Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 53, Issue 9 - Sep 2016
Volume 53, Issue 8 - Aug 2016
Volume 53, Issue 7 - Jul 2016
Volume 53, Issue 6 - Jun 2016
Volume 53, Issue 5 - May 2016
Volume 53, Issue 4 - Apr 2016
Volume 53, Issue 3 - Mar 2016
Volume 53, Issue 2 - Feb 2016
Volume 53, Issue 1 - Jan 2016
Selecting the target year
Design and Implementation of ISO/IEEE 11073 DIM Transmission Structure Based on oneM2M for IoT Healthcare Service
Kim, Hyun Su ; Chun, Seung Man ; Chung, Yun Seok ; Park, Jong Tae ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 4, 2016, Pages 3~11
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.4.003
In the environment of Internet of Things (IoT), IoT devices are limited by physical components such as power supply and memory, and also limited to their network performance in bandwidth, wireless channel, throughput, payload, etc. Despite these limitations, resources of IoT devices are shared with other IoT devices. Especially, remote management of the information of devices and patients are very important for the IoT healthcare service, moreover, providing the interoperability between the healthcare device and healthcare platform is essential. To meet these requirements, format of the message and the expressions for the data information and data transmission need to comply with suitable international standards for the IoT environment. However, the ISO/IEEE 11073 PHD (Personal Healthcare Device) standards, the existing international standards for the transmission of health informatics, does not consider the IoT environment, and therefore it is difficult to be applied for the IoT healthcare service. For this matter, we have designed and implemented the IoT healthcare system by applying the oneM2M, standards for the Internet of Things, and ISO/IEEE 11073 DIM (Domain Information Model), standards for the transmission of health informatics. For the implementation, the OM2M platform, which is based on the oneM2M standards, has been used. To evaluate the efficiency of transfer syntaxes between the healthcare device and OM2M platform, we have implemented comparative performance evaluation between HTTP and CoAP, and also between XML and JSON by comparing the packet size and number of packets in one transaction.
Efficient Channel Estimation Method for ZigBee Receiver in Train Environment
Lee, Jingu ; Kim, Daehyun ; Kim, Jaehoon ; Kim, Younglok ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 4, 2016, Pages 12~19
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.4.012
The monitoring system in railway is under study to forecast any derailment and accident by defect of train. Because the monitoring system is composed of wireless sensor network based on ZigBee-communication between inside and outside of train, the study for wireless channel analysis is required. Especially, if multipath delay profile exist in the channel, the equalizer and channel estimator can be required for preventing receiver performance degradation. Therefore, we analyzed the wireless channel in train environment using measured data and, proposed the channel estimation method through the characterisitic of chip code, under the consideration of the channel characteristics in train. To show the performance of proposed method, we demonstrate the performance by mean square error(MSE), computational complexity and bit error rate(BER).
Elementary MAC Scheme Based on Slotted ALOHA for Wireless Passive Sensor Networks
Choi, Cheon Won ; Seo, Heewon ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 4, 2016, Pages 20~26
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.4.020
A wireless passive sensor network is a network which, by letting RF sources supply energy to sensor nodes, is - at least theoretically - able to live an eternal life without batteries. Due to the technological immaturity, however, a wireless passive sensor network still has many difficulties; energy scarcity, non-simultaneity of energy reception and data transmission and inefficiency in data transmission occurring at sensor nodes. Considering such practical constraints, in this paper, we propose an elementary MAC scheme supporting many sensor nodes to deliver packets to a sink node. Based on a time structure in which a charging interval for charging capacitors by using received and an acting interval for communicating with a sink node are alternately repeated, the proposed MAC scheme delivers packets to a sink node according to slotted ALOHA. In general, a contention-type scheme tends to exhibit relatively low throughput. Thus, we multilaterally evaluate the throughput performance achieved by the proposed MAC scheme using a simulation method. Simulation results show that the network-wide throughput performance can be enhanced by properly setting the length of acting interval.
Study on the Optimization of Hybrid Network Topology for Railway Cars
Kim, Jungtai ; Yun, Ji-Hoon ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 4, 2016, Pages 27~34
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.4.027
In the train system, railway vehicles are connected in a line. Therefore, this feature should be considered in composing network topology in a train system. Besides, inter-car communication should be distinguished from in-car communication. As for the inter-car communication, the hybrid topology was proposed to use rather than the conventional ring, star, daisy-chain, and bus topologies. In the hybrid topology, a number of cars are bound to be a group. Then star topology is used for the communication in a group and daisy-chain topology is used for the communication between groups. Hybrid topology takes the virtue of both star and daisy-chain topologies. Hence it maintains communication speed with reducing the number of connecting cables between cars. Therefore, it is important to choose the number of cars in a group to obtain higher performance. In this paper, we focus on the optimization of hybrid topology for railway cars. We first assume that the size of data and the frequency of data production for each car is identical. We also assume that the importance for the maximum number of cables to connect cars is variable as well as the importance of the communication speed. Separated weights are granted to both importance and we derive the optimum number of cars in a group for various number of cars and weights.
