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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 45, Issue 6 - Dec 2003
Volume 45, Issue 5 - Oct 2003
Volume 45, Issue 4 - Aug 2003
Volume 45, Issue 3 - Jun 2003
Volume 45, Issue 2 - Apr 2003
Volume 45, Issue 1 - Feb 2003
Selecting the target year
Monte Carlo Simulations of Selection Responses for Improving High Meat Qualities Using Real Time Ultrasound in Korean Cattle
Lee, D. H. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 3, 2003, Pages 343~354
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2003.45.3.343
Simulation studies were carried out to investigate the responses of selection for three carcass traits (longissimus muscle area: EMA, fat thickness: BF, and marbling score: MS) based on either adjusted phenotypes (APH) or estimated breeding values (EBV) in multivariate animal model with different breeding schemes. Selection responses were estimated and compared on six different models with respect to breeding schemes using either carcass measurements or real time ultrasonic (RTU) scans generated by Monte Carlo computer simulation supporting closed breeding population. From the base population with 100 sires and 2000 dams, 20 sires and 1000 dams by each generation were selected by either APH or EBV for 10 generations. Relative economic weights were equal of three traits as EMA(1): BF(－1) : MS(1) for standardized either APH or EBV. For first two models which were similarly designed with current progeny-test program in Korean cattle, three carcass traits with records either only on male progenies (Model 1) or on male and female progenies (Model 2) were used for selecting breeding stocks. Subsequently, generation intervals on males were assumed as 6
10 years in these two models. The other two models were designed with tools of selection by RTU rather than carcass measurements with genetic correlations of 0.81
0.97 between RTU and corresponding carcass traits in addition to whether with records (Model 4) or without records (Model 3) on female. In these cases, generation intervals on males were assumed as 2
4 years. The remaining last two models were designed as similar with Models 3 and 4 except genetic correlations of 0.63
0.68 between RTU and corresponding carcass traits with records (Model 6) and without records (Model 5) on females. The results from 10 replicates on each model and selecting methods suggested that responses indirect selection for carcass traits in Model 4 were 1.66
2.44 times efficient rather than those in Model 1. Otherwise, in Model 6 with assuming moderate genetic correlations, those efficiencies were 1.18
2.08 times with comparing to responses in Model 1. However, selection response for marbling score was the smallest among three carcass traits because of small variation of measurements. From these results, this study suggested that indirect selection using RTU technology for improving high meat qualities in Korean cattle would be valuable with modifying measuring rules of marbling score forward to large variation or modifying relative economic weight for selection.
Effects of Dietary Germanium Biotite in Weaned, Growing and Finishing Pigs
Kwon, O.S. ; Kim, I.H. ; Hong, J.W. ; Lee, S.H. ; Jung, Y.K. ; Min, B.J. ; Lee, W.B. ; Shon, K.S. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 3, 2003, Pages 355~368
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2003.45.3.355
In Exp. 1, this study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary germanium biotite on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in nursery pigs. A total of sixty crossbred pigs (initial body weight 15.09
0.18kg) were used in this experiment. This study was carried out for 28 days. The five treatments were control (CON; basal diet), GB0.1 (basal diet + germanium biotite 0.1%), GB0.3 (basal diet + germanium biotite 0.3%), GB0.6 (basal diet + germanium biotite 0.6%) and GB1.0 (basal diet + germanium biotite 1.0%). For overall period, ADG and Gain/feed were not significantly different among the treatments. In Exp. 2, a study was conducted to evaluate the effect of germanium biotite as a substitute for antibiotics in growing pigs. A total of fifty five crossbred pigs (initial body weight 32.47
0.9kg) were used in this experiment. The three treatments were negative control (NC: basal diet without antibiotic), positive control (PC: basal diet + 200ppm CTC) and GB0.3 (basal diet + germanium biotite 0.3%). Pigs fed PC (17%, 385 vs 451 g/d) and GB0.3 (14%, 385 vs 438 g/d) diets grew faster(P<0.05) than pigs fed NC diet. Pigs fed PC and GB0.3 diets resulted higher(P<0.05) ADFI than pigs fed CON diet. However, pigs fed GB0.3 diet had improved gain/feed compared to pigs fed NC diet(P<0.05). Apparent digestibility of DM and N by pigs fed PC and GB0.3 diets were greater(P<0.05) than those by pigs fed NC diet. In Exp. 3, a study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary germanium biotite on growth performance, plasma characteristics, backfat thickness and fecal ammonia gas concentration in finishing pigs. A total of seventy-two finishing pigs (initial body weight 78.56
