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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 45, Issue 6 - Dec 2003
Volume 45, Issue 5 - Oct 2003
Volume 45, Issue 4 - Aug 2003
Volume 45, Issue 3 - Jun 2003
Volume 45, Issue 2 - Apr 2003
Volume 45, Issue 1 - Feb 2003
Selecting the target year
Identification of Chromosomal Band Markers of the Korean Native Chicken
Baik, K. H. ; Lee, C. Y. ; Sang, B. D. ; Choi, C. H. ; Kim, H. K. ; Sohn, S. H. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 1, 2003, Pages 1~12
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2003.45.1.001
The present study was carried out to establish the standard karyotype of the Korean Native Chicken and to find their chromosomal band markers using high-resolution banding technique. Chromosome analysis was performed on early chick embryos following in vitro culture of fertilized eggs of the yellow-brown and the red-brown lines of the Korean Native Chicken which had been established at National Livestock Research Institute. The high-resolution banding of the chromosome was achieved by treating the embryos with ethidium bromide and colchicine during culture. On GTG-banding, the Korean Native Chicken exhibited a typical chick banding pattern in all the macrochromosomes. Overall chromosomal morphology and positions of typical landmarks of the Korean Native Chicken were virtually identical to those of White Leghorn and International System for Standardized Avian Karyotypes(ISSAK). However, the lengths and G-band numbers of the Korean Native Chicken macrochromosomes were greater than those of White Leghorn and ISSAK. Especially in chromosomes 1 and Z, the Korean Native Chicken exhibited more separated bands in compared with ISSAK. In C-banding patterns, although a lot of observed cells had C-band polymorphic patterns, almost the Korean Native Chicken macrochromosomes had heterochromatic C-band on centromeres and/or near terminal part. However, the heterochromatic C-band was constantly observed at the end of q-arm of Z chromosomes and on the whole W chromosome. In addition, the Korean Native Chicken exhibited distinctive heteromorphic patterns of C-bands on the centromere of chromosome 3 and at the end of q-arm of Z chromosome between homologous chromosomes.
A Missense Mutation in Exon 5 of the Bovine Growth Hormone Gene
Yoon, D. H. ; Kim, T. H. ; Lee, K. H. ; Park, E. W. ; Lee, H. K. ; Cheong, I. C. ; Hong, K. C. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 1, 2003, Pages 13~22
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2003.45.1.013
Growth Hormone (GH) gene is a member of gene family through the evolutionary process from a small common ancestral gene by a series of gene duplications. The role of the GH in growth and performance controls has been extensively studied in human, mice and livestock. Many researchers have considered GH as a strong candidate gene for evaluation of genetic polymorphisms that could be associated with economic traits in cattle. We report here a novel missense mutation within the exon 5 of the bovine Growth Hormone (bGH) gene. We could amplified 522 bp fragments from eight unrelated Hanwoo cattle by PCR, then, subsequently cloned and sequenced. An Msp I RFLP corresponding to a C to T transition was observed at position 2258 nt. From this result, we could predict a missense mutation (Arg to Trp) at codon 166 in a highly conserved region among many mammals. Codominant Mendelian segregation of the two alleles, Msp I (+) and Msp I (－), was observed in two full-sib F2 families (n = 32, African taurine Bos taurus
African zebu Bos indicus) and eight half-sib Hanwoo families. For the availability of genetic marker, we have performed PCR-RFLP with a large number of individual animals from 15 different cattle breeds (European and Asian taurines, and African indicines). Consideration of breed frequencies of Msp I (－) allele in relation to breed type and their geographic origins, shows higher frequencies in humped breeds or Asian cattle breeds than in humpless or European breeds. This result indicates that the missense mutation can be contributed the functional significance such as the signal transduction through the receptor binding, also may be used as a marker for selection of the economic traits in Hanwoo.
Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Growth and Carcass Traits in Hanwoo Bull Populations
Park, C. J. ; Park, Y. I. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 1, 2003, Pages 23~32
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2003.45.1.023
Genetic parameters for growth and carcass traits were estimated on the basis of the data from 3,415 heads of Hanwoo bulls tested at Livestock Improvement Main Center. The data were divided into two groups : the first period group consisted of 1,592 heads of bulls tested in individual pens from 1986 to 1990 and the second period group consisted of 1,823 heads of bulls tested in group pens from 1991 to 1996. The testing period was from 6 to 18 months of age in the first period group and 10 to 22 months of age in the second period group. The average daily gains during 6 to 12 months and 12 to 18 months were 1.01kg and 0.77kg, respectively, in the first period group and 0.80kg and 0.95kg in the second period group, and the compensated growth appeared to have occurred in the second period group. The heritability of body weight at 12 months estimated was 0.37 during the first period and 0.47 during the second period. The heritability of body weight at 18 months was 0.29 during the first period and 0.33 during the second period. The heritability of average daily gain during 6
12 months estimated was 0.26 for the first period and 0.33 for the second period. The heritability of average daily gain during 12
18 months estimated was 0.11 for the first period and 0.22 for the second period. The heritabilities of body weights and average daily gains estimated tended to be higher in the second period than in the first period. The heritability of body measurements at 12 months during the first period estimated was 0.30 for withers height, 0.25 for rump height, 0.11 for thurls width and 0.13 for chest girth. The heritability of body measurments at 12 months during the second period was 0.53 for withers height, 0.44 for rump height, 0.36 for thurls width and 0.56 for chest girth. The heritabilites of withers height, rump height, thurls width and chest girth at 18 months of age were 0.40, 0.22, 0.12 and 0.21 during the first period and 0.45, 0.42, 0.42 and 0.35 during the second period, respectively. The heritability of carcass traits estimated during the first period was 0.11 for carcass weight, 0.24 for dressing percent, 0.25 for eye muscle area, 0.18 for backfat thickness and 0.21 for carcass length. The heritabilities of carcass weight, dressing percent, eye muscle area, backfat thickness, carcass length and marbling score during the second period estimated were 0.32, 0.52, 0.33, 0.51, 0.58 and 0.31, respectively. The genetic correlations between the first and second periods estimated were higher than 0.8 for chest girth at 12 months, rump height at 18 months, carcass weight and dressing percent, but were lower for other traits.
Relationships of Plasma Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF)-I and IGF-II Concentrations to Litter Size
Lee, C. Y. ; Baik, K. H. ; Lee, D. H. ; Park, H. C. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 1, 2003, Pages 33~40
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2003.45.1.033
The present study was undertaken to find relationships of plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-II concentrations to litter size and lactation performance. Sixty pure-bred Landrace and Yorkshire pigs having similar farrowing weeks which had been selected from a large number of pregnant gilts and sows were divided into low- (<
－0.5SD) and high-litter size (>
+0.5 SD) lines under a 2 (breed)
2 (line) factorial arrange of treatments. After adjusting the litter size to nine piglets per sow at farrowing, total litter weight was measured at three weeks postpartum at weaning as an index of milk yield. Blood samples were obtained from the jugular vein at day (d)-90 pregnancy (Px) and at d-15 postpartum. The litter size or the number of piglets born during the present experiment and the average litter size during the entire parities up to the present one were greater in the high-line than in the low-line by 3.7 and 2.4 piglets, respectively (P<0.01); effect of the breed on litter size was not significant. Plasma IGF-II concentration at d-90 Px was greater in the high-line than in the low-line. Litter size and d-90 Px IGF-I concentration were negatively correlated in Landrace (r=－0.46; P<0.05) and tended to be negatively correlated in Yorkshire (r=－0.31; P=0.09), which resulted in a significant negative correlation between these two variables in total animals (r=－0.35; P<0.01). Litter weight at weaning was not different between the two breeds or lines. Relationships between the litter weight and IGF concentration were not consistent across the breed
physiological stage combinations. Results suggest that d-90 Px IGF concentrations may be indicative of the litter size at impending farrowing.
