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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers
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Journal DOI :
The Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 53, Issue 9 - Sep 2016
Volume 53, Issue 8 - Aug 2016
Volume 53, Issue 7 - Jul 2016
Volume 53, Issue 6 - Jun 2016
Volume 53, Issue 5 - May 2016
Volume 53, Issue 4 - Apr 2016
Volume 53, Issue 3 - Mar 2016
Volume 53, Issue 2 - Feb 2016
Volume 53, Issue 1 - Jan 2016
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Design of A Piecewise Polynomial Model Based Digital Predistortion for 60 GHz Power Amplifier
Kim, Minho ; Lee, Jingu ; Kim, Daehyun ; Kim, Younglok ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 5, 2016, Pages 3~12
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.5.03
Recently, the study on 5G mobile communication systems using the millimeter-wave frequency band have been actively promoted and the importance of compensation of the nonlinearity of power amplifier caused by the characteristics of millimeter-wave frequency propagation attenuation is increasing. In the paper, we propose a piecewise polynomial model based on subdivision coefficient which are characteristics of power amplifier separated linear section and a non-linear section. In addition, the structure of digital predistortion based on the proposed model and direct learning method are proposed to implement a digital predistortion. To verify the proposed model, digital predistortion based on the proposed model and direct learning method for 60 GHz power amplifier using LTE signal implemented in the FPGA. And the hardware test bench measured performance and complexity. The proposed model achieves 3.3 dB gain over the single polynomial model in terms of the ACLR and reduces 7.5 percent in terms of the complexity.
Clustering based Novel Interference Management Scheme in Dense Small Cell Network
Moon, Sangmi ; Chu, Myeonghun ; Lee, Jihye ; Kwon, Soonho ; Kim, Hanjong ; Kim, Daejin ; Hwang, Intae ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 5, 2016, Pages 13~18
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.5.013
In Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A), small cell enhancement(SCE) has been developed as a cost-effective way of supporting exponentially increasing demand of wireless data services and satisfying the user quality of service(QoS). However, there are many problems such as the transmission rate and transmission quality degradation due to the dense and irregular distribution of a large number of small cells. In this paper, we propose a clustering based interference management scheme in dense small cell network. We divide the small cells into different clusters according to the reference signal received power(RSRP) from user equipment(UE). Within a cluster, an almost blank subframe(ABS) is implemented to mitigate interference between the small cells. In addition, we apply the power control to reduce the interference between the clusters. Simulation results show that proposed scheme can improve Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio(SINR), throughput, and spectral efficiency of small cell users. Eventually, proposed scheme can improve overall cell performance.
Novel User Offloading Scheme for Small Cell Enhancement in LTE-Advanced System
Moon, Sangmi ; Chu, Myeonghun ; Lee, Jihye ; Kwon, Soonho ; Kim, Hanjong ; Kim, Cheolsung ; Hwang, Intae ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 5, 2016, Pages 19~24
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.5.019
In Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A), small cell enhancement(SCE) has been developed as a cost-effective way of supporting exponentially increasing demand of wireless data services and satisfying the user quality of service(QoS). However, due to the dense and irregular distribution of a large number of small cells, the offloading scheme should be applied in the small cell network. In this paper, we propose an user offloading scheme for SCE in LTE-Advanced system. We divide the small cells into different clusters according to the reference signal received power(RSRP) from user equipment(UE). Within a cluster, We apply the user offloading scheme with the consideration of the number of users and interference conditions. Simulation results show that proposed scheme can improve the throughput, and spectral efficiency of small cell users. Eventually, proposed scheme can improve overall cell performance.
Cross-layer Design of Joint Routing and Scheduling for Maximizing Network Capacity of IEEE 802.11s based Multi-Channel SmartGrid NAN Networks
Min, Seok Hong ; Kim, Bong Gyu ; Lee, Jae Yong ; Kim, Byung Chul ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 5, 2016, Pages 25~36
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.5.025
The goal of the SmartGrid is to maximize energy efficiency by exchanging bi-directional real-time power information with the help of ICT(Information and Communication Technology). In this paper, we propose a "JRS-MS" (Joint Routing and Scheduling for Multi-channel SmartGrid) algorithm that uses numerical modeling methods in IEEE 802.11s based STDMA multi-channel SmartGrid NAN networks. The proposed algorithm controls the amount of data transmission adaptively at the link layer and finds a high data-rate path which has the least interference between traffic flows in multi-channel SmartGrid NAN networks. The proposed algorithm improve transmission performance by enhancing network utilization. By comparing the results of performance analysis between the proposed algorithm and the JRS-SG algorithm in the previous paper, we showed that the JRS-MS algorithm can improve transmission performance by maximally utilizing given network resources when the number of flows are increasing in the multi-hop NAN wireless mesh networks.
