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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers
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The Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 53, Issue 8 - Aug 2016
Volume 53, Issue 7 - Jul 2016
Volume 53, Issue 6 - Jun 2016
Volume 53, Issue 5 - May 2016
Volume 53, Issue 4 - Apr 2016
Volume 53, Issue 3 - Mar 2016
Volume 53, Issue 2 - Feb 2016
Volume 53, Issue 1 - Jan 2016
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A Modified Decision-Directed LMS Algorithm
Oh, Kil Nam ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 7, 2016, Pages 3~8
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.7.003
We propose a modified form of the decision-directed least mean square (DD LMS) algorithm that is widely used in the optimization of self-adaptive equalizers, and show the modified version greatly improves the initial convergence properties of the conventional algorithm. Existing DD LMS regards the difference between a equalizer output and a quantization value for it as an error, and achieves an optimization of the equalizer based on minimizing the mean squared error cost function for the equalizer coefficients. This error generating method is useful for binary signal or a single-level signals, however, in the case of multi-level signals, it is not effective in the initialization of the equalizer. The modified DD LMS solves this problem by modifying the error generation. We verified the usefulness and performance of the modified DD LMS through experiments with multi-level signals under distortions due to intersymbol interference and additive noise.
4H-SiC Schottky Barrier Diode Using Double-Field-Plate Technique
Kim, Taewan ; Sim, Seulgi ; Cho, Dooyoung ; Kim, Kwangsoo ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 7, 2016, Pages 11~16
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.7.011
Silicon carbide (SiC) has received significant attention over the past decade because of its high-voltage, high-frequency and high-thermal reliability in devices compared to silicon. Especially, a SiC Schottky barrier diode (SBD) is most often used in low-voltage switching and low on-resistance power applications. However, electric field crowding at the contact edge of SBDs induces early breakdown and limits their performance. To overcome this problem, several edge termination techniques have been proposed. This paper proposes an improvement in the breakdown voltage using a double-field-plate structure in SiC SBDs, and we design, simulate, fabricate, and characterize the proposed structure. The measurement results of the proposed structure, demonstrate that the breakdown voltage can be improved by 38% while maintaining its forward characteristics without any change in the size of the anode contact junction region.
A Mismatch-Insensitive 12b 60MS/s 0.18um CMOS Flash-SAR ADC
Byun, Jae-Hyeok ; Kim, Won-Kang ; Park, Jun-Sang ; Lee, Seung-Hoon ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 7, 2016, Pages 17~26
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.7.017
This work proposes a 12b 60MS/s 0.18um CMOS Flash-SAR ADC for various systems such as wireless communications and portable video processing systems. The proposed Flash-SAR ADC alleviates the weakness of a conventional SAR ADC that the operation speed proportionally increases with a resolution by deciding upper 4bits first with a high-speed flash ADC before deciding lower 9bits with a low-power SAR ADC. The proposed ADC removes a sampling-time mismatch by using the C-R DAC in the SAR ADC as the combined sampling network instead of a T/H circuit which restricts a high speed operation. An interpolation technique implemented in the flash ADC halves the required number of pre-amplifiers, while a switched-bias power reduction scheme minimizes the power consumption of the flash ADC during the SAR operation. The TSPC based D-flip flop in the SAR logic for high-speed operation reduces the propagation delay by 55% and the required number of transistors by half compared to the conventional static D-flip flop. The prototype ADC in a 0.18um CMOS demonstrates a measured DNL and INL within 1.33LSB and 1.90LSB, with a maximum SNDR and SFDR of 58.27dB and 69.29dB at 60MS/s, respectively. The ADC occupies an active die area of
and consumes 5.4mW at a 1.8V supply.
