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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Welding and Joining
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Welding and Joining Society
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 6 - Dec 1999
Volume 17, Issue 5 - Oct 1999
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Aug 1999
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Jun 1999
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Apr 1999
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Feb 1999
Selecting the target year
Weld Hot Cracking in C-Mn Steel
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 17, issue 5, 1999, Pages 1~9
Hot Cracking in Austenitic Stainless SteelWelds
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 17, issue 5, 1999, Pages 10~19
The Solidification Cracking of Nb-Containing Ni-base Superalloy
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 17, issue 5, 1999, Pages 20~28
Effect of Welding Conditions on Porosity Formation in Gas Metal Arc Brazing Deposit
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 17, issue 5, 1999, Pages 29~35
Weld Hardfacing Technology
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 17, issue 5, 1999, Pages 36~39
Development of Algorithm for Prediction of Bead Height on GMA Welding
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 17, issue 5, 1999, Pages 40~46
The sensors employed in the robotic are welding system must detect the changes in weld characteristics and produce the output that is in some way related to the change being detected. Such adaptive systems, which synchronise the robot arm and eyes using a primitive brain will form the basis for the development of robotic GMA(Gas Metal Arc) welding which increasingly higher levels of artificial intelligence. The objective of this paper is to realize the mapping characteristics of bead height through learning. After learning, the neural estimation can estimate the bead height desired from the learning mapping characteristic. The design parameters of the neural network estimator(the number of hidden layers and the number of nodes in a layer) are chosen from an estimation error analysis. A series of bead of bead-on-plate GMA welding experiments was carried out in order to verify the performance of the neural network estimator. The experimental results show that the proposed neural network estimator can predict the bead height with reasonable accuracy and guarantee the uniform weld quality.
Solidification Crackin in Root Pass for One-side Welding of 590MPa Class Steel for Pressure Vessels by FCAW
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 17, issue 5, 1999, Pages 47~54
It is well known that solidification cracking often occurs in welds of root pass for one-side welding under the conditions of high welding currents and speeds. In this study, the solidification in 590MPa class steel for pressure vessels SPPV490 was investigated by using flux-cored arc welding(FCAW) with 4 types of welding wires and welding conditions of 200∼280A and 2.8∼ 4.2mm/sec. In order to compared the result of cracking in SPPV490, 0.2%C steel for welded structure of SWS400 and 0.45%C steel for machine structural SM45C were also used as base metals. As the results, all the cracks formed in some welding conditions were observed near the center of weld bead. The solidification cracks were generally initiated near the upper surface of bead and propagated toward the inner part. The solidification cracking generally increased with welding current and welding speed in the same base metal and welding material. In cracking susceptibility, SPPV490 showed higher cracking susceptibility than SWS400 in all welding conditions and welding materials. It was considered that cracking susceptibility could not be evaluated with the hardness of weld metals. The cracking ratio increased with decreasing of a/b(a and b; the width of the upper surface and the back surface of the bead) as shape factor of bead. The cracking tendency with shape factor of bead was extended under the condition of higher welding currents.
Effects of the Support Condition on Out-of-plane Deformation by Welding
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 17, issue 5, 1999, Pages 55~60
In thin plate welding, welding deformation is deformation is produced in special form like buckling distortion, which is different from one in thick plate welding, large quantitatively, and has complicated form. Therefore, a particular countermeasure to prevent the welding deformation in manufacturing process is requested. Otherwise it takes more time to straighten the welding deformation than to fabricated a steel structure newly and in case of failing to straighten the welding deformation in beginning of the flame straightening process, even if the flame straitening is completed, the appearances is not good and sometimes eve refabrication is needed. To minimize these problems. In this present paper, the effects of the condition of support pin on out-of plane deformation produced by thin plate Butt welding in investigated through experiment and the countermeasure to prevent the welding deformation in suggested.
Effect of Delay Time Control on the Spatter Generation in
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 17, issue 5, 1999, Pages 61~68
For the last two decades, waveform control techniques have been successively developed and applied for the inverter welding machines resulting in the substantial reduction of spatter generated in CO₂ welding. One of the constituents commonly involved in those techniques is to delay the instant of current increase to some extent after the initiation of short-circuiting. Although this technique has been known to be quite effective in reducing the spatter generation through the suppression of is instantaneous short circuiting, the delay time necessary for minimum spatter has not been clearly understood. In this study, the control system for varying the delay time was constructed so that the spatter generation rates could be measured over a wide range of delay time, 0.29-2.0 msec. As a result of this study, it was demonstrated that spatter generation rate(SGR) sharply decreased at delay time of 0.6 msec and longer accompanied with the change in characteristics of short circuit mode from the instantaneous short-circuiting(ISC) dominant to normal short-circuiting(NSC) dominant. Another feature that have been found in current waveform of over 0.6msec was the creation of current pulse right after the arc reignition stage. Because of this current pulses weld pool oscillated in wave-like fashion and it looks like to play an important role in developing short circuiting between electrode and weld pool.
Effects of Upset Pressure on Weldability in the Friction Welding of Cu to Cu-W Sintered Alloy
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 17, issue 5, 1999, Pages 69~76
A copper-tungsten sintered alloy(Cu-W) has been friction welded to a tough pitch copper in order to investigate the effect of upset pressure on friction weldability. Under the condition of friction time 0.8sec, upset pressure 150MPa, the tensile strength and Charpy impact value of the friction welded joint were 336MPa,
respectively. And highest temperature of the weld measured was below
which is very lower than melting point of Cu(
). Under the same conditions, W grains picked up in Cu matrix from Cu-W profitably affected on these mechanical fracture, and were dispersed in Cu by plastic flow during brake time.