Design and Implementation of Beam Steering System Based on Rotman lens and its Real-Time Display Device of Beam Receiving
Kim, In-Ryeol ; ahn, Chi-Hyung ; Oh, Soon-Soo ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 5, 2016, Pages 37~46
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.5.037
In this paper, we propose the beam-steering system using Rotman lens antenna operating at 2.442GHz which is to replace an expensive phase shifter. The overall system consists of the transmission antennas, Rotman lens and switch box. Setting the initial design conditions, it was designed and fabricated satisfying the requirements. From the result tested in the anechoic chamber, it was found that the beam can be steered using Rotman lens in the anechoic chamber. We also visually checked the beam-steering by turning on the LED of the rectenna showing the real-time beam receiving.
Optimum Frequency Analysis for Sonar Transmit Signal design
Kim, Sunho ; Jung, Jangwon ; On, Baeksan ; Im, Sungbin ; Seo, Iksoo ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 5, 2016, Pages 47~54
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.5.047
In the underwater environment, high resolution can be achieved in the range direction by transmitting and receiving a signal of a particular band and/or waveform. The design of a transmit signal used in the active sonar is very important in order to detect a cylindrical object within a short distance less than 1 km, which is the detection distance of this paper. Designing a transmit signal optimal to a sonar requires appropriate selection of its center frequency and bandwidth, which allows the maximum detection distance of a sonar. In this paper, in terms of maximizing echo excess and signal to noise ratio (SNR), optimum frequency analysis is carried out under various conditions of diverse parameters. In addition, the investigation focused on the determinating a bandwidth is also performed for the purpose of satisfying the performance requirement of range resolution and azimuth resolution.
Detection of an Object Bottoming at Seabed by the Reflected Signal Modeling
On, Baeksan ; Kim, Sunho ; Moon, Woosik ; Im, Sungbin ; Seo, Iksu ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 5, 2016, Pages 55~65
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.5.055
Detecting an object which is located at seabed is an important issue for various areas. This paper presents an approach to detection of an object that is placed at seabed in the shallow water. A conventional scheme is to employ a side-scan sonar to obtain images of a detection area and to use image processing schemes to recognize an object. Since this approach relies on high frequency signals to get clear images, its detection range becomes shorter and the processing time is getting longer. In this paper, we consider an active sonar system that is repeatedly sending a linear frequency modulated signal of 6~20 kHz in the shallow water of 100m depth. The proposed approach is to model consecutively received reflected signals and to measure their modeling error magnitudes which decide the existence of an object placed on seabed depending on relative magnitude with respect to threshold value. The feature of this approach is to only require an assumption that the seabed consists of an homogeneous sediment, and not to require a prior information on the specific properties of the sediment. We verify the proposed approach in terms of detection probability through computer simulation.
Effects of Vth adjustment ion implantation on Switching Characteristics of MCT(MOS Controlled Thyristor)
Park, Kun-Sik ; Cho, Doohyung ; Won, Jong-Il ; Kwak, Changsub ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 5, 2016, Pages 69~76
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.5.069
Current driving capability of MCT (MOS Controlled Thyristor) is determined by turn-off capability of conducting current, that is off-FET performance of MCT. On the other hand, having a good turn-on characteristics, including high peak anode current (
) and rate of change of current (di/dt), is essential for pulsed power system which is one of major application field of MCTs. To satisfy above two requirements, careful control of on/off-FET performance is required. However, triple diffusion and several oxidation processes change surface doping profile and make it hard to control threshold voltage (
) of on/off-FET. In this paper, we have demonstrated the effect of
adjustment ion implantation on the performance of MCT. The fabricated MCTs (active area
Dual-Mode Reference-less Clock Data Recovery Algorithm
Kwon, Ki-Won ; Jin, Ja-Hoon ; Chun, Jung-Hoon ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 5, 2016, Pages 77~86
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.5.077
This paper describes a dual-mode reference-less CDR(Clock Data Recovery) operating at full / half-rate and its operation algorithm. Proposed reference-less CDR consists of a frequency detector, a phase detector, a charge pump, a loop filter, a voltage controlled oscillator, and a digital block. The frequency and phase detectors operate at both full / half-rate for dual-mode operation and especially the frequency detector is capable of detecting the difference between data rate and clock frequency in the dead zone of general frequency detectors. Dual-mode reference-less CDR with the proposed algorithm can recover the data and clock within 1.2-1.3 us and operates reliably at both full-rate (2.7 Gb/s) and half-rate (5.4 Gb/s) with 0.5-UI input jitter.