A 0.16㎟ 12b 30MS/s 0.18um CMOS SAR ADC Based on Low-Power Composite Switching
Shin, Hee-Wook ; Jeong, Jong-Min ; An, Tai-Ji ; Park, Jun-Sang ; Lee, Seung-Hoon ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 7, 2016, Pages 27~38
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.7.027
This work proposes a 12b 30MS/s 0.18um CMOS SAR ADC based on low-power composite switching with an active die area of
. The proposed composite switching employs the conventional
-based switching and monotonic switching sequences while minimizing the switching power consumption of a DAC and the dynamic offset to constrain a linearity of the SAR ADC. Two equally-divided capacitors topology and the reference scaling are employed to implement the
-based switching effectively and match an input signal range with a reference voltage range in the proposed C-R hybrid DAC. The techniques also simplify the overall circuits and reduce the total number of unit capacitors up to 64 in the fully differential version of the prototype 12b ADC. Meanwhile, the SAR logic block of the proposed SAR ADC employs a simple latch-type register rather than a D flip-flop-based register not only to improve the speed and stability of the SAR operation but also to reduce the area and power consumption by driving reference switches in the DAC directly without any decoder. The measured DNL and INL of the prototype ADC in a 0.18um CMOS are within 0.85LSB and 2.53LSB, respectively. The ADC shows a maximum SNDR of a 59.33dB and a maximum SFDR of 69.83dB at 30MS/s. The ADC consumes 2.25mW at a 1.8V supply voltage.
Design of a Inverter-Based 3
Order ΔΣ Modulator Using 1.5bit Comparators
Choi, Jeong Hoon ; Seong, Jae Hyeon ; Yoon, Kwang Sub ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 7, 2016, Pages 39~46
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.7.039
This paper describes the third order feedforward delta-sigma modulator with inverter-based integrators and a 1.5bit comparator for the application of audio signal processing. The proposed 3rd-order delta-sigma modulator is multi-bit structure using 1.5 bit comparator instead of operational amplifier. This delta-sigma modulator has high SNR compared with single-bit 4th-order delta-sigma modulator in a low OSR. And it minimizes power consumes and simplified circuit structure using inverter-based integrator and using inverter-based integrator as analogue adder. The modulator was designed with 0.18um CMOS standard process and total chip area is
. The measured power cosumption is 28.8uW in a 0.8V analog supply and 66.6uW in a 1.8V digital supply. The measurement result shows that the peak SNDR of 80.7 dB, the ENOB of 13.1bit and the dynamic range of 86.1 dB with an input signal frequency of 2.5kHz, a sampling frequency of 2.56MHz and an oversampling rate of 64. The FOM (Walden) from the measurement result is 269 fJ/step, FOM (Schreier) was calculated as 169.3 dB.
Forensic Image Classification using Data Mining Decision Tree
RHEE, Kang Hyeon ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 7, 2016, Pages 49~55
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.7.049
In digital forensic images, there is a serious problem that is distributed with various image types. For the problem solution, this paper proposes a classification algorithm of the forensic image types. The proposed algorithm extracts the 21-dim. feature vector with the contrast and energy from GLCM (Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix), and the entropy of each image type. The classification test of the forensic images is performed with an exhaustive combination of the image types. Through the experiments, TP (True Positive) and FN (False Negative) is detected respectively. While it is confirmed that performed class evaluation of the proposed algorithm is rated as 'Excellent(A)' because of the AUROC (Area Under Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve) is 0.9980 by the sensitivity and the 1-specificity. Also, the minimum average decision error is 0.1349. Also, at the minimum average decision error is 0.0179, the whole forensic image types which are involved then, our classification effectiveness is high.
A study on Detecting a Ghost-key using Additional Coating at the Membrane type Keyboard)
Lee, HyunChang ; Lee, MyungSeok ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 7, 2016, Pages 56~63
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.7.056
This paper presents a novel method for detecting a ghost key at the membrane type keyboard, which has additional resistive coating to the membrane film. Also, the optimal ratio of resistances for detecting a ghost key was designed based on the characteristics of the membrane film. The optimal ratio of resistances was considered to be able to detect the worst case (i.e., difference voltage between normal key and ghost key is minimum). The ability of the proposed methods are evaluated by simulation studies in this paper. In order to verify the proposed method, the experiment was carried out with a designed circuit and A/D (analog to digital) in MCU (micro controller unit). The proposed method is implemented into the membrane type keyboard and is verified by experimental results.
