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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 44, Issue 6 - Dec 2002
Volume 44, Issue 5 - Oct 2002
Volume 44, Issue 4 - Aug 2002
Volume 44, Issue 3 - Jun 2002
Volume 44, Issue 2 - Apr 2002
Volume 44, Issue 1 - Feb 2002
Selecting the target year
A Study on the Body Type of Hanwoo(Korean Cattle) Steer by Using Principal Components Analysis
Ha, D.W. ; Kim, H.C. ; Kim, B.W. ; Lee, M.Y. ; Lee, J.H. ; Shin, C.K. ; Do, C.H. ; Lee, J.G. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 6, 2002, Pages 643~652
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2002.44.6.643
Data were consisted of the ten body measurements (withers height, rump height, body length, chest depth, chest width, rump width, rump length, thurls width, hipbone width and chest girth) of 642 steers (Korean cattle), which was entered in the National Beef Quality Contest hosted by the Korea Animal Improvement Association from 1997 to 2001. A principal components analysis was used to classify the body types of the steers, and estimate the correlations between carcass traits and principal components for the body measurements of the first, second, third and fourth period, respectively. The first principal component of body measurements at the first, second, third and fourth period accounted for 76.0%, 83.0%, 72.7% and 57.4% of the total variance, respectively. The sum of first, second and third principal component at each period accounted for 86.69%, 90.49%, 84.62% and 77.26% of the total variance, respectively. At each period, all the first principal component of the body measurements were positive and it generally showed large framed body shape. The size of body was influenced mostly by chest depth(0.328
0.339) and rump length(0.325
0.341). The second, third and fourth principal component at the each period were various. There were positive correlations between principal components index of each period and carcass traits such as carcass weight(0.539
0.755), average daily gain(0.256
0.564), backfat thickness(0.227
0.280), and eye muscle area(0.187
0.344). The correlation with yield grade index(－0.246
－0.110), however, was negative. The correlation with marbling score(0.066
0.099) was low or statistically insignificant. According to principal component indexes of the second, third, and fourth components, the correlations with the carcass traits were various. There were no large differences between the correlations of the single body measurement trait with the carcass traits and the correlations of the first principal component indexes with the carcass traits.
A Study on DNA Polymorphism of the Bovine c-KIT Receptor Gene
Jang, Y.S. ; Kim, T.H. ; Yoon, D.H. ; Park, E.W. ; Lee, H.W. ; Lee, H.K. ; Cheong, I.C. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 6, 2002, Pages 653~660
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2002.44.6.653
We considered KIT gene as a candidate gene for the white-spotting pattern in cattle. This study was carried out to detect genetic variation of c-KIT receptor gene and to investigate association between the mutation and the white-spotting pattern in cattle. PCR-RFLP analysis within intron 6 of c-KIT receptor gene were performed with 8 cattle breeds including Hanwoo, Angus, Brown Swiss, Charolais, Hereford, Holstein, Limousin and Simmental. When PCR product of approximately 2,440 bp including intron 6 of c-KIT receptor gene was sequenced, four nucleotide substitutions were found within intron 6 of the bovine c-KIT receptor gene. In PCR-RFLP analysis, three alleles (A, B and C), two alleles (A and B) and two alleles (A and B) at each locus were identified by MspⅠ, BsrBⅠ and NdeⅠ, respectively. Although frequencies of allele at each locus were different among cattle breeds, we could not get any evidence related with white or white spotting phenotypes in these mutations on intron 6 of c-KIT receptor gene. However, we can not entirely exclude the possibility that c-KIT receptor gene is responsible for white spotting phenotype in cattle. Thus, further studies need to detect other mutations in c-KIT receptor gene and to test association of those mutations and coat color phenotypes in cattle.
Influences of Calving Year, Calving Season and Parity on the Lactation Curve of Korean Cattle
Hwang, J.M. ; Choi, J.K. ; Jeon, K.J. ; Na, K.J. ; Yuh, I.S. ; Yang, B.K. ; Lee, C. ; Kim, J.B. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 6, 2002, Pages 661~668
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2002.44.6.661
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of environmental factor on milk yield and to estimate lactation curve in Korean cattle. The data for milk yields were collected from 118 cows from 1997 to 2000 at National Livestock Research Institute in Daekwanryoung, Kangwon-do. Average daily milk yields for 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th month after calving were 3.74kg, 3.64kg, 3.26kg and 2.99kg. Average daily milk yield for the four months was 3.52kg. The milk yields for cows calved in spring were larger than those calved in fall. Lactation curve of Korean cattle was
. Peak milk yield was 3.75kg on 29.03 day after calving. The peak milk yields for multi-parous cows were larger than those of primiparous cows. The peak milk yields for multi-parous cows reached later than those for primiparous cows. The cows calved in spring had higher and earlier peak milk yields than those calved in fall had.