An Area-Efficient Time-Shared 10b DAC for AMOLED Column Driver IC Applications
Kim, Won-Kang ; An, Tai-Ji ; Lee, Seung-Hoon ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 5, 2016, Pages 87~97
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.5.087
This work proposes a time-shared 10b DAC based on a two-step resistor string to minimize the effective area of a DAC channel for driving each AMOLED display column. The proposed DAC shows a lower effective DAC area per unit column driver and a faster conversion speed than the conventional DACs by employing a time-shared DEMUX and a ROM-based two-step decoder of 6b and 4b in the first and second resistor string. In the second-stage 4b floating resistor string, a simple current source rather than a unity-gain buffer decreases the loading effect and chip area of a DAC channel and eliminates offset mismatch between channels caused by buffer amplifiers. The proposed 1-to-24 DEMUX enables a single DAC channel to drive 24 columns sequentially with a single-phase clock and a 5b binary counter. A 0.9pF sampling capacitor and a small-sized source follower in the input stage of each column-driving buffer amplifier decrease the effect due to channel charge injection and improve the output settling accuracy of the buffer amplifier while using the top-plate sampling scheme in the proposed DAC. The proposed DAC in a
CMOS shows a signal settling time of 62.5ns during code transitions from `
` to `
`. The prototype DAC occupies a unit channel area of
and an effective unit channel area of
while consuming 6.08mW with analog and digital power supplies of 3.3V and 1.8V, respectively.
Comparative Analysis of Synthetic Memristor Emulator and M-R Mutator
Choi, Hyuncheol ; Kim, Hyongsuk ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 5, 2016, Pages 98~107
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.5.098
An analytical comparison of a synthetic memristor emulator and a M-R mutator-based memristor emulator has been performed. Memristor is an electrical element with the characteristic of variable resistance. It is called the fourth fundamental electrical element following resistor, capacitor, and inductor. Memristor emulator is a circuit which implements the feature of variable resistance via the composition of various electrical devices. It is an essential circuit to study memristor characteristics during the time before it is commercially available. There are two representative memristor emulators depending upon their implementation methods. One is a memristor emulator which is synthesized via combining various electrical devices and the other one is M-R mutator-based memristor emulator implemented by extracting resistance from a nonlinear device. In this paper, implementation methods of these two memristor emulators are studied and their differences are investigated by analysing their characteristics.
Wire Recognition on the Chip Photo based on Histogram
Jhang, Kyoungson ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 5, 2016, Pages 111~120
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.5.111
Wire recognition is one of the important tasks in chip reverse engineering since connectivity comes from wires. Recognized wires are used to recover logical or functional representation of the corresponding circuit. Though manual recognition provides accurate results, it becomes impossible, as the number of wires is more than hundreds of thousands. Wires on a chip usually have specific intensity or color characteristics since they are made of specific materials. This paper proposes two stage wire recognition scheme; image binarization and then the process of determining whether regions in binary image are wires or not. We employ existing techniques for two processes. Since the second process requires the characteristics of wires, the users needs to select the typical wire region in the given image. The histogram characteristic of the selected region is used in calculating histogram similarity between the typical wire region and the other regions. The first experiment is to select the most appropriate binarization scheme for the second process. The second experiment on the second process compares three proposed methods employing histogram similarity of grayscale or HSV color since there have not been proposed any wire recognition method comparable by experiment. The best method shows more than 98% of true positive rate for 25 test examples.
Image Restoration Considering Chromatic Aberration Problem of Multi-Spectral Filter Array Image
Kwon, Ji Yong ; Kang, Moon Gi ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 5, 2016, Pages 123~131
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.5.123
To capture color and near-infrared images simultaneously, a multi-spectral filter array(MSFA) sensor is used. This is because an NIR band gives additional invisible information to human eyes to see subject under extremely low light level. However, because lenses have different refractive indices for different wavelengths, lenses may fail to focus widely different rays to the same convergence point. This is why a chromatic aberration(CA) problem occurs and images are degraded. In this paper, the image restoration algorithm for an MSFA image, which removes the CA problem, is presented. The obtained MSFA image is filtered by the estimated low-pass kernel to generate a base image. This base image is used to remove CA problem in multi-spectral(MS) images. By modeling the image degradation process and by using the least squares approach of the difference between the high-frequencies of the base and MS images, the desired high-resolution MS images are reconstructed. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm performs well in estimating the high-quality MS images and reducing the chromatic aberration problem.