Influence of Supplemental Dietary Yeast Culture on the Noxious Gas Emission in Broiler Houses and Performance of Broiler Chicks
Park, J. H. ; Ryu, M. S. ; Kim, S. H. ; Na, C. S. ; Kim, J. S. ; Ryu, K. S. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 1, 2003, Pages 41~48
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2003.45.1.041
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of yeast culture on the performance of broiler chicks and noxious gas emission in broiler houses. Two hundred forty and three hundred and twenty, one day old Cobb male broiler chicks in Expt 1 and Expt 2, respectively were alloted to four treatment levels of yeast culture (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4%). To each treatment, 60 birds were assigned in Expt 1 and 5 replicates of 16 birds each were assigned in Expt 2. Basal diets contained 21.5% and 19.0% CP, and 3,100kcal/kg ME for the starting and finishing periods, respectively. Ammonia and
gas emission were detected twice a day for seven days during the five week period of Expt 1. Weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured for five weeks in Expt 2. Intestinal microbes, blood cholesterol and ND antibody titer were examined at the end of Expt 2. In Expt 1, the concentration of
in the house of birds fed yeast culture tended to be lower than the control. It was significantly lower in the 0.4% yeast culture treatment than the control (P<0.05).
concentration was significantly lower in all yeast culture treatments regardless of its dietary supplemental level than the control (P<0.05). different from others. Feed efficiency (feed/gain), however, was significantly improved in all yeast culture treatments relative to that of the control for starting period (P<0.05) and that of 0.2% yeast culture treatment was significantly lower than those of the control and 0.4% for the overall period. Total number of E. coli in the ileum of birds fed yeast culture at 0.1 and 0.2% was significantly lower than those of the control and 0.4% in the ileum. The CFU of Lactobacillus spp. of birds fed yeast culture at 0.1% was higher in the cecum compared to other treatments (P<0.05). Total cholesterol level of chicks fed 0.1% yeast culture seemed to be lower compared to that of other treatments, whereas LDL-cholesterol level was significantly lower than those of the control and 0.4% treatment. ND antibody titer tended to be higher in the yeast culture treatments than the control, but was not significantly different. The results of these experiments indicated that 0.2% yeast culture may have a potential to reduce the noxious gas emission in broiler houses and maximize the performance of broiler chicks.
Effect of Copper Chelates(Methionine-Cu, Chitosan-Cu and Yeast-Cu) as the Supplements to Weaning Pig Diet
Kim, B. H. ; Lim, H. S. ; Namkung, H. ; Paik, I. K. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 1, 2003, Pages 49~56
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2003.45.1.049
An experiment was conducted to study the effects of the dietary Cu sources on the performance of the weanling pigs. Forty-eight, 24 in each sex, 4 weeks old pigs were assigned to four treatments; control, methionine-Cu chelate, chitosan-Cu chelate or yeast-Cu chelate. Control diet contained 136ppm Cu to which additional 100ppm Cu in different chelated form was added to the respective treatment. Individual pig weight and feed intake of each pen were recorded weekly for 5 weeks. Average daily feed intakes(ADFI), average daily gains(ADG) and ADFI/ADG were not significantly different among treatments. Nutrient availability was not also significantly affected by treatments. Serum triglyceride concentration of chitosan-Cu treatment was significantly lower than those of methionine-Cu and yeast-Cu treatments but was not significantly different from that of the control. Serum cholesterol concentration of yeast-Cu was significantly lower than those of the control and methionine-Cu but was not significantly different from that of chitosan-Cu treatment. Serum HDL-cholesterol concentration was not significantly affected by treatments. Serum IgG concentrations of all copper treatments were significantly lower than that of the control. It was concluded that Cu-chelates supplemented to the basal diet (136ppm Cu) by the level of 100ppm Cu did not significantly affect growth performance of weaning pigs. However, serum parameters of cholesterol, cholesterol and IgG were significantly affected by the treatments.