Efficiency of Marker Assisted Selection(MAS) over The Phenotypic Selection for Economic Traits in Economic Animals
Jeon, Gwang-Joo ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 6, 2002, Pages 669~676
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2002.44.6.669
The efficiency of marker assisted selection(MAS) over conventional selection index based sorely on phenotypic records was studied by deterministic simulation model. Parameter combination of heritability and amount of genetic variation due to the markers included in the index was employed. For the index with own phenotypic information vs. the index with own phenotypic plus marker information, the relative efficiency of MAS over the selection with phenotypic records was about 38% high when heritability was low(0.05). However, when heritability was high(50%), the relative efficiency of MAS was vary low and almost negligible. For more practical situation of selection index which included information on own, sire and dam, MAS was less effective than when selection criteria was only on own performance.
Expression Patterns of the Differentially Expressed Genes During Growth Stages of Hanwoo(Korean Cattle)
Jang, Y.S. ; Yoon, D.H. ; Kim, T.H. ; Cheong, I.C. ; Jo, J.K. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 6, 2002, Pages 677~684
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2002.44.6.677
We have investigated the expression patterns of candidates for growth stage specifically expressed genes. The expression patterns of the EPV20, aldolase A, Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP) and Adipocyte Differentiation Related Protein (ADRP) were examined by semiquantitative RT-PCR and northern blot analysis in skeletal muscle tissues of Hanwoo, especially in the longissimus dorsi at various growth stages. The EPV20 mRNA was expressed in longissimus dorsi tissue of Hanwoo, but there was no difference of expression levels during growth stages. Though the aldolase A gene was reported to be muscle-specific and regulated at developmental stages, the expression levels of aldolase A mRNA in the longissimus dorsi tissues showed little differences at various growth stages. The expression levels of TCTP which was reported as growth-related protein regulated at translation step were gradually increased during growth of Hanwoo. The expression levels of ADRP mRNA were rapidly increased at 24-month-old longissimus dorsi tissue of Hanwoo, and decreased at 30-month-old. Our data suggest that the ADRP gene show as growth-stage dependent expression and is related to fat deposition within muscular tissue.
Estimation of Genetic Correlations for the Growth and Carcass Traits in Hanwoo
Park, C.J. ; Park, Y.I. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 6, 2002, Pages 685~692
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2002.44.6.685
This study was carried out to estimate the genetic correlations for the carcass and growth traits of Hanwoo bulls measured at 12 and 18 months of age on the basis of the data form 1,823 heads of Hanwoo bulls raised at the Livestock Improvement Main Center from 1991 to 1998. Genetic correlations were estimated with multiple trait animal model using MTDFREML. The genetic correlations of the body weight at 12 months with average daily gain during 6
12 months and with the body length were 0.76 and 0.79, respectively. The genetic correlations of the body weight at 18 months with average daily gain during 6
18 months and with the body length were 0.86 and 0.82, respectively. The genetic correlations of the carcass weight with dressing percent, eye muscle area, backfat thickness and carcass length were 0.39, 0.37, 0.44 and 0.63, respectively. And estimate of 0.36 was obtained for the genetic correlation between backfat thickness and marbling score. The high and positive genetic correlations of 0.71 and 0.96 were estimated for the carcass weight with the body weights at 12 and 18 months. The genetic correlations of the carcass weight with body lengths at 12 and 18 months were 0.63 and 0.75, respectively. Positive genetic correlations were estimated for the dressing percentage with the body weight, average daily gain, body length, thurls width and chest girth. Low genetic correlations were estimated between eye muscle area and the growth traits ranging from -0.07 to 0.32. Dressing percentage was low correlated genetically with the growth traits except for the chest girth at 18 months. The genetic correlation between marbling score and chest girth at 18 months estimated was 0.25.