1.32kg) were used in this experiment. The treatments included 1) Control (CON; basal diet) 2) GB1.0 (basal diet + germanium biotite 1.0%), 3) GB3.0 (basal diet + germanium biotite 3.0%). Pigs fed GB1.0 diet grew faster than pigs fed CON diet and GB0.3 diet (P<0.05). Also, pigs fed CON diet showed higher(p<0.05) ADFI than pigs fed GB3.0 diet. Pigs fed GB diets had improved gain/feed compared to pigs fed CON diet(P<0.05). Total?and VLDL concentrations in plasma of pigs fed GB diets treatments were significantly decreased compared to those in pig fed CON diet(P<0.05). However, HDL-cholesterol concentration in plasma of the pig was significantly increased compared to those in pigs fed CON diet (P<0.05). Pigs fed CON diet exerted higher(P<0.05) backfat thickness than pigs fed GB1.0 (5.4%, 27.19 vs 25.71mm) and GB3.0 (16.1%, 27.19 vs 22.81mm) diets. Feces from CON treatment were higher in fecal ammonia gas concentration than faces from pigs fed GB1.0 (64.1%, 17.00 vs 6.10mg/kg)and GB3.0 (61.8%, 17.00 vs 6.50mg/kg) treatments(P<0.05). In conclusion, the results suggest that the dietary addition of germanium biotite into diets for nursery pigs did not affect growth performance. The results also suggest the possibility of germanium biotite to replace antibiotic in diets for growing pigs. In finishing pigs, dietary supplementation of germanium biotite was an effective means for improving growth performance and for decreasing Total-and LDL+VLDL-plasma cholesterols, backfat and fecal ammonia gas concentration.
Exploiting the Maximum Productive Potential of Spent Laying Hens with Various Metabolizable Energy and Protein Levels after Induced Molting
Akram, M. ; Park, J. H. ; Ryu, M. S. ; Shin, K.H. ; Ryu, K. S. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 3, 2003, Pages 369~376
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2003.45.3.369
This experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of different levels of metabolizable energy (ME) and crude protein (CP) on post-molt performance and egg quality of spent laying hens. Four hundred and thirty two, ISA Brown hens at sixty six weeks of age after molt induction were fed six experimental diets containing three ME (2,750, 2,800, 2,850 kcal/kg) with two CP (15, 17%) levels in a factorial design. The influence of ME and CP were evaluated on egg production, egg weight and feed intake throughout 24 weeks of production. Egg mass and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were measured during the experimental period. Haugh unit, yolk color and eggshell breaking strength were measured at 5%, 50%, peak, post peak and end stage of egg production. The hens fed 2800 kcal/kg diet along with 15% CP recorded the highest outcome of egg production (P<0.05). The egg weight has been shown to increase with hens receiving 2,800 kcal/kg ME. Daily egg mass tended to increase in hens fed with 15% CP and 2,800 kcal/kg ME. Feed intake decreased significantly with the level of ME and CP in the diet increased (P<0.05). Yolk color was improved significantly in eggs laid by the hens receiving 17% CP than 15% diet. It also tended to be higher in 17% CP with 2,800 or 2,850 kcal/kg ME diet treatments. Egg shell breaking strength increased with hens receiving diets of 15% CP and 2,800 kcal/kg. From this experiment it can be concluded that the ME level of 2,800 kcal/kg coupled with 15% CP could be used to achieve the higher egg production and better eggshell strength in induced molting hens.
Seasonal Variations in Chemical Composition of Dried Food Waste in Wonjusi and Its Feeding Effects in Finishing Pigs
Chae, B.J. ; Joo, J.H. ; Shim, Y.H. ; Kwon, I.K. ; Kim, S.H. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 3, 2003, Pages 377~386
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2003.45.3.377
A study was conducted to evaluate seasonal variations in chemical composition of food waste (FW) and its feeding effects on growth performance and pork quality in finishing pigs. FW was collected for 1 year (6 times a month) to establish a database for use of FW as a feed ingredient. For a feeding trial (8 weeks), a total of 117 pigs
4.60kg) were used to evaluate the processing effects of FW. Treatments were: Control (a corn-soybean meal diet without FW), simple dried FW (SD) and vacuum fermented FW (VF). The gross energy, crude protein, crude fat, ash, calcium and phosphorus in FW (DM, average of 4 seasons) were 5,111kcal/kg, 22.92%, 14.31%, 15.48%, 2.7% and 1.05%, respectively. Among seasons, the energy and crude protein contents were the highest (p<0.05) in winter and summer, respectively. In lactic acid bacterial counts, there was no difference between SD and VF. Pigs fed the control diet grew faster (p<0.05) than those fed diets containing food wastes, but not feed conversion ratio. There were no differences in production traits between SD and VF. No differences were also found in dressing percentage, backfat thickness, and pork quality (color, drip loss and TBARS) among treatments. The feed cost (￦/kg body weight) was lower in pigs fed FW than those fed a control diet. In conclusion, a pelleted diet containing food waste less than 20% would reduce feed cost in finishing pigs. However, it seems that a vacuum fermentation of food waste is not necessary for diet processing.
