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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Welding and Joining
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Welding and Joining Society
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 33, Issue 6 - Dec 2015
Volume 33, Issue 5 - Oct 2015
Volume 33, Issue 4 - Aug 2015
Volume 33, Issue 3 - Jun 2015
Volume 33, Issue 2 - Apr 2015
Volume 33, Issue 1 - Feb 2015
Selecting the target year
Recent R&D status on friction stir welding of Ti and its alloys
Kang, Duck-Soo ; Lee, Kwang-Jin ;
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 33, issue 2, 2015, Pages 1~7
DOI : 10.5781/JWJ.2015.33.2.1
This article describes the basic technical concepts for applying the friction stir welding (FSW) process to titanium and its alloys. Titanium and its alloys are demanding applications of FSW. During FSW, a protective atmosphere is needed at the welding region to prevent the joints from oxidation due to the absorption of interstitial elements (O, N, and H) at high temperature. The process parameters for FSW have great influence on the microstructure and properties of the joints. No phase transformation occurred in CP Ti because FSW was achieved below the
-transus temperature. Therefore, the mechanical properties of the joints with CP Ti were governed by recrystallization and grain refinement. Furthermore, the strong crystallographic texture indicating <0001>//ND formed in the stir zone. On the other hands, the phase transformation occurred in Ti-6Al-4V alloy because the process temperature reached above
-transus temperature. For this reason, the mechanical properties of the joints with Ti-6Al-4V alloy were altered by not only recry stallization and grain refinement but also phase transformation during FSW. Engineers who want to get sound FSW joints with Ti-6Al-4V alloy have to pay attention to the control about process conditions.
Evaluation of mechanical properties on friction stir lap jointed Al6061/HT590 alloys
Kim, Eun-Hye ; Lee, Kwang-Jin ; Song, Kuk-Hyun ;
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 33, issue 2, 2015, Pages 8~13
DOI : 10.5781/JWJ.2015.33.2.8
This study was carried out to evaluate mechanical properties of the jointed Al6061/HT590 alloys by friction stir welding (FSW). FSW was conducted under the conditions with tool rotating speed of 500 RPM and traveling speed of 300 mm/min., where Ar gas was introduced to prevent the materials from corrosion during the welding process. Electron back-scattering diffraction (EBSD) was used to characterize microstructures such as grain size, misorientation angle and crystal orientation. Evolution of intermetallic compounds in Al6061 during the process were examined in terms of morphology, size and aspect ratio at three distinct zones Al base material, heat affected zone and stir zone, where transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used. It was revealed that FSW gave rise to refinement of grains as well as growth of intermetallic compounds in Al6061. The morphological changes of intermetallic compounds exerted an influence on mechanical properties, resulting in occurrence of fracture in the part of the base material instead of the jointed parts (heat affected zone and stir zone). This study systematically evaluated the microstructural evolutions during the FSW for joining Al6061 with HT590 and their effect on mechanical properties.
Theoretical background discussion on variable polarity arc welding of aluminum
Cho, Jungho ; Lee, Jungjae ; Bae, Seunghwan ; Lee, Yongki ; Park, Kyungbae ; Kim, Yongjun ; Lee, Junkyung ;
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 33, issue 2, 2015, Pages 14~17
DOI : 10.5781/JWJ.2015.33.2.14
Cleaning effect is well known mechanism of oxide layer removal in DCEP polarity. It is also known that DCEN has higher heat input efficiency than DCEP in GTAW process. Based on these two renowned arc theories, conventional variable polarity arc for aluminum welding was set up to have minimum DCEP and maximum DCEN duty ratio to achieve the highest heat input efficiency and weldability increase. However, recent several variable polarity GTA research papers reported unexpected result of proportional relationship between DCEP duty ratio and heat input. The authors also observed the same result then suggested combination of tunneling effect and random walk of cathode spot to fill up the gap between experiment and conventional arc theory. In this research, suggested combinational work of tunneling effect and rapid cathode spot changing is applied to another unexpected phenomena of variable polarity aluminum arc welding. From previous research, it is reported that wider oxide removal range, narrower bead width and shallower penetration depth are observed in thin oxide layered aluminum compared to the case of thick oxide. This result was reported for the first time and it was hard to explain the reason at that time therefore the inference by the authors was hardly acceptable. However, the suggested combinational theory successfully explains the result of the previous report in logical way.
