0.7LSB to 2.0LSB and INL was increased from 1.8LSB to 3.2LSB. In spite of its parametric degradation, analog to digital conversion in the ADC with DGA MOSFET was found to be possible.
On-chip Magnetic Sensor with Embedded High Inductance Coil for Bio-magnetic Signal Measurement
Lyu, HyunJune ; Choi, Jun Rim ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 50, issue 6, 2013, Pages 91~98
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2013.50.6.091
Magnetic sensor chip for measuring bio-magnetism is implemented in
CMOS technology. The magnetic sensor chip consists of a small-sized high inductance coil sensor and an instrumentation amplifier (IA). High inductance coil sensor with suitable sensitivity and bandwidth for measurement of bio-magnetic signal is designed using electromagnetic field simulation. Low gm operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) using transconductance reduction techniques is designed for on-chip solution. Output signal sensitivity of magnetic sensor chip is
and reference noise of 21.1fT/
Hz. Proposed IA is designed along with band pass filters(BPF) to reduce magnetic signal noise by using current feedback techniques. Proposed IA achieves a common mode rejection ratio of 117.5dB while the input noise referred is kept below
The Design of Multi-media SoC Platform Based on Core-A Processor
Xu, Xuelong ; Xu, Jingzhe ; Jung, Seungpyo ; Park, Jusung ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 50, issue 6, 2013, Pages 99~104
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2013.50.6.099
Recently smart devices which combine traditional electronic devices and personal computers, such as smart phones and smart TV, have caught people's eyes from all over the world. A multi-media SoC platform which embeds not only a calculating processor but also an operating system could provide an user-customized environment of several types of communication methods to PC or Internet. In this paper, we describe a multi-functioning SoC platform with video, audio and other communicating protocols based on Core-A processor and AMBA buses. To verify the designed multi-media SoC platform, JPEG decoding and ADPCM encoding/decoding algorithms are applied on it and the final decoding results are confirmed by video monitors and audio speakers.
A Micro Solar Energy Harvesting Circuit with MPPT Control
Yoon, Eun-Jung ; Park, Jong-Tae ; Yu, Chong-Gun ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 50, issue 6, 2013, Pages 105~113
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2013.50.6.105
In this paper a micro solar energy harvesting system with MPPT(Maximum Power Point Tracking) control using a miniature PV(photovoltaic) cell of which the output is less than 0.5V is proposed. The MPPT control is implemented using linear relationship between the open-circuit voltage of a PV cell and its MPP(Maximum Power Point) voltage such that a pilot PV cell can track the MPP of the main PV cell in real time. The proposed circuit is designed in 0.18um CMOS process. The designed chip area is
including a load charge pump and pads. Measured results show that the designed system can track the MPP voltage changes with variations of light intensity. The designed circuit with MPPT control delivers MPP voltages to load even though the load is heavy such that it can supply more power when the MPPT control is applied. The proposed circuit does not require any precharged battery resulting in more suitability for miniaturized self-powered systems compared to the existing works.
BTC Algorithm Utilizing Multi-Level Quantization Method for Image Compression
Cho, Moonki ; Yoon, Yungsup ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 50, issue 6, 2013, Pages 114~121
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2013.50.6.114
BTC image compression is a simple and easy hardware implementation, is widely used in a video compression techniques required for LCD overdrive. In this paper, methods for reducing compression loss, a multi-level quantization BTC (MLQ-BTC) algorithm is proposed. The process of the MLQ-BTC algorithm is, a input image is compressed and decompressed by Quasi 8-level method and Advanced 2-level BTC method, and select the algorithm with the smallest compression loss. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is efficient as compared with PSNR and compression ratio of the existing BTC methods.
