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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Welding and Joining
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Welding and Joining Society
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 6 - Dec 1998
Volume 16, Issue 5 - Oct 1998
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Aug 1998
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Jun 1998
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Apr 1998
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Feb 1998
Selecting the target year
Theoretical Methods to Analyze Metal Transfer in GMA Welding
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 16, issue 3, 1998, Pages 1~8
Characteristics of Metal Transfer of GMAW shielded by
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 16, issue 3, 1998, Pages 9~17
Concept of Waveform Control for the Reduction of
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 16, issue 3, 1998, Pages 18~28
The Power Conversion Circuit and Its Control Method of Inverter Welding Machines
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 16, issue 3, 1998, Pages 29~39
Welding Technology of Heat Resisting Material
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 16, issue 3, 1998, Pages 40~43
A Study on the Weavingless Arc Sensor System in GMA Welding (I) -Implementation of Weld Seam Tracking Algrithm-
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 16, issue 3, 1998, Pages 44~54
In this study a new arc sensor algorithm for automatic weld seam tracking was proposed, which uses the relative welding current variation according to the tip-to-workpiece distance in GMA welding. Since the new developed arc sensor algorithm is not sensitive to unstable factors of arc signal, the system is expected to get rid of the problems of already existing arc sensor system which include the difficulty of modeling the process for various welding conditions and limitation of application to thick plate welding. Thus the system is applicable not only to thick plate welding but also to thin plate welding. To implement the new arc sensor algorithm the system parameters which include sampling time, averaging range, weighting factor of moving averaging, basic compensation time, and basic compensation distance were determined by experimental analysis. Consequently this system has shown the successful tracking capability for the various welding conditions.
A Study on the Weavingless Arc Sensor System in GMA Welding (II) -Torch Height Control in Weld Seam Tracking
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 16, issue 3, 1998, Pages 55~63
Among the position sensing methods available, the arc sensor which utilizes the electrical signal obtained from the welding arc itself is one of the most prevalently used methods, because it has an advantage that no particular sensing device is necessary and real-time sensing of a groove position is possible directly under the arc. The authors have already developed a seam tracking system that contains a new arc sensor algorithm, which uses the relative welding current variation according to the tip-to-workpiece distance in GMA welding. In this study a torch height control algorithm for automatic weld seam tracking was proposed for completing the previous system, which uses an on-off control technique. To implement the torch height control algorithm during weld seam tracking the system parameters which include 2nd averaging range, weighting factor for 2nd moving averaging, and Z-directional basic compensation distance were determined by experimental analysis. Finally the two different height control methods, one is simple on-off control and the other on-off control using a reference current value , were compared in their tracking abilities.
The Defect Detection and Evaluation of Austenitic Stainless Steel 304 Weld Zone using Ultrasonic Wave and Neuro
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 16, issue 3, 1998, Pages 64~73
This paper is concerned with defects detection and evaluation of heat affected zone (HAZ) in austenitic stainless steel type 304 by ultrasonic wave and neural network. In experiment, the reflected ultrasonic defect signals from artificial defects (side hole, vertical hole, notch) of HAZ appears as beam distance of prove-defect, distance of probe-surface, depth of defect-surface on CRT. For defect classification simulation, neural network system was organized using total results of ultrasonic experiment. The organized neural network system was learned with the accuracy of 99%. Also it could be classified with the accuracy of 80% in side hole, and 100% in vertical hole, 90% in notch about ultrasonic pattern recognition. Simulation results of neural network agree fairly well with results of ultrasonic experiment. Thus were think that the constructed system (ultrasonic wave - neural network) in this work is useful for defects dection and classification such as holes and notches in HAZ of austenitic stainless steel 304.
A Study on the Prediction Modeling of Phase Transformation in the CGHAZ of Structural Steel Weld
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 16, issue 3, 1998, Pages 74~84
The microstructures of the HAZ (Heat Affected Zone) are generally different from the base metal due to rapid thermal cycle during welding process. Particuraly, CGHAZ (Coarsened Grain Heat Affected Zone) near the fusion line is the most concerned region in which many metallurgical and mechanical discontinuities have been normally generated. A computer program by the numerical formularization of phase transformation during cooling with different rates was developed to generate the CCT diagram, and to predict microstructural (phase) changes in the CGHAZ. In order to verify simulated results, isothermal and continuous cooling transformation experiments were conducted. The simulated and experimental results showed that the developed computer model could successfully predict the room temperature microstructural changes (changes in volume fraction of phases) under various welding conditions (heat input & cooling rate
A Study on Joint Tracking for Multipass Arc Welding using Vision Sensor
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 16, issue 3, 1998, Pages 85~94
Welding fabrication invariantly involves three district sequential steps: preparation, actual process execution and post-weld inspection. One of the major problems in automating these steps and developing autonomous welding system, is the lack of proper sensing strategies. Conventionally, machine vision is used in robotic arc welding only for the correction of pre-taught welding paths in single pass. In this paper, developed vision processing techniques are detailed, and their application in welding fabrication is covered. The software for joint tracking system is finally proposed.
