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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Welding and Joining
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Welding and Joining Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 34, Issue 4 - Aug 2016
Volume 34, Issue 3 - Jun 2016
Volume 34, Issue 2 - Apr 2016
Volume 34, Issue 1 - Feb 2016
Selecting the target year
Development of Structural Steel and Trend of Welding Technology
Kim, Sung Jin ; Jeong, Hong Chul ;
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 34, issue 1, 2016, Pages 7~20
DOI : 10.5781/JWJ.2016.34.1.7
A brief overview is given of the development of various structural steels and their welding application technology. Firstly, the general characteristics and welding performance of structural steels used in architecture and bridge are introduced. For safety against earthquakes or strong wind, and for highly efficient welding in high-rise building constructions, ultra high strength steel with tensile strength over 800 MPa or high HAZ toughness steel plates under high heat input welding have been developed. In particular, efficient welding technology ensuring high resistance to cold and hot cracking of ultra high strength steel is reviewed in the present paper. Secondly, various coated steels used mainly for outer part in construction are briefly discussed. Moreover, a major drawback of coated steel during welding operation, and several solutions to overcome such technical problem are proposed. It is hoped that this review paper can lead to significant academic contributions and provide readers interested in the structural steels with useful welding technology.
Importance of Fundamental Manufacturing Technology in the Automotive Industry and the State of the Art Welding and Joining Technology
Chang, InSung ; Cho, YongJoon ; Park, HyunSung ; So, DeugYoung ;
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 34, issue 1, 2016, Pages 21~25
DOI : 10.5781/JWJ.2016.34.1.21
The automotive vehicle is made through the following processes such as press shop, welding shop, paint shop, and general assembly. Among them, the most important process to determine the quality of the car body is the welding process. Generally, more than 400 pressed panels are welded to make BIW (Body In White) by using the RSW (Resistance Spot Welding) and GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding). Recently, as the needs of light-weight material due to the
emission issue and fuel efficiency, new joining technologies for aluminum, CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic) and etc. are needed. Aluminum parts are assembled by the spot welding, clinching, and SPR (Self Piercing Rivet) and friction stir welding process. Structural adhesive boning is another main joining method for light-weight materials. For example, one piece aluminum shock absorber housing part is made by die casting process and is assembled with conventional steel part by SPR and adhesive bond. Another way to reduce the amount of the car body weight is to use AHSS (Advanced High Strength Steel) panel including hot stamping boron alloyed steel. As the new materials are introduced to car body joining, productivity and quality have become more critical. Productivity improvement technology and adaptive welding control are essential technology for the future manufacturing environment.
Lead-free Solder for Automotive Electronics and Reliability Evaluation of Solder Joint
Bang, Jung-Hwan ; Yu, Dong-Yurl ; Ko, Young-Ho ; Yoon, Jeong-Won ; Lee, Chang-Woo ;
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 34, issue 1, 2016, Pages 26~34
DOI : 10.5781/JWJ.2016.34.1.26
Automotive today has been transforming to an electronic product by adopting a lot of convenience and safety features, suggesting that joining materials and their mechanical reliabilities are getting more important. In this study, a Sn-Cu-Cr-Ca solder composition having a high melting temperature (
) was fabricated and its joint properties and reliability was investigated with an aim to evaluate the suitability as a joining material for electronics of engine room. Furthermore, mechanical properties change under complex environment were compared with several existing solder compositions. As a result of contact angle measurement, favorable spreadability of 84% was shown and the average shear strength manufactured with corresponding composition solder paste was
. Also, thermo-mechanical reliability by thermal shock and vibration test was compared with that of the representative high temperature solder materials such as Sn-3.5Ag, Sn-0.7Cu, and Sn-5.0Sb. In order to fabricate the test module, solder balls were made in joints with ENIG-finished BGA and then the BGA chip was reflowed on the OPS-finished PCB pattern. During the environmental tests, resistance change was continuously monitored and the joint strength was examined after tests. Sn-3.5Ag alloy exhibited the biggest degradation rate in resistance and shear stress and Sn-0.7Cu resulted in a relatively stable reliability against thermo-mechanical stress coming from thermal shock and vibration.