Pattern Testable NAND-type Flash Memory Built-In Self Test
Hwang, Phil-Joo ; Kim, Tae-Hwan ; Kim, Jin-Wan ; Chang, Hoon ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 50, issue 6, 2013, Pages 122~130
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2013.50.6.122
The demand and the supply are increasing sharply in accordance with the growth of the Memory Semiconductor Industry. The Flash Memory above all is being utilized substantially in the Industry of smart phone, the tablet PC and the System on Chip (SoC). The Flash Memory is divided into the NOR-type Flash Memory and the NAND-type Flash Memory. A lot of study such as the Built-In Self Test (BIST), the Built-In Self Repair (BISR) and the Built-In Redundancy Analysis (BIRA), etc. has been progressed in the NOR-type fash Memory, the study for the Built-In Self Test of the NAND-type Flash Memory has not been progressed. At present, the pattern test of the NAND-type Flash Memory is being carried out using the outside test equipment of high price. The NAND-type Flash Memory is being depended on the outside equipment as there is no Built-In Self Test since the erasure of block unit, the reading and writing of page unit are possible in the NAND-type Flash Memory. The Built-In Self Test equipped with 2 kinds of finite state machine based structure is proposed, so as to carry out the pattern test without the outside pattern test equipment from the NAND-type Flash Memory which carried out the test dependant on the outside pattern test equipment of high price.
Design and Implementation of a Low-Complexity Real-Time Barrel Distortion Corrector for Wide-Angle Cameras
Jeong, Hui-Seong ; Kim, Won-Tae ; Lee, Gwang-Ho ; Kim, Tae-Hwan ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 50, issue 6, 2013, Pages 131~137
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2013.50.6.131
The barrel distortion makes serious problems in a wide-angle camera employing a lens of a short focal length. This paper presents a low-complexity hardware architecture for a real-time barrel distortion corrector and its implementation. In the proposed barrel distortion corrector, the conventional algorithm is modified so that the correction is performed incrementally, which results in the reduction of the number of required hardware modules for the distortion correction. The proposed barrel distortion corrector has a pipelined architecture so as to achieve a high-throughput correction. The correction rate is 74.86 frames per sec at the operating frequency of 314MHz in a
CMOS process, where the frame size is
. The proposed barrel distortion corrector is implemented with 14.3K logic gates.
Design of Efficient Trapezoidal Filter and Peak Value Detection Circuit for XRF Systems
Piao, Zheyan ; Chung, Jin-Gyun ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 50, issue 6, 2013, Pages 138~144
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2013.50.6.138
In XRF systems, various techniques have been developed for the synthesis of pulse shapes using digital methods instead of traditional analog methods. Trapezoidal pulse shaping algorithms can be used for digital multi-channel pulse height analysis in X-ray spectrometer systems. In this paper, an efficient trapezoidal filter architecture is presented. In addition, we present a hardware-efficient peak value detection algorithm. By the proposed algorithm, peak value detection error is decreased by half compared with the conventional algorithm. The proposed Digital Pulse Processing(DPP) algorithm is designed using Verilog HDL and implemented using an FPGA on a test board. It is demonstrated that the implemented DPP board works successfully in practical XRF systems.
A Design of Fractional Motion Estimation Engine with 4×4 Block Unit of Interpolator & SAD Tree for 8K UHD H.264/AVC Encoder
Lee, Kyung-Ho ; Kong, Jin-Hyeung ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 50, issue 6, 2013, Pages 145~155
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2013.50.6.145
In this paper, we proposed a
block parallel architecture of interpolation for high-performance H.264/AVC Fractional Motion Estimation in 8K UHD(
) video real time processing. To improve throughput, we design
block parallel interpolation. For supplying the
reference data for interpolation, we design 2D cache buffer which consists of the
memory arrays. We minimize redundant storage of the reference pixel by applying the Search Area Stripe Reuse scheme(SASR), and implement high-speed plane interpolator with 3-stage pipeline(Horizontal Vertical 1/2 interpolation, Diagonal 1/2 interpolation, 1/4 interpolation). The proposed architecture was simulated in 0.13um standard cell library. The gate count is 436.5Kgates. The proposed H.264/AVC Fractional Motion Estimation can support 8K UHD at 30 frames per second by running at 187MHz.