Evaluation and solution of noise making weldment in automotive body
Cho, Jungho ; Lee, Jungjae ; Bae, Seunghwan ; Lee, Yongki ; Park, Kyungbae ; Kim, Yongjun ; Moon, Semin ;
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 33, issue 2, 2015, Pages 18~22
DOI : 10.5781/JWJ.2015.33.2.18
The importance of emotional quality of car is getting higher in these days. Noise takes great portion in emotional quality because it is detectable problem with just a few rides. The sources of car noise during operation are various and the related technical issues are vast. Sometimes weldments of auto body are referred as the source of noise and the suspicious weldment shows unsatisfactory welding quality in most cases. In this research, cases of noise making weldments are investigated to figure out the solution for welding quality improvement. They are categorized into several groups in according to the inferred types of the error source then appropriate solutions are suggested. Auto body has weldments of resistance spot welding and gas metal arc welding in general. Therefore the solutions are suggested as adjustment of welding process variables and related machineries. Inevitable error source is also referred which is originated from thermal expansion rate difference between ultra high strength steel and mild steel. This new approach is validated through simple calculation then more concrete investigation with numerical analysis is remained as further works to be done.
Optimization of arc brazing process parameters for exhaust system parts using box-behnken design of experiment
Kim, Yong ; Park, Pyeong-Won ; Park, Ki-Young ; Ryu, Jin-Chul ;
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 33, issue 2, 2015, Pages 23~31
DOI : 10.5781/JWJ.2015.33.2.23
Stainless steel is used in automobile muffler and exhaust systems. However, in comparison with other steels it has a high thermal expansion rate and low thermal conductivity, and undergoes excessive thermal deformation after welding. To address this problem, we evaluated the use of arc brazing in place of welding for the processing of an exhaust system, and investigated the parameters that affect the joint characteristics. Muffler parts STS439 and hot-dipped Al coated steel were used as test specimens, and CuAl brazing wire was used as the filler metal for the cold metal transfer (CMT) welding machine, which is a low heat input arc welder. In addition, a Box-Behnken design of experiment was used, which is a response surface methodology. The main process parameters (current, speed, and torch angle) were used to determine the appropriate welding quality and the mechanical properties of the brazing part was evaluated at the optimal welding condition. The optimal processing condition for arc brazing was 135A current, 51cm/min speed and
torch angle. The process was applied to an actual exhaust system muffler and the prototype was validated by thermal fatigue, thermal shock, and endurance limit tests.
Numerical analysis on the welding residual stress and fracture toughness of the heavy thick steel welded joints by welding processes
Bang, HanSur ; Bang, HeeSeon ;
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 33, issue 2, 2015, Pages 32~39
DOI : 10.5781/JWJ.2015.33.2.32
This study examined the welding residual stress and fracture toughness of 78mm thick steel electro gas welding (EGW) and flux cored arc welding (FCAW) welded joints by numerical analyses of the thermal elasto-plastic behavior and fracture toughness(KIC). The residual stress, fracture toughness characteristics and production mechanism on the welded joints were clarified. Moreover, the effects of the welding process (EGW and FCAW) on the welding residual stresses and fracture toughness of welded joints were evaluated. The results showed that the new welding process (EGW) appears to be an effective substitute for the existing welding process (FCAW) in a thick steel plate with high strength.
The effect of ultrasonic nano crystal surface modification for mitigation of the residual stress after weld inlay on the alloy 82/182 dissimilar metal welds of reactor vessel in/outlet nozzles
Cho, Hong Seok ; Park, Ik Keun ; Jung, Kwang Woon ;
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 33, issue 2, 2015, Pages 40~46
DOI : 10.5781/JWJ.2015.33.2.40
This study was performed to investigate the effect of ultrasonic nano crystal surface modification (UNSM) on residual stress mitigation after Weld Inlay repair for butt dissimilar metal weld with Alloy 82/182 in reactor vessel In/Outlet nozzle. As-welded and Weld Inlay specimens were made in accordance with design standard of ASME Code Case N-766, and two planes of their weld specimens were peened by the optimum UNSM process condition. Peening characteristics for weld specimens after UNSM treatment were evaluated by surface roughness and Vickers hardness test. And, residual stress for weld specimens developed from before and after UNSM treatment was measured and evaluated by instrumented indentation technique. Consequently, it was revealed that the mitigation of residual stress in weld metal after Weld Inlay repair of reactor vessel In/Outlet nozzle could be possible through UNSM treatment.