Recent Studies of Laser Metal 3D Deposition with Wire Feeding
Kam, Dong-Hyuck ; Kim, Young-Min ; Kim, Cheolhee ;
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 34, issue 1, 2016, Pages 35~40
DOI : 10.5781/JWJ.2016.34.1.35
Recent developments of Laser metal 3D deposition with wire feeding are reviewed which provide an alternative to powder feeding method. The wire feeding direction, angle and position as well as laser power, wire feeding rate, and deposition speed are found to be key parameters to make quality deposition with high throughput. When compared with the powder feed, the wire feed shows higher material efficiency, higher deposition rate, and smoother surface. Large elongated columnar grains which have epitaxial growth across deposit layers are observed in deposit cross sections. The growth direction is parallel to the thermal gradient during the deposit process. Tensile properties are found to be dependent on the direction due to the anisotropic deposit property. A real-time feedback control is demonstrated to be effective to improve the deposition stability.
A Study of Fatigue Crack Growth Behaviour for Ferrite-Bainite Dual Phase Steel
Kim, Deok-Geun ; Cho, Dong-Pil ; Oh, Dong-Jin ; Kim, Myung-Hyun ;
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 34, issue 1, 2016, Pages 41~46
DOI : 10.5781/JWJ.2016.34.1.41
With the recent increase in size of ships and offshore structures, there are more demand for thicker plates. As the thickness increases, it is known that fatigue life of the structures decrease. To improve the fatigue life, post weld treatments techniques, such as toe grinding, TIG dressing and hammer peening, are typically employed. However, these techniques require additional construction time and production cost. Therefore, it is of crucial interest steels with longer fatigue crack growth life compared to conventional steels. This study investigates fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) behaviours of conventional EH36 steel and Ferrite-Bainite dual phase EH36 steel (F-B steel). F-B steel is known to have improved fatigue performance associated with the existence of two different phases. Ferrite-Bainite dual phase microstructures are obtained by special thermo mechanical control process (TMCP). FCGR behaviours are investigated by a series of constant stress-controlled FCGR tests. Considering all test conditions (ambient, low temperature, high stress ratio), it is shown that FCGR of F-B steel is slower than that of conventional EH36 steel. From the tensile tests and impact tests, F-B steel exhibits higher values of strength and impact energy leading to slower FCGR.
A Study on Developing Database System for Management of WPS/PQR in Shipyard
Park, Ju-Yong ; Kong, Ji-Hye ; Park, Se-Jin ; Nam, Sung-Gil ;
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 34, issue 1, 2016, Pages 47~53
DOI : 10.5781/JWJ.2016.34.1.47
WPS/PQR is the essential documents for shipbuilding welding. WPS is the document containing the information related to welding procedure and PQR is the record of approval for welding procedure. Both documents should be approved by the ship owners and the classification societies. It is very important to manage these documents because the welding procedure using these documents could not be carried out before they are approved. Database is an useful tool to manage these documents. It can manage a number of documents and show the processing status of WPS/PQR documents. In this study, all documents related to WPS/PQR documents were investigated and analyzed in the viewpoint of DB. An appropriate DB system was designed for WPS/PQR and the related documents on the basis of CBD methodology. The DB system could make WPS/PQR documents easily and shortly. The grasp of the processing status of WPS/ PQR could help the good management of fabrication schedule in shipbuilding.
Bead Visualization Using Spline Algorithm
Koo, Chang-Dae ; Yang, Hyeong-Seok ; Kim, Maeng-Nam ;
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 34, issue 1, 2016, Pages 54~58
DOI : 10.5781/JWJ.2016.34.1.54
In this research paper, suggest method of generate same bead as an actual measurement data in virtual welding conditions, exploit morphology information of the bead that acquired through robot welding. It has many multiple risk factors to Beginners welding training, by we make possible to train welding in virtual reality, we can reduce welding training risk and welding material to exploit bead visualization algorithm that we suggest so it will be expected to achieve educational, environmental and economical effect. The proposed method is acquire data to each case performing robot welding by set the voltage, current, working angle, process angle, speed and arc length of welding condition value. As Welding condition value is most important thing in decide bead form, we would selected one of baseline each item and then acquired metal followed another factors change. Welding type is FCAW, SMAW and TIG. When welding trainee perform the training, it`s difficult to save all of changed information into database likewise working angle, process angle, speed and arc length. So not saving data into database are applying the method to infer the form of bead using a neural network algorithm. The way of bead`s visualization is applying the spline algorithm. To accurately represent Morphological information of the bead, requires much of morphological information, so it can occur problem to save into database that is why we using the spline algorithm. By applying the spline algorithm, it can make simplified data and generate accurate bead shape. Through the research paper, the shape of bead generated by the virtual reality was able to improve the accuracy when compared using the form of bead generated by the robot welding to using the morphological information of the bead generated through the robot welding. By express the accurate shape of bead and so can reduce the difference of the actual welding training and virtual welding, it was confirmed that it can be performed safety and high effective virtual welding education.