he Effects of Supplemental Levels of Bamboo Vinegar on Growth Performance, Serum Profile and Meat Quality in Fattening Hanwoo Cow
Kook, K. ; Kim, K. H. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 1, 2003, Pages 57~68
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2003.45.1.057
Effects of supplemental levels of Bomboo vinegar(BV) on growth performance, serum profile and meat quality in 15 Korean native Hanwoo cows was investigated. Concentrate diet was supplemented with Bamboo vinegar with 3% and 6% of the diet. Daily weight gain was increased slightly at 3% BV, but it was decreased in 6% BV. Feed intake was decreased(P<0.05) at 6% BV. Glucose concentration of serum profile was decreased(P<0.05) at 3% and 6% BV. Total protein and cholesterol concentrations were increased(P<0.05) at 3% and 6% BV. BUN concentration was increased(P<0.05) at 3% BV. In carcass characteristics the longissimus muscles of all BV treatments showed no significant(P<0.05) effects, but back fat thickness was decreased significantly(P<0.05) in 6% BV. Marbling score was increased significantly(P<0.05) at 3% BV, thus improving the meat quality. Cut meat production was not difference by treatment. Crude fat content of proximate chemical composition in longissimus muscle was increased(P<0.05) in 3% BV. Shear force and cholesterol contents were decreased(P<0.05) in 3% and 6% BV. The 16:0 of fatty acid composition in longissimus was decreased(P<0.05) whereas 18:1 was increased(P<0.05) at 3% and 6% BV. The composition of saturated fatty acids(SFA) was decreased(P< 0.05), whereas unsaturated fatty acids(USFA) was increased(P<0.05) in 3% BV. Odor and appearance of sensory evaluation were not difference by treatment. Taste was improved significantly (P<0.05) in 3% and 6% BV with the peculiar and savory taste of Hanwoo being more emphasized. The results of this experiment indicated that 3% BV improved the marbling score and crude fat content, decreased the shear force and cholesterol contents, increased the USFA composition, and improved the taste of sensory evaluation in Korean native Hanwoo cows.
Effects of Total Mixed Fermentation Feeds Based on Rice-straw and Six Forage Crops on the Productivity of Holstein Cows
Lee, H. J. ; Kim, H. S. ; Ki, K. S. ; Jeong, H. Y. ; Baek, K. S. ; Kim, J. S. ; Cho, K. K. ; Cho, J. S. ; Lee, H. G. ; Woo, J. H. ; Choi, Y. J. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 1, 2003, Pages 69~78
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2003.45.1.069
This experiment was carried out to evaluate the value of total mixed fermentation feeds(TMFF) as completely mixed ration and to observe the effect of various kinds of TMFF on the palatability, feed intake, and milk performance in Holstein cows. The dry matter (DM) content of TMFF used in the experiment was 23.98-28.42% range, and CP, TDN, ADF and NDF were 16.2
19.2%, 58.3-65.1%, 34.4-39.6% and 46.9
49.9% levels, respectively. The relative feed value (RFV) in rape-, alfalfa-, grass-, oat-, corn-TMFF groups were 138.6, 133.9, 116.5, 111.8, 111.4 and 108.1, respectively. Among these groups, RFV of rye-TMFF group was lowest. Dry matter disappearance(DMD) showed 0.8
.9% to the all kinds of TMFF groups. The pH was 3.89
-N concentration was 6.93-8.66 mg/
. The acetic acid concentration in the raw material of TMFF showed low level of 0.19
0.57%, lactic acid showed high level of 1.17
3.21% and butyric acid was very high as 0.03
0.32%. Therefore, these results provide evidence that the quality of TMFF was not so bad. In the daily fresh matter intake on the alfalfa-, grass-, rape-, corn-, oats- and rye-TMFF were showed 62.85, 60.48, 58.04, 57.11, 54.61 and 45.74 kg respectively. All TMFF showed high palatability as daily dry matter intake of 1.95 to 2.90% by body weight of experimental cows. Body condition score(BCS) was gradually increased in during 60 days of the experiment term. Average daily gain(ADG) showed about 140.0
326.7g. In alfalfa-TMFF group, the ADG was higher than in the other groups (p<0.05). Also, the increase in BCS was observed in grass-TMFF group (3.07 to 3.34) and rye-TMFF group was decreased in 3.07 to 3.34 (p<0.05). The milk yield appropriately showed a range of 16.16
18.95 kg in all groups. Among these groups, alfalfa-TMFF group was highest(P<0.05). Average milk fat contents showed high levels of 4.06
4.79% and the level was high in order of rape-, grass-, corn-, alfalfa-, rye- and oats-TMFF. Milk protein was highest in forage-TMFF and level of lactose in milk was approximately 4.56% in overall groups. Solid non fat(SNF) and total solid(TS) contents were 8.75% and 12.8%, respectively. However, milk composition was not significantly affected by TMFF.