A Remote User Authentication Scheme Preserving Anonymity and Traceability with Non-Tamper Resistant Smart Cards
Kwon, Hyuck-Jin ; Ryu, Eun-Kyung ; Lee, Sung-Woon ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 50, issue 6, 2013, Pages 159~166
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2013.50.6.159
Recently, because the interest and needs in privacy protection are growing, smartcard-based remote user authentication schemes have been actively studied to provide the user anonymity. In 2008, Kim et al. first proposed an authentication scheme in order to ensure the user anonymity against both external attackers and the remote server and track malicious users with the help of a trusted trace sever. However, in 2010, Lee et al. showed that Kim et al.'s scheme cannot provide the user anonymity against remote server, which is because the server can trace users without any help of the trace server, and then proposed a improved scheme. On the other hand, in 2010, Horng et al. proposed an authentication scheme with non-tamper resistant smart cards, in which the non-tamper resistant smart card means that an attacker may find out secret information stored in the smart card through special data analysis techniques such as monitoring power consumption, to be secure against a variety of attacks and to provide the user anonymity against external attackers. In this paper, we will propose a remote user authentication scheme with non-tamper resistant smart cards not only to ensure the user anonymity against both external attackers and the remote server but also to track malicious users with only the help of a trusted trace sever.
Cryptanalysis of an Identity-Based Message Authentication Scheme in VANETs
Ryu, Eun-Kyung ; Lee, Sung-Woon ; Yoo, Kee-Young ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 50, issue 6, 2013, Pages 167~172
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2013.50.6.167
In a paper recently published in the International Journal of Parallel, Emergent and Distributed Systems, Biswas et al. proposed a VANET message authentication scheme which uses an identity-based proxy signature mechanism as an underlying primitive. The authors claimed that their scheme supports various security features including the security of proxy-key, the security against message forgery and the security against replay attack, with non-repudiation and resistance to proxy-key compromise. Here, we show how an active attacker, who has no knowledge of an original message sender's private key, can compute the proxy-signature key of the corresponding message sender, meaning that the scheme is completely insecure. We also suggest an enhanced version of the protocol capable of solving such serious security holes.
A Key Exchange Protocol based on the Steganography with the QR code
Lee, Gil-Je ; Yoon, Eun-Jun ; Yoo, Kee-Young ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 50, issue 6, 2013, Pages 173~179
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2013.50.6.173
The traditional key exchange protocols are transmitted by using the cryptographic. However, these protocols are compromised by the attacker. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a key exchange protocol based on the steganography with the QR code. The steganography technique embed secret information to the images, documents, videos, and MP3 files and transmit to the others. The attacker can't know that the transmission data is the secret data. Therefore, the sender transmits efficiently and safely the secret data to the others. In additional, the cover image is using the QR code image to insert the secret key. If attackers scan the QR code, then they just read the information or connect URL. They can not be recognized that the QR code image is hiding the secret key. The experiments compare the QR code image with the well-known image about the distortion and the safety.
LED Communication based Multi-hop Audio Data Transmission Network System
Jo, Seung Wan ; Le, The Dung ; An, Beongku ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 50, issue 6, 2013, Pages 180~187
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2013.50.6.180
In this paper, we propose a LED communication based multi-hop audio data transmission network system. The main contribution and features of the proposed system are as follows. First, the contribution of this research is to develope the LED communication based multi-hop transmission network system which can transmit audio data signal with long distance via multi-hops. Second, the developed system has the following features: In transmitter, audio data is transmitted after encoding with S/PDIF format via a general LED. The relay receives digital audio signal by using photo diode and then transmits the signal to receiver after error checking and amplifying. The receiver receives the encoded audio data via photo diode and then converts to analog audio signal by using decoding and amplifying. The performance evaluation of the proposed system is conducted in the laboratory with fluorescent light source. The results of the performance evaluation confirm that the system can provide high quality audio transmission from transmiter to receiver via multi-hop relays in a long distance while we can see there are differences in the transmitted audio quality according to the used LED colors.