A Study on Tensile Shear Characteristics of Dissimilar Joining Between Pre-coated Automotive Metal Sheets and Galvanized Steels with the Self-Piercing Rivet and Hybrid Joining
Bae, Jin-Hee ; Kim, Jae-Won ; Choi, Ildong ; Nam, Dae-Geun ; Kim, Jun-Ki ; Park, Yeong-Do ;
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 34, issue 1, 2016, Pages 59~67
DOI : 10.5781/JWJ.2016.34.1.59
The automotive manufactures increase their use of lightweight materials to improve fuel economy and energy usage has a significant influence on the choice of developing materials. To meet this requirements manufacturers are replacing individual body parts with lightweight metals, for these the process treating and painting surfaces is changing. The pre-coated steels are newly developed to avoid the conventional complex and non-environmental painting process in the body-in-white car manufacturing. The development of new joining techniques is critically needed for pre-coated steel sheets, which are electrically non-conductive materials. In the present study, dissimilar combination of pre-coated steel and galvanized steel sheets were joined by the self-piercing rivet, adhesive bonding and hybrid joining techniques. The tensile shear test and free falling high speed crash test were conducted to evaluate the mechanical properties of the joints. The highest tensile peak load with large deformation was observed for the hybrid joining process which has attained 48% higher than the self-piercing rivet. Moreover, the hybrid and adhesive joints were observed better strain energy compared to self-piercing rivet. The fractography analyses were revealed that the mixed mode of cohesive and interfacial fracture for both the hybrid and adhesive bonding joints.
A Study on Productivity Improvement in Narrow Gap TIG Welding
Jun, Jae-Ho ; Kim, Sung-Ryul ; Cho, Sang-Myung ;
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 34, issue 1, 2016, Pages 68~74
DOI : 10.5781/JWJ.2016.34.1.68
Adoption of narrow gap welding shall be increased for the butt joint of thick plate, because the deformation and welding cost is reduced by decrease of cross-sectional area. However, sometimes narrow gap causes defects such as lack of fusion since it has small groove angle and narrow groove width. Therefore, GMAW, GTAW and SAW process shall be adopted to narrow gap welding with small bead hight and low deposition rate. In this study, Super-TIG welding using C-type strip was applied to semi-narrow gap butt joint in order to increase the welding productivity. High deposition rate 10kg/hr was obtained by high current 600A without undercut, humping bead and other welding defects. Measuring the mean and standard deviation of the melting depth to evaluate the developed processes, the fusion line type was determined by measuring the difference between maximum and minium melting depth. Furthermore, a model on arch fusion line and linear fusion line was suggested in order to prevent LF on groove wall in narrow gap butt welding.
Microstructure and Hardness of Surface Melting Hardened Zone of Mold Steel, SM45C using Yb:YAG Disk Laser
Lee, Kwang-Hyeon ; Choi, Seong-Won ; Yoon, Tae-Jin ; Kang, Chung-Yun ;
Journal of Welding and Joining, volume 34, issue 1, 2016, Pages 75~81
DOI : 10.5781/JWJ.2016.34.1.75
This study applied laser surface melting process using CW(Continuous wave) Yb:YAG laser and cold-work die steel SM45C and investigated microstructure and hardness. Laser beam speed, power and beam interval are fixed at 70 mm/sec, 2.8 kW and
respectively. Depth of Hardening layer(Melting zone) was a minimum of 0.8 mm and a maximum of 1.0 mm that exceeds the limit of minimum depth 0.5 mm applying trimming die. In all weld zone, macrostructure was dendrite structure. At the dendrite boundary, Mn, Al, S and O was segregated and MnS and Al oxide existed. However, this inclusion didn`t observe in the heat-affected zone (HAZ). As a result of interpreting phase transformation of binary diagram, MnS crystallizes from liquid. Also, it estimated that Al oxide forms by reacting with oxygen in the atmosphere. The hardness of the melting zone was from 650 Hv to 660 Hv regardless of the location that higher 60 Hv than the hardness of the HAZ that had maximum 600 Hv. In comparison with the size of microstructure using electron backscatter diffraction(EBSD), the size of microstructure in the melting zone was smaller than HAZ. Because it estimated that cooling rate of laser surface melting process is faster than water quenching.