Relationships Between Bovine Growth Hormone Gene Polymorphism and Semen Characteristics in Hanwoo Bull
Lee, S.S. ; Kim, J.H. ; Jeong, J. ; Park, N.H. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 6, 2002, Pages 693~700
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2002.44.6.693
The objects of this study were to estimate gene frequencies of the bovine growth hormone(bGH), and to investigate the relationship between the bGH polymorphism and semen characteristics in Hanwoo bull. One hundred nine heads of Hanwoo bulls were used to identify bGH genotypes by the PCR-RFLP, followed by digestion with Alu I restriction enzyme. The frequencies of leucine(Leu) and Valine(Val) alleles were 0.88 and 0.12, respectively. Observed number of LL, LV and VV genotypes were 83, 25 and 1, respectively. Semen characteristics(semen volume, sperm concentration) were analyzed by GH genotypes in 25,559 ejaculates of 109 heads. Although bGH genotypes showed no significant effects on semen characteristics, those of bulls with VV genotype were tended to be lower than those of other bulls with LL or LV genotypes. And, in 1998, total sperm number(60.47
) of VV bulls were significantly lower(P<0.05) than those(86.21
) of other genotypes bulls. This results provide that the VV bull in bGH locus may be worse, under the LL and LV bulls on semen characteristics. However, the number of examined VV bulls was only one and further investigations are needed to confirm the results.
Studies on the Viability of In Vitro-Matured Bovine Oocytes Vitrified by Microdrop and Straw Method
Yang, B.C. ; Yang, B.S. ; Sung, H.H. ; Im, S.K. ; Park, S.B. ; Chang, W.K. ; Lee, C.K. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 6, 2002, Pages 701~710
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2002.44.6.701
Studies on the Viability of In Vitro-Matured Bovine Oocytes Vitrified by Microdrop and Straw Method To establish vitrification method for bovine oocytes, mature bovine oocytes were vitrified by microdrop (MD) or straw (Straw) method and the viability of vitrified oocytes with or without cumulus cells (CC) were examined by several methods; a) parthenogenetic activation; b) pronuclear formation after in vitro fertilization (IVF); and c) embryonic development after IVF. The survival rate of vitrified oocytes by MD was significantly higher than by Straw (92.50 vs. 74.19%, p<0.05). Most of the oocytes survived from vitrification using the MD methods. Cleavage and blastocyst development of parthenogenetically activated oocytes were higher in MD (45.05% and 10.81%, respectively; p<0.05)) than those in Straw method (27.17% and 6.52%, respectively; p<0.05). Male and female pronuclear formation of vitrified-thawed oocytes with or without cumulus cells (CC) after IVF were examined, respectively. The survival rate of vitrified oocytes by MD without CC was no difference between MD and Straw (80.368.14% vs. 67.31%). Normal fertilization (2PN) rates were not different among groups (Fresh; 54.55% vs. MD; 42.22% vs. Straw; 37.14%, p>0.05). While no fertilization (<1PN) rates were significantly different between fresh and vitrified-thawed groups (Fresh; 32.47% vs. MD; 57.78% and Straw 62.86%, p<0.05). The polyspermy (3PN) was appeared in the fresh (12.99%), but no appeared in the vitrified-thawed groups. In the without CC, normal fertilization (2PN) rates were significantly different between fresh and vitrified-thawed oocytes (Fresh; 59.38% vs. MD; 17.31% and Straw; 30.43%, p<0.05). Moreover, no fertilization (<1PN) rates were significantly different between fresh and vitrified-thawed groups (Fresh; 23.44% vs. MD; 73.08% and Straw 58.70%, p<0.05). The polyspermy (3PN, >4PN) was appeared not only fresh but vitrified-thawed groups. After IVF, two-cell developmental rates of vitrified oocytes with CC by MD and Straw were significantly low compared to fresh oocytes (Fresh; 81.76% vs. MD; 22.22% and Straw; 11.36%, p<0.05). Blastocyst developmental rates of vitrified oocytes also were significantly low compared to fresh oocytes (Fresh; 28.38 vs. MD; 1.71% and Straw 0%, p<0.05). In the without CC, two-cell developmental rates were no difference between Fresh and MD (27.59% vs. 19.25%, p<0.05), while blastocyst rates were difference between Fresh and MD or Straw (4.31% vs. 0.62% and 0%, respectively; p<0.05). In conclusion, the results indicate that the vitrified bovine oocytes have the ability to develop to the blastocyst stage after IVF.