Effects of Supplementary Levels of Deep-stacked Broiler Litter on Digestibility, Dry Matter Intake, and Nitrogen Balance by Male Spotted Deer(Cervus Nippon)
Jeon, B. T. ; Kwak, W. S. ; Kang, S. K. ; Lee, S. M. ; Moon, S. H. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 1, 2003, Pages 79~86
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2003.45.1.079
To determine nutritive value and suitability of deep-stacked broiler litter for deer, the influence of supplementary levels of broiler litter on digestibility, dry matter intake, and nitrogen balance was investigated in male spotted deer (Cervus nippon) fed a commercial mixed(complete) ration. The deep-stacked and ground broiler litter was supplemented at the level of 0%(Control), 15%(T1) and 30%(T2) on the basis of fresh matter to the mixed ration. All treatments had similar palatability at about 3% body weight of dry matter intake. Dry matter digestibility was highest in Control and lowest in T2(P<0.05). Digestibility of crude protein was lowest(P<0.05) in T2. Dry matter and digestible dry matter intake was similar in all treatments. Daily body weight gain was not affected by treatments. Feeding 15 or 30% of broiler litter to male deer resulted in similar nitrogen intake, fecal nitrogen excretion and daily nitrogen retention(g/d), compared with feeding Control. These results suggest that up to 30% of broiler litter may be fed to male deer without deleterious effects on deer performance.
Effects of Molasses Addition and(or) Pelleting on Nutritional Characteristics of Broiler Litter Processed by Ensiling or Deepstacking and Palatability Improvement by 'Hanwoo' During the Adjustment Period
Kwak, W. S. ; Park, J. M. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 1, 2003, Pages 87~100
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2003.45.1.087
This study was conducted in order to determine a proper level of molasses addition through the analysis of changes in appearance, nutritive and silage parameters before and after ensiling or deepstacking of broiler litter, to evaluate the effect of pelleting processed broiler litter and to develop methods to enhance palatability of broiler litter and reduce the adjustment period by ‘Hanwoo’ steers. Molasses addition was effective in ensiling and deepstacking of broiler litter and the proper addition level was about 5%. Changes in nutritive values of broiler litter by ensiling and deepstacking with or without molasses treatment were not great. Adding 5% molasses at deepstacking of broiler litter did not affect(P<0.05) in vitro digestion of dry matter and organic matter. Pelleting of broiler litter resulted in significant(P<0.05) moisture evaporation, organic matter reduction and nearly threefold increase of bulk density. Pelleting or molasses addition of broiler litter improved palatability by ‘Hanwoo’ steers and reduced the adjustment period by half(8-9 d).
Effect of the Level of Concentrates and Pasture Grazing on Growth, Reproductive Performance and Feed Efficiency in Spring born Hanwoo Heifers
Kang, S. W. ; Im, S. K. ; Jeong, J. W. ; Woo, J. S. ; Jeon, K. J. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 1, 2003, Pages 101~112
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2003.45.1.101
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the level of concentrates and pasture grazing in 60 head of spring born Hanwoo heifers(initial body weight; 125.3kg) for 450days from six to 21 months in age. Feeding trial was conducted with 5 treatment(twelve heads/ treatment) which were T1(1.5% of apparent body weight in concentrates and indoor feeding for over-all period), T2(0.5% of apparent body weight in concentrates for pre-pasture grazing and pasture grazing), T3(1.0% of apparent body weight in concentrates for pre-pasture grazing and pasture grazing), T4(1.5% of apparent body weight in concentrates for pre-pasture grazing and pasture grazing), T5(2.0% of apparent body weight in concentrates for pre-pasture grazing and pasture grazing). During the total experimental period, average daily gains by treatments ranged from 0.322 to 0.465kg(average 0.405kg) and higher in the order of T5, T4, T1, T3 and T2, and increased with the level of concentrates feeding for pre-pasture grazing. TDN intakes required per unit of kilogram gain were 9.13 to 9.79kg(average 9.49kg) higher in the order of T1, T3, T5, T4 and T2, For the grazing period, they were ranged from 12.39 to 12.98kg(average 12.68kg), and were not significantly different. But TDN requirements of grazing groups was higher about 15.6% than the indoor feeding group’s. The rate of roughage to concentrates by treatments were 57.8 to 73.6%(average 63.7%). The body weight of 15 and 21 month in ages, that is, the ages at puberty and first conception by treatments were 201.2 to 230.7kg(average 223.8kg) and 270.2 to 331.4kg (average 307.6kg), respectively, and the latter were high per unit of 20.4kg by increasing the level of concentrates feeding for pre-pasture grazing every 0.5% addition of apparent body weight. The age of 225 and 275kg in body weight, that is, the body weight at puberty and first conception by treatments were 14.0 to 17.6 month (average 15.3 month) and 17.9 to 21.7 month(average 19.4), respectively, and the latter were shorter about 1.3 month by increasing the level of concentrates feeding every 0.5% addition of apparent body weight. According to the above results, it may be concluded that spring born Hanwoo heifers are raised at indoor have to feed with 1.8% of body weight in concentrates under full feeding of rice straws for all period from six to 21 months in age, but with 1.5% of apparent body weight in concentrates for grazing period.