FPGA Mapping Incorporated with Multiplexer Tree Synthesis
Kim, Kyosun ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 4, 2016, Pages 37~47
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.4.037
The practical constraints on the commercial FPGAs which contain dedicated wide function multiplexers in their slice structure are incorporated with one of the most advanced FPGA mapping algorithms based on the AIG (And-Inverter Graph), one of the best logic representations in academia. As the first step of the mapping process, cuts are enumerated as intermediate structures. And then, the cuts which can be mapped to the multiplexers are recognized. Without any increased complexity, the delay and area of multiplexers as well as LUTs are calculated after checking the requirements for the tree construction such as symmetry and depth limit against dynamically changing mapping of neighboring nodes. Besides, the root positions of multiplexer trees are identified from the RTL code, and annotated to the AIG as AOs (Auxiliary Outputs). A new AIG embedding the multiplexer tree structures which are intentionally synthesized by Shannon expansion at the AOs, is overlapped with the optimized AIG. The lossless synthesis technique which employs FRAIG (Functionally Reduced AIG) is applied to this approach. The proposed approach and techniques are validated by implementing and applying them to two RISC processor examples, which yielded 13~30% area reduction, and up to 32% delay reduction. The research will be extended to take into account the constraints on the dedicated hardware for carry chains.
Fully-Parallel Architecture for 1.4 Gbps Non-Binary LDPC Codes Decoder
Choi, Injun ; Kim, Ji-Hoon ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 4, 2016, Pages 48~58
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.4.048
This paper presents the high-throughput fully-parallel architecture for GF(64) (160,80) regular (2,4) non-binary LDPC (NB-LDPC) codes decoder based on the extended min sum algorithm. We exploit the NB-LDPC code that features a very low check node and variable node degree to reduce the complexity of decoder. This paper designs the fully-parallel architecture and allows the interleaving check node and variable node to increase the throughput of the decoder. We further improve the throughput by the proposed early sorting to reduce the latency of the check node operation. The proposed decoder has the latency of 37 cycles in the one decoding iteration and achieves a high throughput of 1402Mbps at 625MHz.
Low-Gate-Count 32-Bit 2/3-Stage Pipelined Processor Design
Lee, Kwang-Min ; Park, Sungkyung ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 4, 2016, Pages 59~67
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.4.059
With the enhancement of built-in communication capabilities in various meters and wearable devices, which implies Internet of things (IoT), the demand of small-area embedded processors has increased. In this paper, we introduce a small-area 32-bit pipelined processor, Juno, which is available in the field of IoT. Juno is an EISC (Extendable Instruction Set Computer) machine and has a 2/3-stage pipeline structure to reduce the data dependency of the pipeline. It has a simple pipeline controller which only controls the program counter (PC) and two pipeline registers. It offers
multiplication, 64/32=32 division,
MAC (multiply and accumulate) operations together with 32*32=64 Galois field multiplication operation for encryption processing in wireless communications. It provides selective inclusion of these algebraic logic blocks if necessary in order to reduce the area of the overall processor. In this case, the gate count of our integer core amounts to 12k~22k and has a performance of 0.57 DMIPS/MHz and 1.024 Coremark/MHz.
Separated Address/Data Network Design for Bus Protocol compatible Network-on-Chip
Chung, Seungh Ah ; Lee, Jae Hoon ; Kim, Sang Heon ; Lee, Jae Sung ; Han, Tae Hee ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 4, 2016, Pages 68~75
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.4.068
As the number of cores and IPs increase in multiprocessor system-on-chip (MPSoC), network-on-chip (NoC) has emerged as a promising novel interconnection architecture for its parallelism and scalability. However, minimization of the latency in NoC with legacy bus IPs must be addressed. In this paper, we focus on the latency minimization problem in NoC which accommodates legacy bus protocol based IPs considering the trade-offs between hop counts and path collisions. To resolve this problem, we propose separated address/data network for independent address and data phases of bus protocol. Compared to Mesh and irregular topologies generated by TopGen, experimental results show that average latency and execution time are reduced by 19.46% and 10.55%, respectively.