A Study on an Open/Closed Eye Detection Algorithm for Drowsy Driver Detection
Kim, TaeHyeong ; Lim, Woong ; Sim, Donggyu ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 7, 2016, Pages 67~77
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.7.067
In this paper, we propose an algorithm for open/closed eye detection based on modified Hausdorff distance. The proposed algorithm consists of two parts, face detection and open/closed eye detection parts. To detect faces in an image, MCT (Modified Census Transform) is employed based on characteristics of the local structure which uses relative pixel values in the area with fixed size. Then, the coordinates of eyes are found and open/closed eyes are detected using MHD (Modified Hausdorff Distance) in the detected face region. Firstly, face detection process creates an MCT image in terms of various face images and extract criteria features by PCA(Principle Component Analysis) on offline. After extraction of criteria features, it detects a face region via the process which compares features newly extracted from the input face image and criteria features by using Euclidean distance. Afterward, the process finds out the coordinates of eyes and detects open/closed eye using template matching based on MHD in each eye region. In performance evaluation, the proposed algorithm achieved 94.04% accuracy in average for open/closed eye detection in terms of test video sequences of gray scale with 30FPS/
A Vehicle Speed Measurement System Implementation using a Stereo Camera and a License Plate Recognition Algorithm
Kim, Young-Mo ; Rheu, Jee-Hyung ; Choi, Doo-Hyun ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 7, 2016, Pages 78~84
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.7.078
This paper presents and implements a vehicle speed measurement system using a license plate recognition system and a stereo camera. Using the feature points of the license plate recognition system, the disparity information is extracted and then the distance to the feature points is calculated by using the disparity information. In this paper, a vehicle speed is measured using the adjacent distances from consecutive stereo images and the corresponding time of the distances. Actual vehicle speed is also measured using the reference measurement equipment (tape switch based system) in order to test the accuracy of the proposed speed measurement system. The implemented stereo based speed measurement system shows appropriate result within specification both in the daytime and nighttime experiments.
A Detection Algorithm for Pulse Repetition Interval Sequence of Radar Signals based on Finite State Machine
Park, Sang-Hwan ; Ju, Young-Kwan ; Kim, Kwan-Tae ; Jeon, Joongnam ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 7, 2016, Pages 85~91
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.7.085
Typically, radar systems change the pulse repetition interval of their modulated signal in order to avoid detection. On the other hand the radar-signal detection system tries to detect the modulation pattern. The histogram or auto-correlation methods are usually used to detect the PRI pattern of the radar signal. However these methods tend to lost the sequence information of the PRI pulses. This paper proposes a PRI-sequence detection algorithm based on the finite-state machine that could detect not only the PRI pattern but also their sequence.
Geomagnetic Sensor Compensation and Sensor Fusion for Quadrotor Heading Direction Control
Lee, You Jin ; Ryoo, Jung Rae ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 7, 2016, Pages 95~102
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.7.095
Geomagnetic sensors are widely utilized for sensing heading direction of quadrotors. However, measurement from a geomagnetic sensor is easily corrupted by environmental magnetic field interference and roll/pitch directional motion. In this paper, a measurement method of a quadrotor heading direction is proposed for application to yaw attitude control. In order to eliminate roll/pitch directional motion effect, the geomagnetic sensor data is compensated using the roll/pitch angles measured for stabilization control. In addition, yaw-directional angular velocity data from a gyroscope sensor is fused with the geomagnetic sensor data using a complementary filter which is a simple and intuitive sensor fusion method. The proposed method is applied to experiments, and the results are presented to prove validity and effectiveness of the proposed method.
Fault-Tolerant Control of Asynchronous Sequential Machines with Input Faults
Yang, Jung-Min ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 7, 2016, Pages 103~109
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.7.103
Corrective control for asynchronous sequential machines is a novel automatic control theory that compensates illegal behavior or adverse effects of faults in the operation of existent asynchronous machines. In this paper, we propose a scheme of diagnosing and tolerating faults occurring to input channels of corrective control systems. The corrective controller can detect faults occurring in the input channel to the controlled machine, whereas those faults happening in the external input channel cannot be detected. The proposed scheme involves an outer operator which, upon receiving the state feedback, diagnoses a fault and sends an appropriate command signal to the controller for tolerating faults in the external input channel.