Energy Requirements of Growing Hanwoo Bulls for Maintenance by Fasting Metabolism
Lee, S. C. ; Thak, T. Y. ; Kim, K. H. ; Yoon, S. G. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 1, 2003, Pages 113~122
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2003.45.1.113
Net and metabolizable energy requirements for maintenance of Hanwoo (Korean native cattle) bulls were estimated in twenty-eight fasting metabolism trials using seven different feeds at four stages of body weight(100, 200, 300 and 400kg). Three cattle for each of twenty-eight trials fed at a level of maintenance energy requirement were housed in metabolic stalls during the 5 days of collection period. Thereafter, during the 2 days of respiration period the heat production was measured by indirect calorimetry using respiratory chamber. After finishing the respiratory metabolism trials under the maintenance level, experimental animals were fasted for 5 days and were measured heat production by indirect calorimetry using respiratory chamber. Seven different feeds were: 1) mixed ration of concentrate and rice straw, 2) mixed ration of concentrate and mixed grass hay, 3) mixed ration of concentrate and corn silage, 4) rice straw alone, 5) mixed grass hay alone, 6) corn silage alone, 7) concentrate alone. Fasting heat production were 66.05/
at 100kg of body weight and 60~63kcal/
at 200~400kg of body weight. When subtracting heat loss by muscular work from the fasting heat production, basal metabolic rate was 55.92kcal/
. The average values of NEm requirements were obtained by adding urinary energy excretion to the basal metabolic rates were 69.1, 62.1, 65.8 and 64.4kcal/
for the four stages of body weight, respectively. The ME requirement for maintenance could be calculated using retained energy and the efficiency of utilization of ME for net energy. The ME requirement for maintenance thus obtained was 102.69kcal/
Metabolizable Energy Requirement of Growing Hanwoo Bulls for Maintenance by Energy Equilibrium Metho
Lee, S. C. ; Thak, T. Y. ; Kim, K. H. ; Yoon, S. G. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 1, 2003, Pages 123~130
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2003.45.1.123
Metabolizable energy requirements for maintenance (MEm) of Hanwoo bulls were estimated in twelves metabolism trials using three different feeds at four stages of body weight(100, 200, 300 and 400kg). Three feeds were composed of 1) concentrates and rice straw, 2) concentrates and mixed grass hay, 3) concentrates and corn silage, respectively. Three energy levels were 1) maintenance (M) requirement, 2) 1.5
M, and 3) 2.0
M. All bulls were received 60% of their energy from concentrates and 40% form roughages. Three cattle for each trials fed different energy level were housed in metabolism stalls during the 5days of collection period, a total collection of feces and urine. Thereafter, during the 2days of respiration period the heat production was measured by indirect calorimetry using respiratory chamber. MEm were 99.80, 94.48, 94.80, and 97.68 kcal/W0.75 at 100, 200, 300 and 400kg. Mean value of MEm and efficiency of utilization ME for retained energy(Kg) were 95.80 kcal/W0.75 and 0.44.