Effect of Feeding Browses on the Incidence of Abortion During Pregnancy in Korean Native Goats
Choi, S.H. ; Seong, H.H. ; Cho, Y.M. ; Kim, Y.K. ; Hur, S.N. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 6, 2002, Pages 711~718
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2002.44.6.711
In order to investigate the effect of feeding browses on the incidence of abortion in pregnant Korean native female goats, 20 pregnant does(3
4 month) were used as experimental animal and they grouped 4 treatments with 5 heads according to experimental diets. Each group was fed pine browse, pine browse silage, fermented pine browse, or oak browse silage. Browses intake a day was 0.36kg for oak browse silage, 0.28kg for pine browse, 0.24kg for pine browse silage, and 0.14kg for fermented pine browse. Salmonella and Fungi were not found in pine browses but they were found in oak browse silage in the amount of 7.93
cfu/g, respectively. E. Coliwas found 11.67
cfu/g in oak browse silage. The incidence of abortion was 60% for fermented pine browse, 40% for pine browse silage, and 20% for pine browse feeding. Abortion did not occur by feeding oak browse silage. Progesterone concentration was similar each other regardless of normal delivery or abortion at delivery day but the concentration of estradiol was higher for normal delivery, concentration of cortisol was decreased until the delivery day in normal but increased in abortion does. The results were suggested.
Changes in Serum Vitamin E and Trace Mineral Levels and Other Blood parameters in Growing Thoroughbred Horses During the Period of Pasture Grazing and stable Feeding
Lee, C.E. ; Park, N.K. ; Jin, S.H. ; Kim, Y.J. ; Kang, D.H. ; Kim, K.I. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 6, 2002, Pages 719~726
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2002.44.6.719
Nutritional adequacy of growing Thoroughbred horses raised in an alternate feeding system - grazing during late spring through late fall and stable feeding for the rest of seasons - was assessed by determining vitamin E and trace mineral levels in the serum and blood chemistry related to nutrition and health. During the stable feeding in winter and early spring, 50 growing female horses were fed concentrates (1.4% of their body weight), grass hay (0.62%) and alfalfa hay (0.37%). For the grazing period, the same horses were fed supplementary concentrates (1.1%) during late spring through early summer, and concentrates (1.1%) and alfalfa hay (0.5%) during late summer through late fall. Blood samples were collected before grazing in early spring, and during grazing in early summer through late fall. Serum vitamin E, BUN, GTP, total bilirubin and direct bilirubin levels were increased (P<0.01) by grazing compared to those measured before the initiation of grazing. Horses had lower (P<0.01) serum Fe contents in early summer than in late fall or in time of stable feeding. Stable feeding increased (P<0.01) serum Cu content compared to grazing in both early summer and late fall. In late fall, serum Zn level increased (P<0.01) compared to that found in the other seasons. Blood glucose and creatinine levels decreased (P<0.01) after grazing. Results indicate that supplementations of some minerals and vitamin E are not always necessary in diets for growing horses and should be done after careful evaluation of diets with regard to concentrations and biological availability of minerals.
Effect of Essential Amino Acid Deficient Diets in Feeding Response and c-fos Expression in Rats Brain in Response to Methionine Deficiency
Kim, C.H. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 6, 2002, Pages 727~738
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2002.44.6.727
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of essential amino acid(EAA) deficient diets on short-term feeding response and the Fos expression in brain area when methionine deficiency diet fed, and thereby to know the mechanism of feed intake regulation. In all trials, experimental diets were formulated with pure amino acid mixture to level of 15% nitrogen. Rats were adapted to a 6-hr single-meal feeding per day(17:00
21:00). Feed intake and body weight were monitored every hour after 7-day of feeding of individual EAA deficient diets in Exp. Ⅰ. In Exp. Ⅱ, Fos immuno- histochemistry was determined in various regions of brain to identify the regions that is related to suppressed feed intake following feeding methionine-deficient diet. Fos expression was examined to know the initial sensitive region in the brains of rats at 3h after feeding of the control and methionine deficient diet(-Met). Initial response to EAA deficiency diets was severely depressed in methionine deficiency diet, but the depression was low in threonine deficiency diet. However, the feed intake at 3rd day in rats was depressed in the order of His(71%), Leu(68%), Ile(66%), Thr(63%), Trp(61%), Val(55%), Phe(52%), Met(51%), Lys(44%) and Arg(24%). Fos immunoreaction in neural regions(PPC, amygdala and EPC) of pyrifrom cortex was increased in the -Met group more than in the control diet group, but those in LH, VMH and PVM were similar. Thus, based on these data, the PPC was identified as the initial response area in the -EAA diet.