The Impact of Hardware Impairments and Imperfect Channel State Information on Physical Layer Security
Shim, Kyusung ; Do, Nhu Tri ; An, Beongku ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 4, 2016, Pages 79~86
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.4.079
Physical layer security is cryptography technique to protect information by using physical nature of signals. Currently, many works on physical layer security have been actively researching while those researching models still have some problems to be solved. Eavesdropper does not share its channel state information with legitimate users to hide its presence. And when node transmits signal, hardware impairments are occurred, whereas many current researches assume that node model is ideal node and does not consider hardware impairments. The main features and contributions of this paper to solve these problems are as follows. First, our proposed system model deploys torch node around legitimate user to obtain channel state information of eavesdropper and considers hardware impairments by using channel state information of torch node. Second, we derive closed-form expression of intercept probability for the proposed system model. The results of the performance evaluation through various simulations to find out the effects on proposed system model in physical layer security show that imperfect channel state information does not effect on intercept probability while imperfect node model effects on intercept probability, Ergodic secrecy capacity and secrecy capacity.
A RF Energy Harvesting Based Routing Protocol in Mobile Ad-hoc Wireless Sensor Networks
Shim, KyuHyun ; An, Beongku ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 4, 2016, Pages 87~93
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.4.087
In this paper, we propose a RF energy harvesting based routing protocol in mobile ad-hoc wireless sensor networks. The main features and contributions of the proposed routing protocol are as follows. First, establishment of routing route based on both remaining energy of mobile sensor nodes and RF energy harvesting. Second, establishment of routing route by considering availability and stability of route based on energy of mobile sensor nodes to increase lifetime of networks and route. The performance evaluation of the proposed routing protocol using OPNET shows that the routing method considering both route availability and route stability based on RF energy harvesting can increase efficiently route lifetime.
Nonuniform Gain Correction Based on the Filtered Gain Map in Radiography Image Detectors
Kim, Dong Sik ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 4, 2016, Pages 97~105
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.4.097
Radiography image detector produces digital images by collecting the charges from the incident x-ray photons and converting it to the voltage signals and then the digital signals. The fixed-pattern noise from the nonuinform amplifier gains in the employed multiple readout circuits. In order to correct the nonuniform gains, a gain-correction technique which is based on the gain map is conventionally used. Since the photon noise remains in the designed gain map, the noise contaminates the gain-corrected images. In this paper, experimental observations are conducted for filtering the remained noise in the gain map, and a filter optimization algorithm is proposed to efficiently remove the noise. For acquired x-ray images from detectors, the filtered gain maps are evaluated and it is shown that optimization algorithm can improve the filtering performance even for relatively strong fixed-pattern noises, which cannot be removed by a simple filter.
Integer Inverse Transform Structure Based on Matrix for VP9 Decoder
Lee, Tea-Hee ; Hwang, Tae-Ho ; Kim, Byung-Soo ; Kim, Dong-Sun ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 4, 2016, Pages 106~114
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.4.106
In this paper, we propose an efficient integer inverse transform structure for vp9 decoder. The proposed structure is a hardware structure which is easy to control and requires less hardware resources, and shares algorithms for realizing entire DCT(Discrete Cosine Transform), ADST(Asymmetric Discrete Sine Transform) and WHT(Walsh-Hadamard Transform) in vp9. The integer inverse transform for vp9 google model has a fast structure, named butterfly structure. The integer inverse transform for google C model, unlike universal fast structure, takes a constant rounding shift operator on each stage and includes an asymmetrical sine transform structure. Thus, the proposed structure approximates matrix coefficient values for all transform mode and is used to matrix operation method. With the proposed structure, shared operations for all inverse transform algorithm modes can be possible with reduced number of multipliers compared to the butterfly structure, which in turn manages the hardware resources more efficiently.
Three-Dimensional Subsurface Resistivity Profile using Electrical Resistance Tomography for Designing Grounding Grid
Khambampati, Anil Kumar ; Kim, Kyung Youn ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 4, 2016, Pages 117~128
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.4.117
Installation of earth grounding system is essential to ensure personnel safety and correct operation of electrical equipment. Earth parameters, especially, soil resistivity has to be determined in designing an efficient earth grounding system. The most common applied technique to measure soil resistance is Wenner four-point method. Implementation of this method is expensive, time consuming and cumbersome as large set of measurements with variable electrode spacing are required to obtain a one dimensional resistivity plot. It is advantageous to have a method which is of low cost and provides fast measurements. In this perspective, electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is applied to estimate subsurface resistivity profile. Electrical resistance tomograms characterize the soil resistivity distribution based on the measurements from electrodes placed in the region of interest. The nonlinear ill-posed inverse problem is solved using iterated Gauss-Newton method with Tikhonov regularization. Through extensive numerical simulations, it is found that ERT offers promising performance in estimating the three-dimensional soil resistivity distribution.