Effects of Fibrolytic Enzyme Addition on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Yield and Milk Composition of Dairy Cows
Ahn, J. H. ; Kim, Y. J. ; Kim, H. J. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 1, 2003, Pages 131~142
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2003.45.1.131
We evaluated the effects of adding fibrolytic enzyme into ruminant diets on ruminal fermentation (in vitro) and lactational performances of dairy cows (in vivo). Through the in vitro experiment that was carried out with different contents of NDF (34, 38, 43%) in diets, digestibilities of NDF in the rumen appeared not significantly different by the addition of enzyme but were different by NDF content in diets showing higher digestibility in NDF 43% diet. It could be attributed by the relatively higher amount of hemicellulose in the current experimental diets than in conventional diets that might have been digested easily by the addition of fibrolytic enzyme in the rumen. The addition of fibrolytic enzyme tended to increase NDF digestibilities to a little extent both in 0.05 and 0.1% enzyme levels. Ruminal pH, NH3-N concentrations and VFA production in the rumen were not affected by the addition of fibrolytic enzyme. Activities of CMCase and xylanase were higher in enzyme treated diets of both NDF 34 and 38%. In particular, the activities of xylanase that slowly decreased from 0 to 12 hr but rapidly after 24 hr indicates that the major action of the enzyme in the rumen occurs in early period of incubation. Through an in vivo experiment, fibrolytic enzyme addition into the diets of dairy cows indeed affected lactational performance of milk yield. The cows fed enzyme treated diets produced 8% (1.9kg/d) more amounts of milk than with no enzyme addition. Milk composition of milk fat and protein was not affected by enzyme addition. Overall, the results of this in vivo study indicates that fibrolytic enzyme can be used to improve milk production in lactating cows. In respect that animals in different treatments of this study had the same amounts of intake, the increased milk yield with enzyme addition may be attributed to the improved utilization of nutrients in the digestive tract.
Effect of Time and Pressure on Quality of Restructured Pork using TGase
Kim, Young-Boong ; Rho, Jeong-Hae ; Park, Eun-Hye ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 1, 2003, Pages 143~150
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2003.45.1.143
This study was performed to compare the effects of binding time(2hr, 4hr, 6hr and 16hr) and pressing condition (1kg, 3kg, 5kg and 10kg) on manufacturing restructured pork. Meat color, in terms of L, a, b showed no significant difference by treatment of binding time. Five kg pressing resulted in the highest red value(P<0.05). In tensile strength, 6 hour treatment showed significant difference ranging in 202.1g for raw restructured pork and 389.0g for cooked restructured pork. Five kg pressing showed the highest tensile strength, 114.6 for raw restructured pork and 303.3 for cooked restructured pork. In hardness, springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness, raw and cooked restructured pork showed insignificant difference regardless of pressing time. In sensory evaluation, four hour treated raw restructured pork showed the highest values of color, binding degree, shape, acceptance, while four or six hour treated restructured pork showed the highest values in cooked restructured pork. Therefore the optimal conditions for manufacturing restructured pork using TGase were four through six hour pressing with 5kg pressure.
Carcass Grading Properties of Imported Beef Cattles Fed in Korea
Park, B.Y. ; Cho, S.H. ; Kim, J.H. ; Lee, W.S. ; Kim, Y.K. ; Ahn, C.N. ; Kim, J.M. ; Yoon, S.G. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 1, 2003, Pages 151~156
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2003.45.1.151
This study was conducted to provide the information for the carcass grading properties of imported beef cattles fed in Korea. The cattles from 4 different breed such as Hereford, Angus, Murray Grey, Hereford
Angus were imported and slaughtered at 700kg(24 month). The Yield and Quality grading characteristics for 10 cattles from each breed were evaluated. Carcass weight of Murray Grey was lower than the other breed(p<0.05). The thickness of backfat was the lowest for Hereford(13.7mm) and followed by Hereford
Angus(17.30mm), Angus(18.20mm) and Murray Grey(18.90mm). Hereford had the highest Yield index(64.63%) and Murray Grey had the lowest Yield index(62.43)(p<0.05). The frequency percentages of marbling degree for Angus having the 1++ over degrees were 50% which was the highest among the breed. In the frequencies of final carcass grades, Hereford produced 30% of B grade and 70% of C grade in Yield grade and the 3 grade produced in Quality grade. All carcasses of Angus were graded as the grade C in Yield grade and 20% carcasses of Angus had the 2 grade and 80% carcasses had the 3 grade in Quality grade. Murray Grey produced 10% of grade B and 90% of grade C in Yield grade and produced 10% of the 2 grade and 90% of the 3 grade in Quality grade. The Hereford
Angus produced 100% of grade C in Yield grade and 100% of the 3 grade in Quality grade.