Dynamic NAND Operation Scheduling for Flash Storage Controller Systems
Jeong, Jaehyeong ; Song, Yong Ho ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 50, issue 6, 2013, Pages 188~198
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2013.50.6.188
In order to increase its performance, NAND flash memory-based storage is composed of data buses that are shared by a number of flash memories and uses a parallel technique that can carry out multiple flash memory operations simultaneously. Since the storage performance is strongly influenced by the performance of each data bus, it is important to improve the utilization of the bus by ensuring effective scheduling of operations by the storage controller. However, this is difficult because of dynamic changes in buses due to the unique characteristics of each operation with different timing, cost, and usage by each bus. Furthermore, the scheduling technique for increasing bus utilization may cause unanticipated operation delay and wastage of storage resource. In this study, we suggest various dynamic operation scheduling techniques that consider data bus performance and storage resource efficiency. The proposed techniques divide each operation into three different stages and schedule each stage depending on the characteristics of the operation and the dynamic status of the data bus. We applied the suggested techniques to the controller and verified them on the FPGA platform, and found that program operation decreased by 1.9% in comparison to that achieved by a static scheduling technique, and bus utilization and throughput was approximately 4-7% and 4-19% higher, respectively.
A Hand Gesture Recognition System using 3D Tracking Volume Restriction Technique
Kim, Kyung-Ho ; Jung, Da-Un ; Lee, Seok-Han ; Choi, Jong-Soo ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 50, issue 6, 2013, Pages 201~211
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2013.50.6.201
In this paper, we propose a hand tracking and gesture recognition system. Our system employs a depth capture device to obtain 3D geometric information of user's bare hand. In particular, we build a flexible tracking volume and restrict the hand tracking area, so that we can avoid diverse problems caused by conventional object detection/tracking systems. The proposed system computes running average of the hand position, and tracking volume is actively adjusted according to the statistical information that is computed on the basis of uncertainty of the user's hand motion in the 3D space. Once the position of user's hand is obtained, then the system attempts to detect stretched fingers to recognize finger gesture of the user's hand. In order to test the proposed framework, we built a NUI system using the proposed technique, and verified that our system presents very stable performance even in the case that multiple objects exist simultaneously in the crowded environment, as well as in the situation that the scene is occluded temporarily. We also verified that our system ensures running speed of 24-30 frames per second throughout the experiments.
Discriminant Analysis of Human's Implicit Intent based on Eyeball Movement
Jang, Young-Min ; Mallipeddi, Rammohan ; Kim, Cheol-Su ; Lee, Minho ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 50, issue 6, 2013, Pages 212~220
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2013.50.6.212
Recently, there has been tremendous increase in human-computer/machine interaction system, where the goal is to provide with an appropriate service to the user at the right time with minimal human inputs for human augmented cognition system. To develop an efficient human augmented cognition system based on human computer/machine interaction, it is important to interpret the user's implicit intention, which is vague, in addition to the explicit intention. According to cognitive visual-motor theory, human eye movements and pupillary responses are rich sources of information about human intention and behavior. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for the identification of human implicit visual search intention based on eye movement pattern and pupillary analysis such as pupil size, gradient of pupil size variation, fixation length/count for the area of interest. The proposed model identifies the human's implicit intention into three types such as navigational intent generation, informational intent generation, and informational intent disappearance. Navigational intent refers to the search to find something interesting in an input scene with no specific instructions, while informational intent refers to the search to find a particular target object at a specific location in the input scene. In the present study, based on the human eye movement pattern and pupillary analysis, we used a hierarchical support vector machine which can detect the transitions between the different implicit intents - navigational intent generation to informational intent generation and informational intent disappearance.
Performance Improvement of Steganalysis based on image Categorization Using Correlation Coefficient
Park, Tae Hee ; Eom, Il Kyu ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 50, issue 6, 2013, Pages 221~227
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2013.50.6.221
This paper proposes an improved steganalysis method based on image categorization. In general, most steganalysis methods extract the statistical moments based features which contain the global natures of images regardless of their inherent characteristics. However, the steganalysis method based on the statistical moments leads to degraded performance by applying to images with different complexity. In this paper, we decompose an 8-bit image into an upper 4-bit plane and a lower 4-bit plane, and categorize the image with two classes according to the correlation coefficient between decomposed sub-images. Two independent steganalyses can be performed for the categorized images. Since our method uses independent steganalysis technique according to the image category, it can reduce the drawback of the steganalysis methods utilizing the statistical moments. The performance of the proposed scheme is compared with well-known four steganalysis methods. Experiment results show that the proposed scheme has higher detection rate than previous methods.