Tracking Algorithm Based on Moving Slide Window for Manuevering Target
Bae, Jinho ; Lee, Chong Hyun ; Jeon, Hyoung-Goo ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 4, 2016, Pages 129~135
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.4.129
In this paper, we propose a novel tracking algorithm called slide window tracker (SWT) suitable for maneuvering target. To efficiently estimate trajectory of moving target, we adopt a sliding piecewise linear window which includes past trace information. By adjusting the window parameters, the proposed algorithm is to reduce measurement noise and to track fast maneuvering target with little computational increment as compared to
tracker. Throughout the computer simulations, we verify outstanding tracking performance of the SWT algorithm in noisy linear and nonlinear trajectories. Also, we show that the SWT algorithm is not sensitive to initial model parameter selection, which gives large degree of freedom in applying the SWT algorithm to unknown time-varying measurement environments.
Increased Effective Capacitance with Current Modulator in PLL
Kim, Hye-Jin ; Choi, Young-Shig ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 4, 2016, Pages 136~141
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.4.136
A phase-locked loop(PLL) with effectively increased capacitance by current modulator has been proposed. In this paper, the effective capacitance of loop filter is increased by using current modulator and it results in 1/10 reduction of capacitance in loop filter. It has been designed with a 1.8V
CMOS process. The simulation results show that the proposed PLL has the same phase noise characteristic and locking time of conventional PLL.
Human Identification using EMG Signal based Artificial Neural Network
Kim, Sang-Ho ; Ryu, Jae-Hwan ; Lee, Byeong-Hyeon ; Kim, Deok-Hwan ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 4, 2016, Pages 142~148
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.4.142
Recently, human identification using various biological signals has been studied and human identification based on the gait has been actively studied. In this paper, we propose a human identification based on the EMG(Electromyography) signal of the thigh muscles that are used when walking. Various features such as RMS, MAV, VAR, WAMP, ZC, SSC, IEMG, MMAV1, MMAV2, MAVSLP, SSI, WL are extracted from EMG signal data and ANN(Artificial Neural Network) classifier is used for human identification. When we evaluated the recognition ratio per channel and features to select approptiate channels and features for human identification. The experimental results show that the rectus femoris, semitendinous, vastus lateralis are appropriate muscles for human identification and MAV, ZC, IEMG, MMAV1, MAVSLP are adaptable features for human identification. Experimental results also show that the average recognition ratio of method of using all channels and features is 99.7% and that of using selected 3 channels and 5 features is 96%. Therefore, we confirm that the EMG signal can be applied to gait based human identification and EMG signal based human identification using small number of adaptive muscles and features shows good performance.
Control of an Omni-directional Electric Board using Driver Weight Shift
Choi, Yong Joon ; Ryoo, Jung Rae ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 4, 2016, Pages 149~155
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.4.149
This paper presents a control method of a mecanum wheel-based omni-directional electric board using driver weight shift. Instead of a steering device such as a joystick or a remote controller, 3 degree-of-freedom driving command for translational and rotational motion of the omni-directional electric board is generated from position of center of gravity measured from weight distribution. The weight shifting motion is not only a driving command but also an intuitive motion to overcome inertial forces. The overall control structure is presented with experimental results to prove validity of the proposed method.
Active Object Tracking System based on Stereo Vision
Ko, Jung-Hwan ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 4, 2016, Pages 159~166
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.4.159
In this paper, an active object tracking system basing on the pan/tilt-embedded stereo camera system is suggested and implemented. In the proposed system, once the face area of a target is detected from the input stereo image by using a YCbCr color model and phase-type correlation scheme and then, using this data as well as the geometric information of the tracking system, the distance and 3D information of the target are effectively extracted in real-time. Basing on these extracted data the pan/tilted-embedded stereo camera system is adaptively controlled and as a result, the proposed system can track the target adaptively under the various circumstance of the target. From some experiments using 480 frames of the test input stereo image, it is analyzed that a standard variation between the measured and computed the estimated target's height and an error ratio between the measured and computed 3D coordinate values of the target is also kept to be very low value of 1.03 and 1.18% on average, respectively. From these good experimental results a possibility of implementing a new real-time intelligent stereo target tracking and surveillance system using the proposed scheme is finally suggested.