Boundary-preserving Stereo Matching based on Confidence Region Detection and Disparity Map Refinement
Yun, In Yong ; Kim, Joong Kyu ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 5, 2016, Pages 132~140
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.5.132
In this paper, we propose boundary-preserving stereo matching method based on adaptive disparity adjustment using confidence region detection. To find the initial disparity map, we compute data cost using the color space (CIE Lab) combined with the gradient space and apply double cost aggregation. We perform left/right consistency checking to sort out the mismatched region. This consistency check typically fails for occluded and mismatched pixels. We mark a pixel in the left disparity map as "inconsistent", if the disparity value of its counterpart pixel differs by a value larger than one pixel. In order to distinguish errors caused by the disparity discontinuity, we first detect the confidence map using the Mean-shift segmentation in the initial disparity map. Using this confidence map, we then adjust the disparity map to reduce the errors in initial disparity map. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method produces higher quality disparity maps by successfully preserving disparity discontinuities compared to existing methods.
A Study on the Characteristics of Smartphone Camera as a Medical Radiation Detector
Kang, Han Gyu ; Kim, Ho Chul ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 5, 2016, Pages 143~151
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.5.143
The aim of this study is to investigate the optimal algorithm to extract medical radiation induced pixel signal from complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensors of smartphones camera. The pixel intensity and pixel number of smartphone camera were measured as the X-ray dose was increased. The front camera of the smartphone camera has low noise property and excellent dose response as compared to the back camera of the smartphone. The indirect method which uses scintillation crystal in front of the smartphone camera, couldn`t improve the X-ray detection efficiency as compared to the direct method which does not use any scintillator in front of the smartphone camera. When we used the algorithm which employing threshold level on the pixel intensity and pixel number, the dose linearity was more higher for the pixel intensity rather for the pixel number. The use of pixel intensity of Y color component which represents the grey scale, would be efficient in terms of the radiation detection efficiency and reducing the complexity of the image processing. We expect that the radiation dose monitoring can be managed effectively and systematically by using the proposed radiation detection algorithm, thus eventually will contribute to the public healthcare.
A Design Of Cross-Shpaed CMOS Hall Plate And Offset, 1/f Noise Cancelation Technique Based Hall Sensor Signal Process System
Hur, Yong-Ki ; Jung, Won-Jae ; Lee, Ji-Hun ; Nam, Kyu-Hyun ; Yoo, Dong-Gyun ; Yoon, Sang-Gu ; Min, Chang-Gi ; Park, Jun-Seok ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 5, 2016, Pages 152~159
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.5.152
This paper describes an offset and 1/f noise cancellation technique based hall sensor signal processor. The hall sensor outputs a hall voltage from the input magnetic field, which direction is orthogonal to hall plate. The two major elements to complete the hall sensor operation are: the one is a hall sensor to generate hall voltage from input magentic field, and the other one is a hall signal process system to cancel the offset and 1/f noise of hall signal. The proposed hall sensor splits the hall signal and unwanted signals(i.e. offset and 1/f noise) using a spinning current biasing technique and chopper stabilizer. The hall signal converted to 100 kHz and unwanted signals stay around DC frequency pass through chopper stabilizer. The unwanted signals are bloked by highpass filter which, 60 kHz cut off freqyency. Therefore only pure hall signal is enter the ADC(analog to dogital converter) for digitalize. The hall signal and unwanted signal at the output of an amplifer and highpass filter, which increase the power level of hall signal and cancel the unwanted signals are -53.9 dBm @ 100 kHz and -101.3 dBm @ 10 kHz. The ADC output of hall sensor signal process system has -5.0 dBm hall signal at 100 kHz frequency and -55.0 dBm unwanted signals at 10 kHz frequency.
Study on the Brightness Temperature Measurement in the Human Body Using Millimeter-wave Radiometer
Jung, Min Kyoo ; Kim, Tae Hun ; Nah, Seung Wook ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 5, 2016, Pages 163~167
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.5.163
We have developed a millimeter-wave radiometer system for applications in the fields of medical imaging. In this paper, we introduced the brightness temperature measurement in the human body using Millimeter-wave Radiometer. Calibration of sensitivity of the radiometer system is essential to measure equivalent temperature (brightness temperature) of objects. We have developed, as a calibration source, a new type of black body for the millimeter wave region with temperature control capability. The system noise figure and temperature sensitivity of the system measured using the blackbody are 3.3 dB and 0.1 K, respectively. The brightness temperature of human body through clothes was measured to be around
The MANET based Distributed Control Communications for Remote Controlled drones
Jeong, Seong Soon ; Kwon, Ki Mun ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 5, 2016, Pages 168~173
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.5.168
The latest drone market is evolving rapidly. The commercial drone market developed rapid growth. Up to now, one controller had controlled the only one drone. So Remote control and information collection of the remote drone was impossible. Therefore we suggests drone intercommunication distributed network based on the MANET. Subsequently classified according to the characteristics of the drone intercommunication distributed network(speed, distance, applications) and chose a MANET routing protocol in accordance with the classification result.