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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 44, Issue 6 - Dec 2002
Volume 44, Issue 5 - Oct 2002
Volume 44, Issue 4 - Aug 2002
Volume 44, Issue 3 - Jun 2002
Volume 44, Issue 2 - Apr 2002
Volume 44, Issue 1 - Feb 2002
Selecting the target year
Multi-breed Genetic Evaluation for Swine in Korea
Do, C.H. ; Park, H.Y. ; Hyun, J.Y. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 4, 2002, Pages 377~382
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2002.44.4.377
This study was carried out for the simultaneous genetic evaluation of swine breeds from the seedstock farms in Korea. The performance tested production records of 96,842 heads and the litter records of 90,396 litters from 1995 to 2001 were analyzed to estimate the breeding values and the breed effects of days to 90kg, daily gain, back fat thickness, loin muscle area, lean meat percent, total litter size and number born alive from Landrace, Yorkshire and Duroc. Estimated breed effects of traits had shown the characteristics of the breeds. Landrace was superior in back fat thickness and lean meat percent to other breeds. Yorkshire had shown good performance in lean meat percent, loin muscle area, total litter size and number born alive. Duroc was superior to the other breeds in days to 90kg and daily gain. Conclusively, the multi-breed genetic evaluation would result in higher connectedness and provide convenience for the routine genetic evaluation process of swine performance and reproduction test.
Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Carcass Traits in Hanwoo Steer
Yoon, H.B. ; Kim, S.D. ; Na, S.H. ; Chang, U.M. ; Lee, H.K. ; Jeon, G.J. ; Lee, D.H. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 4, 2002, Pages 383~390
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2002.44.4.383
The data were consisted of 1,262 records for carcass traits observed at Hanwoo steers from 1998 to 2001 at Namwon and Deakwanryung branch of National Livestock Research Institute, Rural Development Administration. Pedigrees of young bulls were traced back to search for magnifying inbreeding. Genetic parameters for carcass traits with Gibbs sampling in a threshold animal model were compared to estimates with REML algorithm in linear model. As the results, most of bulls were not inbred and sire pedigree group was non-inbred population. However, most of the bulls fell in some relationship with each other. Heritability estimates as fully posterior means by Gibbs samplers in threshold model were higher than those by REML in linear model. Furthermore, these estimates in threshold model using GS showed higher estimates than estimates using tested young bulls in previous study and same model. Heritability estimate by GS for marbling score was 0.74 and genetic correlation estimate between marbling score and body weight at slaughter was –0.44. Further study for correlation of breeding values between REML algorithm in linear model and Gibbs sampling algorithm in threshold model was needed.
Polymorphisms of the Exons 13, 15 and 16 of Transferrin Gene in Cheju Horses
Kim, N.Y. ; Lee, S.S. ; Yang, Y.H. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 4, 2002, Pages 391~398
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2002.44.4.391
This study was conducted to determine the polymorphism of transferrin exons 13, 15 and 16 by Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism(SSCP) analysis and to compare their genotypes of Cheju horse Group I (Cheju Institute), Cheju horse Group II (farms), and Thoroughbred (KRA). SSCP of transferrin exon 13, 15, and 16 showed two (A, B), three (A, B, C) and three (A, B, C) codominant alleles, respectively. The Group I and Thoroughbred showed the similar frequencies of allele A and B in transferrin exon 13, but only allele A was observed in Group Ⅱ. In transferrin exons 15 and 16, the frequencies of each allele were different in each Groups. The multiple allele frequencies in exons 15 and 16 suggested that the genotyping of this locus could be used to identify an individual and to test the parentage of offspring. The probability for parentage exclusion were 0.46 and 0.374 for exons 15 and 16 for Cheju horse Group I. Among the 13 combined genotypes of exons 13, 15 and 16, the genotype AA-AB-AB (0.372) is the most common in Cheju horse Group I, but genotype AA-AA-AA is common in the Cheju horse Group II (0.366) and Thoroughbred (0.767). The present study showed two new SNP, which was at the cDNA position 1626 (A/G) in B allele of the exon 13 and 2075 (C/T) in C allele of the exon 16 resulting in amino acid change (Threonine
Methionine). Result showed that polymorphism of exons 13, 15 and 16 in Cheju horses was as high as in Thoroughbred and there was a differences of transferrin allele frequencies in Cheju horses.