Relation between Spatter Generation and Waveform factor of
Welding in Short-Circuit Condition
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 16, issue 3, 1998, Pages 95~101
gas shielded arc welding in short circuit transfer mode was studied with the waveform analysis program, which can calculate various waveform factors such as number of short circuit event, mean and standard deviation of short circuit time and arc time. The calculated values of these factors were correlated independently or in combination with the spatter generation rate to figure out the most reliable index for evaluating spatter generation and further for arc stability. As a result this study, it was confirmed that the spatter generation tends to decrease with the increase of short circuit frequency. Further to this, it was also found that as the short circuit frequency increases the short circuit event becomes more uniform resulting in the decrease of standard deviations (
values) of short circuit time and arc time. This result demonstrated that these factors are strongly correlated with each other and thus any one of these factors can be used for the evaluation index. In the discussion, however, short circuit frequency was proposed for the most practical index in evaluating the arc stability of short circuit transfer mode since it is the one which could be monitored in-process condition without any complex caculation process.
A Study on Signal Processing Method for Welding Current in Automatic Weld Seam Tracking System
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 16, issue 3, 1998, Pages 102~110
The horizontal fillet welding is prevalently used in heavy and ship building industries to fabricate the large scale structures. A deep understanding of the horizontal fillet welding process is restricted, because the phenomena occurring in welding are very complex and highly non-linear characteristics. To achieve the satisfactory weld bead geometry in robot welding system, the seam tracking algorithm should be reliable. The number of seam tracker was developed for arc welding automation by now. Among these seam tracker, the arc sensor is prevalently used in industrial robot welding system because of its low cost and flexibility. However, the accuracy of arc sensor would be decreased due to the electrical noise and metal transfer. In this study, the signal processing algorithm based on the neural network was implemented to enhance the reliability of measured welding current signals. Moreover, the seam tracking algorithm in conjunction with the signal processing algorithm was implemented to trace the center of weld line. It was revealed that the neural network could be effectively used to predict the welding current signal at the end of weaving.
A Study of Metallurgical Phenomena in Austenitic Stainless Steel Fusion Welds (I) -Weldability of Commercial Austenitic Stainless Steels-
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 16, issue 3, 1998, Pages 111~120
To predict and evaluate metallurgical and mechanical behavior of th welds, it is essential to understand solidification behavior and microstructural evolution experienced in the welds, neither of which follows the equilibrium phase diagram because of rapid heating and cooling conditions. Metallurgical phenomena in austenitic stainless steel fusion welds, types 304, 309S, 316L, 321 and 304N, were investigated in this study. Autogenous GTA welding was performed on weld coupons, and primary solidification mode and phase distribution were investigated from the welds. Varestraint test was employed to evaluate solidification cracking susceptibilities of the alloys. GTA weld fusion zones in type 304, 321 and 304N stainless steels experienced primary ferrite solidification while those in type 309S primary austenite solidification. Type 316L exhibited a mixed type of primary ferrite and primary austenite solidification. The primary solidification mode strongly depended on
ratio. In terms of solidification cracking susceptibility, type 309S that solidified as primary austenite exhibited high cracking susceptibility while the alloys experienced primary ferrite solidification showed low cracking susceptibility. The relative ranking in solidification cracking susceptibility was type 304=type 304N < type 321 < type 316L < type 309S. '
A Study on the Degradation of Mechanical Properties in High Nitrogen Steel Following Heat Treatments and Welding
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 16, issue 3, 1998, Pages 121~128
The degradation of mechanical properties in the high nitrogen steel HN3 developed for nuclear fusion reactor has been evaluated quantitatively using the small punch(SP) test, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis has also been conducted to identify carbides or nitrides precipitated on grain boundaries of the heat treated samples. Mechanical properties of the steel HN3 significantly decreased with increasing heat treatment time and temperature or with decreasing testing temperature. Combination of XRD and metallurgical observation, revealed that the material degradation in the thermally aged steel was caused by precipitation of carbides on the grain boundaries. While the weld metal showed the lowest mechanical properties among various microstructures in GTA weldments. By combining SP test and XRD analysis, cryogenic fracture behaviors and aging degradation for high nitrogen steel could be successfully evaluated in nondestructive manner.