A comparative study of constant current control and adaptive control on electrode life time for resistance spot welding of galvanized steels
Seo, Jeong-Chul ; Choi, Il-Dong ; Son, Hong-Rea ; Ji, Changwook ; Kim, Chiho ; Suh, Sung-Bu ; Seo, Jinseok ; Park, Yeong-Do ;
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 33, issue 2, 2015, Pages 47~55
DOI : 10.5781/JWJ.2015.33.2.47
With using adaptive control of the resistance spot welding machine, the advantage on electrode life time for galvanized steels has been addressed. This study was aimed to evaluate the electrode life time of galvanized steels with applying the constant current control and the adaptive control resistance spot welding process for a comparison purpose. The growth in diameter of electrode face was similar for both the constant current and the adaptive control up to 2000 welds. The button diameter was decreased with weld numbers, however, sudden increase in button diameter with use of the adaptive control after 1500 welds was observed. The peak load was continuously decreased with increasing number of welds for both the constant current and the adaptive control. The current compensation during a weld was observed with using the adaptive control after 1800 welds since the
-peak on dynamic resistance curve was detected at later weld time. The current compensation with adaptive control during resistance spot welding enhanced the nugget diameter at the faying interface of steel sheets and improved the penetration to thinner steel sheet.
Characterization of resistance spot welded Al5052/DP590 dissimilar materials and processing optimization
Jo, Beom-Ji ; Kim, Ji-Sun ; Yoo, Hyo-Sang ; Kim, In-Ju ; Lee, Seong-Hui ; Kim, Young-Gon ;
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 33, issue 2, 2015, Pages 56~61
DOI : 10.5781/JWJ.2015.33.2.56
IRW(Inverter Resistance Welding) process and DSW(Delta-spot welding) process for dissimilar materials of DP590 and Al5052 were performed to evaluate the welding quality and mechanical properties. IRW experiment was carried out with changing the welding current. The other welding parameters such as pressure force, weld time, squeezing time and holding time were fixed. On the anther hand, DSW experiment was performed using the process tape at welding current of 11.5kA. The other conditions were same as IRW conditions. The various testes such as shear tensile strength, nugget diameters, EDS, SEM and cross-sectional observation for weld zone was performed. As a result, IMC(Inter Metallic Compound) thickness at 11.5kA was thinner than those of 9.5kA and 10.5kA conditions. In addition, thined IMC layer was observed when high electric current apply to the materials(DP590 and Al5052) in a short time throught dissimilar resistance spot welding controling welding conditions. The relationship between the thickeness of IMC and current intensity was after discussed.
A study on reduction of pre-crack deviation in CTOD specimen using reverse bending method
Jeong, Sehwan ; Park, Dong-Hwan ; Kim, Hyeon-Su ; Shin, Sang-Beom ; Park, Tae-Jong ;
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 33, issue 2, 2015, Pages 62~68
DOI : 10.5781/JWJ.2015.33.2.62
This study investigates the appropriate range of reverse bending load for the CTOD test of thick weld by observing improvement of pre-crack shape and determination of the limit applicable load. In order to do it, the effect of the amount of the reverse bending load on the maximum deviation of the pre-crack length was investigated by the extensive tests, and the variation of plastic zone size in way of the crack tip under reverse bending load were evaluated by FEA. With the results obtained by the experiments and FEA, the proper range of reverse bending load was suggested. The effectiveness of the reverse bending method was verified by examining the pre-crack straightness after CTOD tests of thick weld specimens with various thickness and strength.