The Effects of Fig Fermented Product Supplementation on Animal Performance, Serum Profile and Meat Quality in Hanwoo Bulls
Kook, K. ; Kim, K.H. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 6, 2002, Pages 739~746
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2002.44.6.739
We investigated the effect of fig fermented product(FFP) supplementation on growth performance, serum profile, carcass performance, meat performance and meat quality in 10 bulls of Korean cattle. Concentrates diet was supplemented with substrate fermented from fig fruit and leaves at 10% of the diet. The feed intake of FFP were slightly higher than the control, but the final weight showed no sifnificant difference between the two. Daily weight gain and feed intake were increased in FFP. The serum profile had no significant difference in the treatment. In carcass performance, the meat quantity grade of the treatment had no significant difference, but in meat quality grade the marbling score of FFP was significantly(P<0.05) increased therefore it showed a positive effect on meat quality grade. Also there was no significant(P<0.05) difference of meat cut performance in the treatment. Due to the proximate characteristics of longissimuss muscles the crude fat content of the FFP was significantly(P<0.05) increased. There was no significant difference(P<0.05) in physical characteristics ; pH level, meat color and heat loss of the treatment, but the shear force value and the cholesterol content of FFP significantly(P<0.05) decreased. Crude fat was increased(P<0.05) and cooking loss, shear force and cholesterol concentration were decreased. In fatty acids composition of the FFP, the linoleic acid from the longissimus increased significantly(P<0.05). In subcutaneous fat of longissimus of the FFP, C16:0(palmitic acid) significantly(P<0.05) decreased, but C18:1 significantly (P<0.05) increased. Therefore in FFP, the concentration of saturated fatty acid significantly decreased (P<0.05), but on the other hand the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids significantly (P<0.05) increased. In sensory evaluation of the FFP, the evaluation of odor increased slightly in a positive manner, also the appearance and the taste increased significantly(P<0.05). In conclusion when annexing additional fig fermented product to Hanwoo bulls, the carcass grade improves and the livestock production increases. Also the shear force, lower cholesterol, improved appearance and taste will open the doors to high quality meat production.
Effects of Proportion of Roughages and Concentrates on Growth and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers
Ahn, B.H. ; Song, S.C. ; Lyu, J.S. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 6, 2002, Pages 747~756
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2002.44.6.747
This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of proportion of concentrates and roughages on growth and carcass traits of Hanwoo steers. Concentrates and roughages were allotted three levels of 35 to 11%, 44 to 12% and 53 to 13%, respectively from the growing period to finishing period. Concentrate and roughage intake of Hanwoo steers were increased progressively until body weight reached 450kg and 300kg, respectively and reached 1.8 to 1.9% and 1.04 to 1.44% to body weight, respectively but thereafter were decreased gradually. Marbling score and beef grade were tended to be increased when steers were fed 44% roughage compared with the steers fed 35% or 53% at the growing period. Therefore, it can be concluded that feeding 44% of roughage is desirable rather than feeding 35% or 53% of roughage when steers are fattening.
Effect of Whole or Steam-flaked Corn Based Diet on Ruminal fermentation Characteristics In Vitro and Ruminal Metabolism in Korean Native Goat In Vivo
Bae, G.S. ; Bae, J.H. ; Yun, S.J. ; Chang, M.B. ; Ko, J.Y. ; Ha, Jong-K. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 6, 2002, Pages 757~768
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2002.44.6.757
These study were conducted to determine the effects of a whole or steam-flaked corn based diet on rumen microbial fermentation in vitro and ruminal metabolism in the Korean Native Goat(KNG) in vivo. The experiments consisted of two dietary treatments: control, steam-flaked corn(SFC) based diet(80%) + rice straw mixed(20%)(SFCR); 100% whole corn based diet(WC). The first experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of whole corn on ruminal metabolism in vitro for 0 to 48 h. pH values were optimally maintained during incubation time, and were not significantly different between treatments. Gas production of SFCR was significantly higher than WC(p<0.01).