A Study on the Mechanical Behavior of Resistance Spot Welding by Finite Element Method
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 17, issue 5, 1999, Pages 77~82
Resistance spot welding process is completed in very short time and there are many factors affecting on the generation of heat. It is difficult to control these experimental factors and monitor distribution of the temperature and stresses in the experimental analysis case. and too much time and expense are required for the experimental trials to fine proper welding condition. So numerical analyses have been attempted steadily, but most numerical analyses on the resistance spot welding are mainly focused on thermal behavior. Therefore, in this paper, the numerical analysis of mechanical behavior as well as heat conduction is carried out for the spot welding process. For this numerical analysis, axial symmetric computer program for the spot welding analysis by F.E.M. has been developed considering heat conduction and thermal elastic-plastic theory. Material properties depending on temperature such as density, heat conductivity, heat expansion coefficient, specific heat, yield stress, elastic modulus, and specific resistance are considered. Using the results of temperature distribution obtained from heat conduction analysis, the thermal elastic-plastic analysis is carried out to clarify mechanical behavior of spot welded specimen. In order to evaluate the effect of residual stresses, numerical analyses are carried out under tension-shear load in two cases respectively; one with residual stress, the other without residual stresses.
Effects of Projection Height and Post Treatment on the Resistance Projection Weldability of Zn Coated Sheet Steels
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 17, issue 5, 1999, Pages 83~88
In this paper resistance projection weldability of Zn coated steels with post treatment has been discussed. Projection welding was performed by a condenser discharge type power source which was equipped with welding parameter monitoring system. Mechanical test results indicated that the effect of post coatings on the projection front changed showing very small very small spattering at the weld strength was negligible. However, contamination rate of the block electrode varied depending on the post treatment coatings. Test results also showed that projection height before welding should be kept to be 80-100% of the specimen thickness as far as the surface quality was taken into consideration. Based on the high speed photography, discharge condition at the beginning stage of the welding process. It was considered that the spattering reduced the weld strength slightly at the optimum heat input range.
A Study on Alloy Design for Improving Pitting Resistance of Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld under Ocean Water Atmosphere
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 17, issue 5, 1999, Pages 89~96
The base metal and weld metal of alloy designed austenitic stainless steels were electrochemically tested in artificial sea water. Pitting resistance of 14 different stainless steels was evaluated by measuring pitting potential. The effect of alloy element to pitting potential was evaluated by changing chromium, nickel, sulfur content. The site of pitting initiation was observed by optical microscope. As a result of electrochemical test, pitting resistance of weld metal was higher than base metal, and rapidly cooled weld metal has higher pitting potential than slowly cooled weld metal. In case of primary δ-ferrite solidification, pitting potential was increased, but residual δ-ferrite was detrimental to pitting resistance. Chromium was more effective to pitting resistance than nickel, and sulfur was very detrimental element to pitting resistance.
A Study of Estimation of the Arc Stability in Short-circuition Transfer Region of GMA Welding Using Multi-layer Perceptrons
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 17, issue 5, 1999, Pages 98~106
In GMAW, the spatters are generated according to the variation of the arc. Of the arc is stable, Few spatters are generated. But if unstable, too many spatters are generated. So, this means the spatters are dependent on the arc state. The aim of this study is to accurately estimate the arc state. To do this, the generated spatters were captured under the some welding conditions, and the waveforms of the arc voltage and welding current were collected. From the collected signals, the waveform factors and their standard deviations were extracted. Using these factors as input parameters of multi-layer artificial neural network, the learning for the weight of the generated spatters is performed and the estimation results to the real spatter are assessed. Obtained results are as follow: the linear correlation coefficient between the estimated result and the real spatters was 0.9986. And although the average convergence error was set 0.002, the estimated error to the real spatter was within 0.1 gr/min at each welding condition. In the estimation for the weight generated spatters, the result with multi-layer neural network was far better than with multiple regression analysis. Especially, even though under the welding condition which the arc state is unstable (the spatter is generated much more), very excellent estimation performance was shown.
A Study on the Formation of Functionally Composite Layer on Al Alloy Surface by Plasma Transferred Arc Overlaying Process
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 17, issue 5, 1999, Pages 107~115
The objective of this research was to study the formation of the thick hardened layer with the addition of metal powder(Cu) and ceramics powders(TiC) on the aluminum 5083 alloys by plasma transferred arc process(PTA process) and to characterize the effect of overlaying conditions on the overlaid layer formation. This was followed by investigating the microstructures of the overlaid layers and mechanical properties such as hardness and wear resistance. The overlaid layer containing copper powder was alloyed and intermetallic compound(
) was formed. The overlaid layers with high melting point TiC powders, however, did not react with base metal. Wear resistance of the alloyed layer was remarkably improved by the formation of
, precipitate phase, which prevented wear of base aluminum alloys and at higher wear speed, accelerated sliding of the counter part. Wear resistance of the composite layer was also remarkably improved because TiC powder act as a load barring element and Fe debris fragments detached from the counter part act as a solid lubricant on the contact surface.