A study on the development of an arc sensor and its interface system for a welding robot
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 16, issue 3, 1998, Pages 129~140
An interface system was developed to offer the welding capability to a robot controller which had not any embedded function for arc welding before, and also an arc sensor algorithm was proposed for weld seam tracking of the welding robot. For the interface system between the robot controller and welding equipments, data communication software and interface connections were composed. The interface system was mae to correspond welding condition, correction data, operation sequence and current status with the robot controller by mutual had shaking and digital signal transfer. Graphic user interface program developed under the environment of windows made it easy to monitor data communication and operation status, and to control welding and sensing sequence. Arc sensing algorithm proposed in this study to compensate torch position error was based on a fuzzy logic with the variables of current difference and current differenced change at torch weaving extremities. The developed interface system could be successfully implemented in between welding equipments and the robot controller, and showed normal status and exact function in data and signal communication between the systems. The whole robot welding system was then examined to verify its welding and seam tracking capabilities in horizontal fillet, vertical fillet, and 3-dimensional fillet weldment. The experiments revealed sound weld bead shapes and also good seam tracing results.
Design Sensitivity Analysis of Welded Strut Joints on Vehicle Chassis Frame
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 16, issue 3, 1998, Pages 141~147
Design sensitivity analysis of a vehicle system is an essential tool for design optimization and trade-off studies. Most optimization algorithms require the derivatives of cost and constraint function with respect to design in order to calculate the next improved design. This paper presents an efficient algorithm application for the design sensitivity analysis, using the direct differentiation method. A mounting area of suspension that welded on chassis frame is analyzed to show the validity and the efficiency of the proposed method. A mounting area of suspension that welded on chassis frame is analyzed to show the validity and the efficiency of the proposed method.
A study on the characteristics of Pb free Sn-2%Ag-x%Bi solder alloys
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 16, issue 3, 1998, Pages 148~156
The purpose of this study is to investigate the characteristics of Pb-Free Sn-2%Ag-Bi solder alloys. The solder alloys used in this study is Sn-2%Ag-(3,5,7,9%) Bi It is examined that their properties such as melting range, wettability, microstructure, microhardness, and tensile property. The addition of Bi(3,5,7,9%) lowered the melting point of the solder and the melting range was 196~203
. The wettability of the solder as equal to that of Sn-37% Pb solder. The morphology of structure did not change largely by addition of Bi. But the structure of cellular dendrite of linear type displayed. The tensile strength of the solder was superior to that of Sn-37%Pb solder. But the elongation was inferior to that of Sn-37%Pb solder. The hardness of Sn-2%Ag solder was tow times and that of Sn-2%Ag-Bi solder was three times of that in Sn-37%Pb solder. But the effect of increment of Bi content did not change largely.
A study on the characteristics of low Pb Sn-5%Pb-1.5%Ag-x%Bi solder alloys
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 16, issue 3, 1998, Pages 157~166
Recently as environmental pollution caused by Pb has posed a serious threat to the global environment, the trend to regulate the usage of Pb in electronic industry is one the rise. Currently, the solder alloy with high Pb content, Sn-37%Pb, is utilized in the electronic assembly therefore, the objective of this study is to develop an alternative solder alloy for the existing Sn-37%Pb solder alloy. First thing, this work choosed Sn-5%Pb-1.5%Ag, Sn-5%Pb-1.5%Ag-x%Bi(x=1~5%) for candidate solder alloys, and examined their properties such as melting range, wettability, microhardness, tensile property, oxidation behavior and microstructure. Wettability was on the same level of Sn-37%Pb. Dissolution of Pb ion in Sn-5%Pb solder was 0.46ppm. This solder alloy revealed cellular dendrite microstructure
-Sn matrix, Pb-rich phase, Ag/Sn, and Cu/Sn Intermetallic compounds. The range of solidification temperature was within 3
. Also these alloy displayed higher tensile strength and lower elongation than Sn-37%Pb. The resistance of oxidation in Sn-5%Pb-1.5%Ag solder alloy was superior to that of Sn-37%Pb solder alloy. But that of Sn-5%Pb-1.5%Ag-5%Bi solder alloy was equal to that of Sn-37%Pb solder alloy.