-N concentration tended to increase for WC, but not significantly different between treatments. The mean value of total volatile fatty acid concentration of WC was significantly lower than SFCR(p<0.01), but SFCR and WC linearly increased as the time of incubation approached 48 h. Mean value of acetate concentration of SFCR was significantly higher than WC(p<0.01). Propionate concentration of WC for the total incubation time was significantly higher than SFCR(p<0.01). The digestibility of dry matter was not significantly different between treatments, but SFCR was somewhat higher than WC. The second experiment was conducted to effect of whole shelled corn based diet on rumen metabolism in KNG. pH values tended to decrease through all treatments. There was not a significantly difference between treatments. Microbial protein yield of SFCR was significantly higher than WC(p<0.01).
-N concentration of WC was significantly (p<0.01) higher than SFCR. Total VFA and propionate concentration of WC was significantly higher than SFCR(p<0.01), but acetate concentrate of WC was not significantly higher than SFCR. The mean value of total lactate concentration was significantly(p<0.01) different but the value of SFCR and WC were lower than the average concentration of acidosis. In sacco DM disappearance rate of SFC was significantly(p<0.01) higher than WC.
Changes of chemical Composition According to the Ensiling Periods of Total Mixed Fermentation Feeds using Rice Straw and Green Forages
Lee, H.J. ; KIm, W.H. ; Kim, H.S. ; Lim, K.B. ; Ahn, B.S. ; Cho, K.K. ; Kang, S.H. ; Kang, S.K. ; Lee, H.G. ; Woo, J.H. ; Choi, Y.J. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 6, 2002, Pages 769~782
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2002.44.6.769
Three kinds of green forages(rye, oats and mixed forages) was harvested and mixed with rice straw, wheat bran and 2 grains(corn and soybean), which harvested 2 different dates(common harvesting dates, 7 days early to common harvesting dates). And each mixture was ensiled in 6 poly vinyl chlorides that was 60 liter, immediately. They were opened at 0, 5, 10, 25, 35, 60 and 100 days after ensiling for chemical analysis. And its effects of those TMFFs on feed values were observed. Average contents of water, crude protein, ADF, NDF, Ca and P of formulated TMFs were 72 to 75%, 14.75 to 18.24, 12.47 to 19.07, 39.82 to 47.01, 0.99 to 1.07 and 0.38 to respectively. Crude protein content was the highest in the mixed forages-TMFF and the lowest in the rye-TMFF. The ADF and NDF contents of rye-TMFF were higher than orthers. And CP, ADF, NDF, TDN, P and Ca contents were no significant difference among treatments regardless of storage period and harvest time, but all treatments indicated good quality. Intenal temperatures of TMFF were shown to be 1 to 5
higher than ambient temperatures. The temperature of the Oat-TMFF formulated during winter sustained higher to the level of 6
for 10 days. The pH of TMFF were 4.0 to 4.2 and the content of
-N was shown to be 7.79 to 8.23mg/
. In the VFA contents, any tendency was not shown at all treatments depending on harvest time. Even though rye-TMFF showed the lowest VFA value. At all treatments except rye-TMFF, propionate production was increased and stable after 25 days of storage. Digestibility of rice straw from TMFF on DM basis was 15
20% higher compared with non-treated rice straw.
Effects of Feeding Level of Extruded Poultry Manure on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Body Composition in Korean Native Goats
Kim, C.H. ; Ra, C.S. ; Goh, B.D. ; Park, J.I. ; Lin, G.Z. ; Shin, J.S. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 6, 2002, Pages 783~792
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2002.44.6.783
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementary level of extruded poultry manure, corn and tapioca mixture (EPM) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and body composition in korean native goats. Total 15 heads of Korean native goats (10 kg B.W.) were randomly assigned into five treatment groups (EPM 10, 20, 30, 40% and control.) and feeding trial was done for six weeks with ad libitum. Protein level of the extrudate with poultry manure was directly proportional to corn supplements rate. NFE and Ca content in EPM also were functional of the tapioca supplements levels. Daily body weight gain was significantly (p<0.05) reduced in EPM 40% group, but no significant differences were observed in other groups. Concentrate feed intake was high in EPM 10 to 30% groups, compared to the control. Feed conversion ratio also was relatively higher in EPM groups than in the control. As EPM level increased, dry matter digestibility was proportionally decreased, but that of crude protein was enhanced. Dressed carcass percentage was significantly (p<0.05) reduced with the increase of EPM level, showing control 49.7, EPM 10% 49.8, EPM 20% 48.3, EPM 30% 47.9 and EPM 40% 45.2, respectively.