Normalized Cross Correlation-based Multiview background Subtraction for 3D Object Reconstruction
Paeng, Kyunghyun ; Hwang, Sung Soo ; Kim, Hee-Dong ; Kim, Sujung ; Yoo, Jisung ; Kim, Seong Dae ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 50, issue 6, 2013, Pages 228~237
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2013.50.6.228
In this paper, we propose a normalized cross correlation(NCC)-based multiview background subtraction method which is robust when an object and background have similar color. When the background of the capturing environment is not artificially composed, the regions in the background images which would be occluded by an object tends to have difference colors. The colors of those regions, however, becomes similar when an object enters the capturing environment. Based on this assumption, this paper proposes a concept of GoNCC(Graph of Normalized Cross Correlation). GoNCC is the distribution of NCC between a pixel in an image and pixels related by epipolar constraints with the pixel. The proposed multiview background subtraction method is performed by comparing GoNCC of the current images with the background images. To reduce computational complexity, we perform multiview background subtraction only to the pixels undetermined by single view background subtraction. Experimental results show that the proposed method is more robust to color similarity between an object and background than a single-view background subtraction method and a previous multiview background subtraction method.
Gesture Recognition Method using Tree Classification and Multiclass SVM
Oh, Juhee ; Kim, Taehyub ; Hong, Hyunki ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 50, issue 6, 2013, Pages 238~245
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2013.50.6.238
Gesture recognition has been widely one of the research areas for natural user interface. This paper presents a novel gesture recognition method using tree classification and multiclass SVM(Support Vector Machine). In the learning step, 3D trajectory of human gesture obtained by a Kinect sensor is classified into the tree nodes according to their distributions. The gestures are resampled and we obtain the histogram of the chain code from the normalized data. Then multiclass SVM is applied to the classified gestures in the node. The input gesture classified using the constructed tree is recognized with multiclass SVM.
Design of A 2-18GHz Digital Frequency Discriminator using Least-squares and Candidate-selection Methods
Park, Jin Oh ; Nam, Sang Won ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 50, issue 6, 2013, Pages 246~253
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2013.50.6.246
Based on the conventional 2-6GHz digital frequency discriminator (DFD) using the phase unwrapping and least-squares techniques, we propose a new 2-18GHz DFD. To compensate for lowered-precision frequency estimation due to the expanded bandwidth, the proposed DFD design employs more delay lines, accordingly accompanying high complexity. Thus, a new computationally efficient frequency estimation algorithm is also presented to overcome such high computational burden. More specifically, the proposed frequency estimation algorithm is basically based on the conventional phase unwrapping technique, along with a new candidates selection for the unwrapped phases under the condition that the phase margin is known. As a result, the computational burden required for the least-squares technique can be reduced. Finally, simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, compared with those of the conventional DFD's.
Fall Recognition Algorithm Using Gravity-Weighted 3-Axis Accelerometer Data
Kim, Nam Ho ; Yu, Yun Seop ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 50, issue 6, 2013, Pages 254~259
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2013.50.6.254
A newly developed fall recognition algorithm using gravity weighted 3-axis accelerometer data as the input of HMM (Hidden Markov Model) is introduced. Five types of fall feature parameters including the sum vector magnitude(SVM) and a newly-defined gravity-weighted sum vector magnitude(GSVM) are applied to a HMM to evaluate the accuracy of fall recognition. A GSVM parameter shows the best accuracy of falls which is 100% of sensitivity and 97.96% of specificity, and comparing with SVM, the results archive more improved recognition rate, 5.2% of sensitivity and 4.5% of specificity. GSVM shows higher recognition rate than SVM due to expressing falls characteristics well, whereas SVM expresses the only momentum.
Fast Enhancement Layer Encoding Method using CU Depth Correlation between Adjacent Layers for SHVC
Kim, Kyeonghye ; Lee, Seonoh ; Ahn, Yongjo ; Sim, Donggyu ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 50, issue 6, 2013, Pages 260~264
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2013.50.6.260
This paper proposes a fast enhancement layer coding method to reduce computational complexity for Scalable HEVC (SHVC) which is based on High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). The proposed method decreases encoding time by simplifying Rate Distortion Optimization (RDO)for enhancement layers (EL). The simplification is achieved by restricting CU depths based on the correlation of coding unit (CU) depths between adjacent layers and scalability (spatial or quality) of EL. Comparing with the performance of SHM 1.0 software encoder, the proposed method reduces the encoding time by up to 31.5%.