Effects of Total Mixed Rations on Ruminal Characteristics, Digestibility and Beef Production of Hanwoo Steers
Kim, K.H. ; Kim, K.S. ; Lee, S.C. ; Oh, Y.G. ; Chung, C.S. ; Kim, K.J. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 3, 2003, Pages 387~396
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2003.45.3.387
This experiment was carried out to compare the effects of feeding commercial formula feed and rice straw separately (control) versus a total mixed ration (TMR) on productivity of Hanwoo steers in late stage of fattening and on ruminal fermentation characteristics and digestibilities. Ruminal digesta from the cannulated cattle were sampled at 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8 hour after feeding. The steers fed TMR consumed 7.4kg per day and there was no difference between feeding systems. Daily weight gain was not significantly (P>0.05) between feeding systems, however, TMR group showed lower daily gain than control group. The amount of feed consumption per kg weight gain was higher in TMR group than control group (10.5kg and 9.7kg, respectively), resulting in a greater efficiency of feed utilization for gain. In the result of appearance rates of quality grade A were 33% higher for TMR group than those in control group. Appearance rates of grade 1 showed 56% and 75% when fed the control and TMR, respectively. Digestibilities of dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber and gross energy for TMR treatment were significantly higher (P<0.01) than those of control. Prior to feeding (0 h) and each subsequent hour, the TMR resulted in higher rumen pH (P<0.05) when compared with control ration. The concentration of NH3-N for TMR treatment maintained at higher level up to 8hr after feeding, especially increased up to 28.2mg/
during 1-2 hour which was two times (P<0.05) more than control. The amount of total VFA showed same trends between feeding systems. However, the ratios of branched chained fatty acid such as iso-butyric acid and iso-valeric acid for TMR treatment were significantly(P<0.01) higher than control for 3-5hr. Results showed that TMR in these trials is effective feeding system for fattening Hanwoo steers in the respect of ruminal characteristics, total tract digestibility and productivities.
Effects of Fermented Feedstuff with Wet Brewer’s Grain and Soybean on Fattening Performance and Carcass Grade in hanwoo Steers
Park, B.K. ; Gil, J.M. ; Kim, J.B. ; Hong, B.J. ; Ra, C.S. ; Shin, J.S. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 3, 2003, Pages 397~408
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2003.45.3.397
This study was conducted to examine the feeding effects of FFWBG (fermented feedstuff with wet brewer’s grain) and GS(grinding soybean) in Hanwoo steers. For this research, total twenty steers(average body weight : 455.7
25.9kg) were grouped into control(formula feed), T1(formula feed:FFWBG=60:40), T2(formula feed:GS=80:20), T3(formula feed:FFWBG:GS=50:40:10), and T4(formula feed: FFWBG:GS=40:40:20), each treatment was allocated to four steers. There was a tendency to be increased average daily gain in T1, T2, T3 and T4 compared with the control even though no statistical significance was found. The feed conversion of T1, T2, T3 and T4 were beneficially better than that of control(P<0.05; 8.25, 9.44, 6.69 and 7.71 vs 11.90, respectively). The blood urea nitrogen concentration of T4 was higher than that of control(P<0.05), but the creatinine concentration of T4 was lower than that of control(P<0.05). The glucose concentration of T1, T2, T3 and T4 were higher than that of control(P<0.05; 59.39, 62.44, 62.17 and 54.00 vs 51.00mg/
, respectively). The back-fat thickness of T3 was thicker than that of control, T1, T2 and T4. The rib-eye area of T1, T3 and T4 was wider than that of control. Appearances percentage of ‘A’ ranked meat quantity were 66, 33, 75 and 33% in control, T1, T2 and T4, respectively.