Effects of Cu and Zn-Methionine Chelates Supplementation on the Performance of Broiler Chickens
Hong, S.J. ; Lim, H.S. ; Paik, I.K. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 4, 2002, Pages 399~406
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2002.44.4.399
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of supplemental copper or/and zinc methionine chelates(Cu-Met or/and Zn-Met) on the performance, nutrient digestibility, serum IgG level, gizzard erosion, and the contents of Cu and Zn in liver and excreta of broiler chickens. One thousand d-old broiler chickens (Ross
) were assigned to 4 treatments: control, 100 ppm Cu in methionine chelate(Cu-Met), 100 ppm Zn in methionine chelate(Zn-Met) and 100 ppm Cu plus 100 ppm Zn in methionine chelate(Cu-Zn-Met). Each treatment had five replications of 50 (25 male + 25 female) birds each. Average weight gains of chicks fed chelated Cu or/and Zn were significantly higher than that of chicks fed the control (P<0.05). Moreover, feed conversion rates of chicks were better in the chicks fed chelated Cu or/and Zn than in the chicks fed the control (P<0.05). The birds fed the chelated Cu and Zn(Cu-Zn-Met) tended to perform the best growth rate and feed conversion rate. Nutrient digestibilities were not affected by the dietary treatments. Serum IgG level of chicks fed Cu-Zn-Met was significantly higher than that of chicks fed the control (P<0.05). Gizzard erosion index was not significantly different among the treatments. The contents of Cu and Zn in liver were not significantly affected by the dietary treatments. The excreta contents of Cu or/and Zn were significantly high in the birds fed supplementary Cu or/and Zn. It was concluded that dietary supplementation of Cu or/and Zn in methionine chelated form improved growth and feed conversion efficiency of broilers.
Utilization of Plant Phytase to Improve Phosphorous Availability for Broiler
Kim, B.H. ; Namkung, H. ; Paik, I.K. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 4, 2002, Pages 407~418
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2002.44.4.407
This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of wheat and wheat bran as the source of phytase in a 5 week broiler feeding trial. One thousand day-old broiler chickens(Ross
) were divided into 20 pens of 50 broilers(25 male and 25 female) each. Four pens were randomly arranged to one of the five dietary treatments: T1, control diet containing normal nonphytate P(NPP) ; T2, T1 － 0.1% NPP; T3, T2 ＋ 600IU microbial phytase(NOVO
) per kg diet; T4, T2 ＋ 600IU plant phytase from wheat and wheat bran; T5, T2 ＋ 600IU plant phytase from wheat and hydrothermally treated wheat bran. Reduction of NPP level by 0.1%(T2) reduced weight gain and feed intake but plant phytase treatments(T4 and T5) recovered the lost performance. Plant phytase treatments showed better (p<0.05) weight gain and intake than the microbial phytase treatment(T3). There was no difference between regular wheat bran treatment(T4) and hydrothermally treated wheat bran treatment(T5). Mortality was the highest by low NPP diet(T2). Availability of ether extract and crude ash of grower diet was the highest(p<0.05) in normal wheat bran diet(T4). Availability of Ca and P of grower diet was the highest(p<0.05) in T4 followed by T3 and T5. Availability of Mg, Fe and Zn was drastically improved by phytase treatments(T3, T4 and T5). Excretion of Ca, P, Mg, Fe and Zn was the lowest(p<0.05) with microbial phytase treatment(T3). Serum level of Ca and Mg was the highest(p<0.05) with the low NPP treatment(T2). Tibial ash content of T2 and T3 was lower(p<0.05) than that of T1, T4 and T5. However, tibial Ca content was higher(p<0.05) in T1 and T2 than other treatments. Tibial P and Mg contents were the highest(p<0.05) in T1. It was concluded that plant phytase from wheat bran can be effectively used to improve P utilization. Hydrothermal treatment of wheat bran prior to inclusion in the diet had no beneficial effects.
Effects of Chromium Picolinate on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Plasma Components in Holstein Bulls
Hong, Z.S. ; Jin, M.G. ; Jin, R.H. ; Han, S.Y. ; Lee, H.G. ; Lee, H.J. ; Choi, Y.J. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 4, 2002, Pages 419~426
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2002.44.4.419
We conducted two experiments to evaluate the effects of chromium picolinate(CrP) on growth performance, carcass characteristics and plasma components in Holstein bulls. In trial Ⅰ, eight finishing Holstein bulls(300
6.99Kg) were allocated to 2 treatments(control and 0.05% CrP) with 4 replication for 10-months. In results, growth performance was not affected by CrP addition. The plasma insulin concentration in 0.05% CrP group was about 2 times higher than the control group of Holstein bulls. The levels of plasma NEFA were significantly decreased to 59.00 mEq/dl with 0.05% CrP treatment(P<0.05), but the levels of plasma glucose and PUN were not altered by 0.05% CrP treatment. The grade of carcass was not different between control and 0.05% CrP group, but back fat thickness in 0.05% CrP group was increased in 22.33% compared with control group. In trial 2, fifteen growing- finishing Holstein bulls(160
4.63Kg) were allocated to 3 treatments(control, 0.025% CrP and 0.05% CrP) with 5 replication for 14-months. During the overall experimental period, growth performance was not affected by CrP levels. The levels of hormone and metabolites were not affected by CrP supplementa- tion. The carcass characteristics were not different between control and treatment. These results show that the CrP may have no effects for beef cattle production because of degradation of CrP conjugation in the rumen. However treatment of short term provide a possibility the effects of development for lipogenesis.