A study on tensile shear characteristics for weld-bonded 1.2GPa grade TRIP steels with changes in nugget diameter for automotive body application
Choi, Ildong ; Park, Jiyoun ; Kim, Jae-Won ; Kang, Mun-Jin ; Kim, Dong-Cheol ; Kim, Jun-Ki ; Park, Yeong-Do ;
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 33, issue 2, 2015, Pages 69~77
DOI : 10.5781/JWJ.2015.33.2.69
High strength steels have been continually being developed to improve in fuel economy in automotive and ensure safety of passengers. New bonding and welding methods have been required for improving weldability on high strength steels. In this study, resistance spot welding and Weld-bond with nugget diameters of 4.0mm, 5.0mm, 6.0mm and 7.0mm were produced and tested, respectively. In order to confirm the effect of nugget diameters on tensile shear characteristic of the Weld-bond, tensile shear characteristics of Weld-bond were compared with those of resistance spot welding and adhesive bonding. Peak load of Weld-bond were increased as the nugget diameter increases. After appearing maximum peak load continuous fracture followed with second peak owing to load being carried by resistance spot weldment. Fracture modes of the adhesive layer in Weld-bond fractures were represented by mixed fracture mode, which are cohesive failure on adhesive part and button failure at resistance spot welds. The results showed that the tensile shear properties can be improved by applying Weld-bond on TRIP steel, and more apparent with nugget diameter higher than 5
Finite element analysis for joining glass fiber reinforced plastic and aluminium alloy sheets
Cho, Hae-Yong ; Kim, Dongbum ;
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 33, issue 2, 2015, Pages 78~84
DOI : 10.5781/JWJ.2015.33.2.78
Self-piercing rivet(SPR) is mechanical joining methods and which can be joining dissimilar materials. Unlike conventional riveting, SPR also needs no pre-drilled holes. During plastically deformation, SPR pierces upper sheet and joins it to under sheet. SPR has been mainly applied to the joining the automobile body and some materials, such as glass fiber reinforced polymer and aluminum alloy, which represent the sheet-formed materials for lightweight automobile. Glass fiber reinforced plastic(GFRP) has been considered as a partial application of the automobile body which is lighter than steels and stronger than aluminium alloys. It is needed SPR to join Al alloy sheets and GFRP ones. In this paper, in order to design the rivet and anvil, which are suitable for GFRP, the joinability was examined through simulations of SPR joining between GFRP and Al alloy sheets. For this study, AutoCAD was used for the modeling and the simulated using commercial FEM code DEFORM-2D. The simulated results for SPR process joining between GFRP and Al alloys were confirmed by the same conditions as experimental trials.
The characteristics of bead welding on steel with process parameter during the laser-arc hybrid welding(I) - Effect of flow rate of shield gas and distance between laser and arc -
Kim, Jong-Do ; Myung, Gi-Hoon ; Song, Moo-Keun ; Oh, Jae-Hwan ; Suh, Jeong ;
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 33, issue 2, 2015, Pages 85~90
DOI : 10.5781/JWJ.2015.33.2.85
Recently many studies for improvement of productivity and automation of process are in progress, and among others, laser-arc hybrid welding that combined laser and arc has attracted much attention. Since parameters by interactions as well as the parameters of each heat source should be considered, There are a lot of hardship in actual application, even though many researches have been done so far. Therefore in this study, bead welding was done to examine the effects of the flow rate of shield gas and the distance between laser and arc during laser-arc hybrid welding. As for hybrid heat source, disk laser and MIG were used. As experiment result, sound bead and weld with no defect were formed when the flow rate of front and rear shield gas were respectively 20 l/min and 15 l/min, and deep penetration was done at DLA=3 mm.
The characteristics of bead welding on steel with process parameter during the laser-arc hybrid welding(II) - Effect of heat input parameters -
Kim, Jond-Do ; Myung, Gi-Hoon ; Park, In-Duck ;
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 33, issue 2, 2015, Pages 91~96
DOI : 10.5781/JWJ.2015.33.2.91
The laser-arc hybrid welding of SS400 steel was carried out with the use of disk laser equipment of 6.6kW maximum power and MAG equipment of pulse mode. Parameter regarding heat input is one of the most important factors that directly affect penetration characteristics and welding defect. Therefore in this study, the effects of laser power, welding speed and current, voltage and pulse correction were investigated. As experiment result, it was found that the lower heat input, the more likely humping bead is formed at the back, and such humping bead could be suppressed by increasing laser power and arc current or decreasing welding speed, thus increasing heat input. Also deep penetration could be achieved by reducing arc voltage or pulse correction parameter in the same welding condition.