Effects of Fermented Feedstuff Added Saccharomyces cerevisiae on Fattening Performance and Carcass Grade in Hanwoo Bulls
Park, B.K. ; Hong, B.J. ; Shin, J.S. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 3, 2003, Pages 409~420
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2003.45.3.409
This experiment was carried out to investigate effects of fermented feedstuff added Saccharomyces cerevisiae(FFSC) on growth performance and carcass grade of growing Hanwoo bulls. Twenty six Hanwoo bulls averaging 230
24kg were randomly assigned within two dietary treatments which were control and FFSC. Average daily gain and feed intake were significantly higher in FFSC compared with control during growing, fattening and finishing period. Feed conversion was improved in FFSC compared with control during fattening and finishing period. During the whole experimental period, average daily gains were 1.06 and 0.98kg in FFSC and control, respectively, and it indicated that 19% was improved in FFSC compared with control(P<0.05). Feed intake was not significantly different between treatments during whole experimental period. In addition, feed conversion was not significantly different between treatments, there was a tendency to be beneficially increased about 7% in FFSC compared with control. There was no differences on yield traits including carcass weight, dressing, back fat thickness, rib-eye area and meat production between treatments. Marbling score was improved in FFSC compared with control(P<0.05). Appearances of ‘A’ ranked meat quantity were 44.4 and 25.0% in FFSC and control, respectively. Only FFSC had ‘1’ ranked appearance, but there was no ‘1’ ranked appearance in the control.
The Effects of Processing Methods of Corn on In sacco Starch and Protein Degradability in the Rumen
Son, K.N. ; Kim, Y.K. ; Lee, S.K. ; Kim, H.S. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 3, 2003, Pages 421~432
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2003.45.3.421
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of processing methods of corn grains on protein and starch degradability in the rumen by three ruminally cannulated dry Holstein cows. The corns for these experiments were untreated; whole corn L(density; 660 g/
), whole corn H(density; 740 g/
), and treated by four different types: Ground corn, 3.8 mm, 2.8 mm, and 1.5 mm flaked corn. The results obtained were summarized as follows: For 48 hrs, the protein degradabilities were high in order, ground corn, 1.5 mm, 2.8 mm, and 3.8 mm flaked corn(82.6, 76.5, 64.5, and 33.9%, respectively). Flaked corn grains were degraded lower than ground corn. However, as increasing the processing degree of flaking, the protein degradabilities, from 4 hrs to 48 hrs, were increased. The starch degradabilities on 48 hrs were higher in 1.5 and 2.8 mm flaked corns, ground corn, 3.8 mm flaked corn(99.1, 91.5, 89.5, and 68.9%, respectively) than whole corn L(32.0%) and whole corn H(20.5%)(P<0.05). By increasing the processing degree of flaking, the protein degradabilty between 2.8 mm and 3.8 mm was increased significantly from 68.9% to 91.5%, however, that of 1.5 mm flaked corn, processed thinner, tended to be increased slightly, but was not significantly different. From 12 hrs to 24 hrs, whole corn L was degraded little more than whole corn H in starch, was not significantly different. However, after 48 hr incubation in the rumen, whole corn L was degraded more 50% than whole corn H(P<0.05). The value of degradation parameter “a” of protein was lower in all flaked corns than in ground corn. In contrast, the value of degradation parameter “a” of starch was significantly higher in all flaked corns than in ground corn(P<0.05). It seemed that by flaking the corn grains, starch particles were gelatinized, and then, starch was degraded more rapidly, while protein was degraded more slowly. Referring to these kinds of physical characteristics of grain sources in ruminal degradabilities, it is possible to synchronize the fermentation of nitrogen and carbohydrate sources, in formulating the cattle diets.
The Effects of Processing Methods of Corn on In vitro DM Digestability and In sacco Degradability in Rumen
Son, K.N. ; Kim, Y.K. Kim ; Lee, S.K. ; Kim, H.S. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 3, 2003, Pages 433~442
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2003.45.3.433
The objective of these studies were to examine the effects of processing methods of corn grains on in vitro dry matter digestability and in sacco degradability in the rumen by three ruminally cannulated dry Holstein cows. The corns for these experiments were untreated; whole corn L(density; 660 g/
), whole corn H(density; 740 g/
), and treated by four different types: Ground corn, 3.8 mm, 2.8 mm, and 1.5 mm flaked corns. The results obtained were summarized as follows: The DM degradabilities, after 48 hr incubation by in sacco method, were the highest(94.4, 88.0 and 87.0%, respectively) in 1.5 mm flaked corn, ground corn, and 2.8 mm flaked corn. The 3.8 mm flaked corn was degraded significantly lower than these. Until 12 hr incubation, whole corn L tended to be degraded little more than whole corn H, was not significantly different. However, after 24 hr incubation, the significant differences between whole corn L and whole corn H were shown(P<0.05). The DM digestabilities by in vitro digestion were the highest for 1.5 mm flaked corn and ground corn(92.3 and 91.2%, respectively)(P<0.05), followed by 2.8 mm and 3.8 mm flaked corn(83.9 and 83.4%, respectively), tended to be similar to those by in sacco method. Whole corn L was digested twice more rapidly than whole corn H. Summarizing the experimental data, compared with unprocessed corns, the flaked corns were significantly increased in the degradabilities of dry matter in the rumen. In addition, as increasing the flaking degree of corn, the degradabilities of dry matter were significantly improved. Referring to these kinds of physical characteristics of grain sources in the ruminal degradabilities, it is believed to be possible to optimize the environment of the fermentation in the rumen.