Design and Implementation of Low-power Neuromodulation S/W based on MSP430
Hong, Sangpyo ; Quan, Cheng-Hao ; Shim, Hyun-Min ; Lee, Sangmin ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 7, 2016, Pages 110~120
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.7.110
A power-efficient neuromodulator is needed for implantable systems. In spite of their stimulation signal's simplicity of wave shape and waiting time of MCU(micro controller unit) much longer than execution time, there is no consideration for low-power design. In this paper, we propose a novel of low-power algorithm based on the characteristics of stimulation signals. Then, we designed and implement a neuromodulation software that we call NMS(neuro modulation simulation). In order to implement low-power algorithm, first, we analyze running time of every function in existing NMS. Then, we calculate execution time and waiting time for these functions. Subsequently, we estimate the transition time between active mode (AM) and low-power mode (LPM). By using these results, we redesign the architecture of NMS in the proposed low-power algorithm: a stimulation signal divided into a number of segments by using characteristics of the signal from which AM or LPM segments are defined for determining the MCU power reduces to turn off or not. Our experimental results indicate that NMS with low-power algorithm reducing current consumption of MCU by 76.31 percent compared to NMS without low-power algorithm.
Development of advanced Power Factor Computation Algorithm in Harmonics distorted Distribution System
Lee, Hyun-woo ; Park, Young-kyun ; Lee, Jinhan ; Joung, Sanghyun ; Park, Chul-woo ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 7, 2016, Pages 121~127
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.7.121
We propose a algorithm to calculate power factor of fundamental waveform in an environment where the voltage and current have been distorted by harmonics. In the proposed power factor computation algorithm, voltage and current are converted to rotating DQ reference frame, and power factor is calculated from active power and reactive power. We compare the proposed method with the conventional power factor measurement method as mathematically. In a condition that voltage and current are distorted by harmonics, the proposed method accurately measure the power factor of fundamental wave, and it is confirmed by simulation using MATLAB. If the proposed power factor measurement method is applied to an automatic power factor control system, a power factor compensation performance can be maximized in harmonic distortion environment. As a result, it is possible to reduce electricity prices, reduce line loss, increase load capacity, ensure the transmission margin capacity, and reduce the amount of power generation.
The Impedance Analysis of Multiple TSV-to-TSV
Lee, Sihyun ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 7, 2016, Pages 131~137
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.7.131
In this paper, we analyze the impedance analysis of vertical interconnection through-silicon vias (TSV) that is being studied for the purpose of improving the degree of integration and an electric feature in 3D IC. Also, it is to improve the performance and the degree of integration of the three-dimensional integrated circuit system which can exceed the limits of conventional two-dimensional a IC. In the future, TSV technology in full-chip 3-dimensional integrated circuit system design is very important, and a study on the electrical characteristics of the TSV for high-density and high-bandwidth system design is very important. Therefore, we study analyze the impedance influence of the TSV in accordance with the distance and frequency in a multiple TSV-to-TSV for the purpose of designing a full-chip three-dimensional IC. The results of this study also are applicable to semiconductor process tools and designed for the manufacture of a full-chip 3D IC.
Development of Passive Millimeter-wave Security Screening System
Yoon, Jin-Seob ; Jung, Kyung Kwon ; Chae, Yeon-Sik ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 7, 2016, Pages 138~143
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.7.138
The designed and fabricated millimeter-wave security screening system receives radiation energy from an object and a human body. The imaging system consist of sixteen array antennas, sixteen four-stage LNAs, sixteen detectors, an infrared camera, a CCD camera, reflector, and a focusing lens. This system requires high sensitivity and wide bandwidth to detect the input thermal noise. The LNA module of the system has been measured to have 65.8 dB in average linear gain and 82 GHz~102 GHz in bandwidth to enhance the sensitivity for thermal noise, and to receive it over a wide bandwidth. The detector is used for direct current (DC) output translation of millimeter-wave signals with a zero bias Schottky diode. The lens and front-end of the millimeter-wave sensor are important in the system to detect the input thermal noise signal. The frequency range in the receiving sensitivity of the detectors was 350 to 400 mV/mW at 0 dBm (1 mW) input power. The developed W-band imaging system is effective for detecting and identifying concealed objects such as metal or plastic.
Analysis of QPSK Performance over a Theoretical Underwater Acoustic Channel
Kang, Heehoon ; Im, Yo-woong ;
Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers, volume 53, issue 7, 2016, Pages 144~149
DOI : 10.5573/ieie.2016.53.7.144
In this paper, we analyze a QPSK MODEM over underwater acoustic channel model. Ambient noises and parameters of underwater environments debase the BER performance of an underwater modem. In the paper, the BER performance of uncoded QPSK and rate-2/3 convolutional coded QPSK is analyzed. And To improve BER Performance, we apply a channel equalization technique to the underwater modem.