Characteristics of Carcass and Meat Yields of Fattening Pigs by Production Step
Kim, J.H. ; Park, B.Y. ; Yoo, Y.M. ; Cho, S.H. ; Kim, Y.K. ; Lee, J.M. ; Yun, H.J. ; Kim, K.N. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 6, 2002, Pages 793~800
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2002.44.6.793
The characteristics of carcass and meat yields of fattening pigs by production steps were investigated with Landrace (LL, n=41), Yorkshire (YY, n=33), and Duroc (DD, n=30),
(LY, n=25), the Crossbred of LYD (n=48). Duroc had more weight loss in carcasses weight than that of the other breed(p<0.05). Yorkshire and
had higher production weight in retail cut than that of the other pure or crossbred. Carcass from Landrace and
were significantly longer in length than the other breed(p<0.05).
produced wider carcass than the other breed. Carcass thickness at aitch bone was higher for
and Crossbred than the other breed(p<0.05). Landrace, Yorkshire and
produced more loin and tenderloin in weight than the other breed (p<0.05). Yorkshire and
produced more picnic shoulder when compared to the other breed. The hind legs produced from Yorkshire and
were higher in weight and the fore legs produced from the Crossbred were higher in weight. Duroc produced the lowest weight of belly among the breeds. The acceptance level of loin were extremely low for all breed. Landrace had the highest acceptance level for tenderloin. Yorkshire had the highest acceptance level for picnic shoulder and ham when evaluated by export standard of Japan. In conclusion, The introduction of pure breed and establishment of mating steps are necessary to produce highly accepted pork with high acceptance in carcass and meat yields.
Comparative Study of Proteolytic Activities of Some Commercial Milk Clotting Enzymes on Bovine Skim Milk
Shin, H.S. ; Kim, S.B. ; Lim, J.W. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 6, 2002, Pages 801~808
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2002.44.6.801
Proteolytic activities of some commercial milk clotting enzymes(rennet, trypsin, pepsin, papain W-40, neutrase 1.5 and protease S) in bovine skim milk containing 0.02%
were determined by measuring DH(Degree of Hydrolysis), NPN(Non Protein Nitrogen) and by comparing patterns of SDS-PAGE(Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis). The DH of microbial enzymes(neutrase 1.5 and protease S) and trypsin in bovine skim milk were higher than those of pepsin and papain W-40. The amounts of NPN in the milk treated with trypsin and the other animal enzymes(rennet and pepsin) showed the highest and lowest degrees of proteolysis, respectively. SDS-PAGE showed that trypsin and protease S hydrolyzed
-lactalbumin and papain W-40 hydrolyzed
-lactoglobulin slightly, while neutrase 1.5 hydrolyzed both
-lactoglobulin after treating for 90 min. Trypsin and protease S easily hydrolyzed
-casein, which were not hydrolyzed by rennet. Papain W-40 hydrolyzed
-casein more than rennet as shown in SDS-PAGE. Based on the results of the experiments, the DH and NPN of trypsin, neutrase 1.5 and protease S were shown to be higher than those of the other enzymes. The SDS-PAGE patterns of papain W-40 and neutrase 1.5 were similar with that of rennet.
Effects of Heat Treatment of Chitooligosaccharide and Water-Soluble Chitosan on the Changes in Oligosaccharide Content and Anti-Rotaviral Activity
Park, B.S. ; Kim, J.H. ; Yu, D.H. ; Yu, J.H. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 6, 2002, Pages 809~816
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2002.44.6.809
Chitosan is the deacetylated product of chitin. Chitosan and its derivatives have many properties that make them attractive for a wide variety of health applications. This study was conducted to investigate change of oligosaccharide content and antiviral effect on rotavirus of chitooligosaccharide and water soluble chitosan after heat treatment. The quantitative analysis of oligosaccharide using colorimetry showed that oligosaccharide contents in water soluble chitosan and chitooligosaccharide were decreased from 62.67% to 60.45% and from 59.48% to 54.31%, respectively, after heating. The inhibitory effect of chitosan derivatives on MA-104 cell infected with human rotavirus(HRV) measured using AEC staining method. The inhibition level of 0.125% water-soluble chitosan against cell infection by human rotavirus was 91.98 3.09% in HRV S2 and was 89.92 1.68% in HRV Wa. But, chitooligosaccharide had not shown inhibitory effect against cell infection by HRV. It considered that most oligosaccharide of chitooligosaccharides consist of oligomer of lower polymerization degree. Heat treatment of water soluble chitosan and chitooligosaccharide did not influence their antiviral effects on rotavirus.