Bilolgical Activities of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) and Animal Products
Hur, S.J. ; Lee, J.I. ; Ha, Y.L. ; Park, G.B. ; Joo, S.T. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 4, 2002, Pages 427~442
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2002.44.4.427
Conjugated linoleic acid(CLA) is a collective term for a group of positional (c8, c10; c9, c11; c10, c12, and c11, c13) and geometric(cis,cis; cis,trans; trans,cis; and trans,trans) isomers of octadecadienoic acid (linoleic acid) with conjugated double bond system. CLA has been shown to have a variety of biological effects. Major effects of CLA on health, such as anti-cancer, anti-oxidation, anti-atherosclerosis and improving immuno-responses, might be derived or partially derived from the alternated lipid metabolism after CLA feeding. Most of studies on the effect of CLA on fat metabolism are concentrated on rats, mice, pigs and other mammals. The CLA inhibited carcinogen-induced neoplasia in several animal models and inhibited the proliferation of human malignant melanoma, colorectal and breast cancer cells and CLA reduced the atherosclerosis. Several studies have determined the antioxidant property of CLA; however, the property still remains controversial. Some of the studies have shown that CLA acted as an antioxidant, whereas some other studies have demonstrated that CLA might be a prooxidant. Several studies suggested that CLA could reduce fat accumulation in mammals. CLA was suggested to promote muscle growth and reduce fat deposition in mouse, and improve feed efficiency in rats. CLA has been shown to inhibit the activity of stearoyl-CoA reductase. CLA also reduced the content of arachidonic acid. Since arachidonic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexenoic acid (DHA) are synthesized by different pathways, reducing the synthesis of arachidonic acid may not mean reducing that of EPA and DHA. Many sutdies have been shown biological effects of CLA. Therefore, further research is needed to answer the following questions: 1) how to synthesize the new CLA by new methods, 2) why CLA has shown biological effects, 3) how to increase CLA effects in animal products.
Effect of Organic Acid on Value of VBN, TBARS, Color and Sensory Property of Pork Meat
Kang, S.N. ; Jang, A. ; Lee, S.O. ; Min, J.S. ; Lee, M. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 4, 2002, Pages 443~452
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2002.44.4.443
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of concentration(0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2%)of lactic, citric and acetic acid on chemical and sensory characteristics of fresh pork loins. The pork loins were sprayed with organic acid by a hand sprayer for 15 sec at 30
, packaged under air and stored for 14 days at 4
and then during the storage time analyzed for VBN, TBARS, color and sensory property. All treated loins showed lower(p<0.05) VBN and TBARS values than the control's. Two percents of organic acid was the most efficient than the rest of treatments(p<0.05). All of pork loins that were sprayed with organic acids had higher CIE L*value(p<0.05) during storage. However, on 14th day, L* value of meat treated with lactic and acetic acid in 1.5 and 2% concentrations was not different from that of initial fresh loins(0 days). According to the results of sensory test, lactic acid, citric acid and acetic acid did not affected bloody and off-flavor of the meat for one day at 4
. While the acetic acid spraying resulted in the strong sour flavor of meat after one day.
Studies on Rapid Microbiological Testing Method of Fresh Pork by Applied Resazurin Reduction Test(RRT) Method
Lim, S.D. ; Kim, K.S. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 4, 2002, Pages 453~458
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2002.44.4.453
In order to search for reliable rapid methods of estimating bacterial counts in pork, this study was tried to measure resazurin reduction time which is simple in experimental method, low in analytical cost, able to estimate bacterial count within short time. The results were summarized as follows; Correlation coefficient between initial bacterial log count(25
/72hr, Y) and resazurin reduction time(X) from blue color to pink color during incubation at 25
was higher than other conditions as -0.95 and -0.94, respectively. Considering correlation coefficient and reduction time, incubation temperature was compatible at 30
, and regression equation(RE) was Y = -0.4386X + 7.7870. At a bacterial load of
in pork, reduction time was 13.2hr, 10.9hr and 8.6hr, respectively. Correlation coefficient between initial bacterial log count(30
/72hr, Y) and resazurin reduction time(X) from blue color to pink color during incubation at 30
was highest among other conditions as -0.93, and RE was Y = -0.4171X + 7.5540. At a bacterial load of
in pork, reduction time was 13.3hr, 10.9hr and 8.5hr, respectively. Correlation coefficient between initial bacterial log count(35
/72hr, Y) and resazurin reduction time(X) from blue color to pink color during incubation at 30
was highest among other conditions as -0.93, and RE was Y = -0.3514X + 6.7513. At a bacterial load of
in pork, reduction time was 13.5hr, 10.7hr and 7.8hr, respectively.