A Study on the GPS/INS Integration and GPS Compensation Algorithm Based on the Particle Filter
Jeong, Jae Young ; Kim, Han Sil ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 50, issue 6, 2013, Pages 267~275
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2013.50.6.267
EKF has been widely used for GPS/INS integration as standard method but EKF has one well-known drawback. if the errors are not within the bounded region, the filter may be divergent. The particle filter has the advantage of the nonlinear and non-gaussian system. This paper proposes a method for compensating the GPS position errors based on the particle filter and presents loosely-coupled GPS/INS integration using proposed algorithm. We used GPS position pattern with particle filter and added attitude kalman filter for improving attitude accuracy. To verify the performance, the proposed method is compared with high cost GPS as reference. In the experimental result, we verified that the accuracy and robust were well improved by the proposed method filter effectively and robustness than by original loosely-coupled integration when vehicle turns at corner.
Comparison of Thresholding Techniques for SVD Coefficients in CT Perfusion Image Analysis
Kim, Nak Hyun ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 50, issue 6, 2013, Pages 276~286
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2013.50.6.276
SVD-based deconvolution algorithm has been known as the most effective technique for CT perfusion image analysis. In this algorithm, in order to reduce noise effects, SVD coefficients smaller than a certain threshold are removed. As the truncation threshold, either a fixed value or a variable threshold yielding a predetermined OI (oscillation index) is frequently employed. Each of these two thresholding methods has an advantage to the other either in accuracy or efficiency. In this paper, we propose a Monte Carlo simulation method to evaluate the accuracy of the two methods. An extension of the proposed method is presented as well to measure the effects of image smoothing on the accuracy of the thresholding methods. In this paper, after the simulation method is described, experimental results are presented using both simulated data and real CT images.
Development of 3D cochlear model to evaluate ECAP
Kang, Soojin ; Woo, Jihwan ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 50, issue 6, 2013, Pages 287~293
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2013.50.6.287
Cochlear implant (CI) is an auditory prosthesis that delivers electrical stimulation via inserted electrodes into a cochlea. To evaluate CI performance, it is important to understand how auditory nerves are responded to electrical stimulations. In clinic, electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) is measured. In this study, we developed 3D finite element (FE) cochlear model to simulate ECAP in response to electrical stimulation. The model prododuced ECAP similar to that measured in animal experiments and clinics. This 3D FE cochlear model could be used in electrical stimulus method study to improve CI by analyzing neural responses to electrical stimulations.
Implementation of Indoor Air Quality Monitoring System for Subway Stations
Kim, Gyu-Sik ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 50, issue 6, 2013, Pages 294~301
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2013.50.6.294
The particle matter concentrations in the subway stations should be monitored and controlled for the health of commuters on the subway system. Seoul Metro and Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation are measuring several air pollutants regularly. In this paper, the reliability of the cheap instruments using light scattering method is improved with the help of a linear regression analysis technique to measure the
concentrations continuously in the subway stations. In addition, a monitoring system is implemented to display and record the data of
, humidity, and temperature. To transmit and receive these measured sensor data, CDMA M2M wireless communication method is applied.
High Temperature Silicon Pressure Sensor of SDB Structure
Park, Jae-Sung ; Choi, Deuk-Sung ; Kim, Mi-Mok ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 50, issue 6, 2013, Pages 305~310
DOI : 10.5573/ieek.2013.50.6.305
In this paper, the pressure sensor usable in a high temperature, using a SDB(silicon-direct-bonding) wafer of Si/
/Si-sub structure was provided and studied the characteristic thereof. The pressure sensor produces a piezoresistor by using a single crystal silicon as a first layer of SDB wafer, to thus provide a prominent sensitivity, and dielectrically isolates the piezoresistor from a silicon substrate by using a silicon dioxide layer as a second layer thereof, to be thus usable even under the high temperature over
as a limited temperature of a general silicon sensor. The measured result for a pressure sensitivity of the pressure sensor has a characteristic of high sensitivity, and its tested result for an output of the sensor further has a very prominent linearity and hysteresis characteristic.