Estimation of Evaporation Rate of Swine Slurry Using the Natural Evaporation System(NES) in summer
Kim, K.Y. ; Choi, H.L. ; Kim, J.G. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 4, 2002, Pages 459~474
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2002.44.4.459
The purpose of this study was to establish the optimal operation condition of the natural evaporation system(NES) which was used for reducing swine slurry. Especially the main point of this study is to estimate the effect of climate condition(clear & rainy) and spray type(batch & flow) for the evaporation rate of swine slurry applying the NES in summer. Experiment was performed from June to August, which was generally regarded as summer in Korea, with the spray type of batch in 2000 and that of flow in 2001. As a result of experiment for batch and flow type, the averaged evaporation rate was measured into 2.71 and 3.59 l/ton .
. day on clear days and 0.62 and 0.66 l/ton .
. day on raint days, respectively. Based on the calculated evaporation rate by the climate condition and the spray type, it was proved that the averaged reduction rate for total input(1t/day) were 15.99% and 3.19% on clear and rainy days and the evaporation rate of the flow type was superior to that of the batch type by 5%, approximately. Therefore, it was concluded that the supplementary equipment, such as fan, should by operated in rainy days and the spray type of flow rather than that of batch should be recommended to increase the evaporation rate in the natural evaporation system(NES).
Environmental Efficiency Analysis of an Enclosed Experimental Broiler House
Hwangbo, J. ; Song, J.I. ; Cho, S.B. ; Chung, K.H. ; Lee, B.S. ; Nam, B.S. ; Chung, C.S. ; Chung, I.B. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 4, 2002, Pages 475~482
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2002.44.4.475
The experiment was conducted to evaluate a ventilation system, which was devised to encourage farmers to use the enclosed poultry housing system. The study was observed in the National Livestock Research Institute from May 9 to May 30 in 2002. The main results of the experiment are as follows: 1. Although the outside temperature of the enclosed poultry house was 9.6
variation, the house with an excellent heat insulation was maintained at 32
in a variation of 2
which is within the range of the optimal temperature for broiler, being aided with two small electric heaters. 2. The average of air flow rates of the upper, middle and low parts of the room in the broiler house were detected at 0.57, 0.22 and 0.04 m/sec, respectively. The air flow in the whole room was distibuted uniformly by a perforated duct. In conclusion, heat and humidity could be controlled without any problem in this enclosed housing system. Especially, air flow in all parts of the room was detected in uniform rates, resulting in the better ventilation performance with air inhalation through the duct and air exhaust through the side walls of the house.
Antihypertensive Effects of Casein Hydrolysate in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats
Kim, H.S. ; In, Y.M. ; Jeong, S.G. ; Ham, J.S. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 4, 2002, Pages 483~490
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2002.44.4.483
The aim of this study was to determine if a low-molecular weight casein hydrolysate has an anti- hypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Prior to the in vivo experiment, the casein hydrolysate was confirmed to be resistant to gastrointestinal digestion by confirming the retention of its potency as an inhibitor of angiotensin I-concerting enzyme after incubation with pepsin, trypsin, or chymotrypsin. The in vivo anti-hypertensive effect of the hydrolysate was determined by the tail cuff method. Following an oral administration of the hydrolysate solution, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) decreased by 12.9% (－28.9mmHg; P<0.05) at 3 h after the administration at a dose of 500mg/kg body weight. When the hydrolysate was administered as an emulsion with 30% egg yolk, its anti-hypertensive effect was even more greater at the same dose(－30.8mmHg or －15.9%; P<0.01). In a 50-day long-term trial where the casein hydrolysate was administered once a day, the SBP-lowering effect of the hydrolysate was apparent (P<0.05) from day 35 through the end. Moreover, organ weights and plasma glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase activities of the administered SHR were not significantly different from those of controls at the end of the long-term trial.
A Study on Growth Inhibition of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium by Lactic Acid Bacteria
Kim, E.A. ; Baick, S.C. ; Chung, W.H. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 4, 2002, Pages 491~498
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2002.44.4.491
The inhibitory effect of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria on the growth of typical intestinal pathogens, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium was studied. The degree of inhibition was measured by well disc assay and turbidimetry method. The strains which showed the higher antimicrobial activity were L. acidophilus La-5, L. acidophilus NCFM, L. casei Lc-01 on the average by using two different methods. The associative cultures were performed with selected 3 lactobacilli and 2 enteropathogens E. coli and S. typhimurium, respectively. Inhibition of pathogen began at 9hr after culturing so that viable counts was decreased rapidly. After 30hr incubation, there were no viable pathogens from the mixed culture. Under this experimental condition, the antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria was not due to pH alone and supposed to different to the strains.