Effects of Full-Fat Soybeans and Linseed as Dietary Fat Sources on In Vitro Ruminal Disappearances of Dry Matter and C18-Unsaturated Fatty Acids and Fatty Acids Profile
Lee, S.H. ; Choi, N.J. ; Maeng, W.J. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 3, 2003, Pages 443~454
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2003.45.3.443
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary full-fat soybeans and linseed as fat sources on in vitro ruminal disappearances of dry matter and unsaturated fatty acids and fatty acids profile. The full-fat soybeans and linseed were high in linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) and
-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3), respectively. The incubation times were 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. After each time of incubation, medium digesta was lyophilized for analyzing its DM and fatty acids contents. DM disappearance was significantly higher in linseed treatment compared to full-fat soybeans treatment on 6 h (p<0.01), 12 h (p<0.05) and 24 h (p<0.01), but cumulative gas production was not significantly different between both treatments. Stearic acid (C18:0) content in medium digesta was increased in both soybeans and linseed as a result of complete biohydrogenation with increased incubation time and C18:0 and C18:1 contents of full-fat soybeans were significantly higher than those of linseed (p<0.05). The content of C18:2 and C18:3 in digesta of each treatment were decreased by biohydrogenation as incubation time was increased. The content of C18:2 in full-fat soybeans was significantly higher than that of linseed (p<0.05) while the content of C18:3 in linseed was significantly higher than that of full-fat soybeans (p<0.001). Net C18:0 production was significantly higher in full-fat soybeans (332.24%) than linseed (133.16%) on 72 h. Disappearance of C18:1 was significantly lower in full-fat soybeans than linseed (p<0.05), especially full-fat soybeans showed negative (-) values on 3, 6, 12 and 24 h. The disappearance of C18:3 was significantly higher in linseed than full-fat soybeans (p<0.05). The disappearance of C18-unsaturated fatty acid was significantly higher in linseed than full-fat soybeans. In conclusion, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in both full-fat soybeans and linseed were extensively biohydrogenated. In addition, biohydrogenation of PUFA was more completed to C18:0 in full-fat soybeans than linseed, reflecting dietary PUFA composition.
Effects of Deletion of Ca Supplement (limestone) on Growth and Beef Quality in Hanwoo Finishing Steers
Lee, C.E. ; Park, N.K. ; Seong, P.N. ; Jin, S.H. ; Park, B.Y. ; Kim, K.I. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 3, 2003, Pages 455~462
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2003.45.3.455
A study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding a diet containing no Ca supplement (limestone) during the late finishing period on growth, marbling and serum 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin
level in Korean native cattle. Twenty-four steers (20
24 mo of age) were divided into two groups of 12 each: one group assigned to a control diet (concentrates containing 2.5% limestone) and the other to a diet containing no calcium supplement. They were allowed to have free access to diets (concentrates and orchard grass hay) and water during the entire feeding period (223 d). Serum
, Ca and P concentrations were not influenced by diets, but serum 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin
concentrations determined 2 or 6 mo after the beginning of feeding the experimental diets were higher (P<0.01) in steers fed the diet without Ca supplement than in those fed the control diet (78.3 vs 51.7 and 80.3 vs 51.1 pg/mL, respectively). Steers fed the diet without Ca supplement tended to have a higher intake of concentrates, but a lower intake of hay, compared to those fed the control diet. Average daily gain was higher (P<0.05) in steers fed the diet without Ca supplement than in those fed the control diet. Feeding the diet without Ca supplement remarkably (P<0.01) increased the marbling score (5.1 vs 2.2) and the muscle (M. longissimus dorsi) fat content (10.2 vs 6.7%) with a concomitant decrease in moisture content (67.6 vs 70.4%), compared to feeding the control diet. Ribeye area was increased (77.2 vs 82.8
) with the diet without Ca supplement, compared to the control diet (P<0.05). Meat color, pH and water-holding capacity in longissimus muscle were not different between the two groups. The Warner-Brazler Shear (WBS) force of the longissimus muscle was slightly (P=0.08) lower in steers fed the diet without Ca supplement than in steers fed the control diet (2.9 vs 3.2 kg/1.27-cm diameter core). Sensory evaluation showed that feeding the diet without Ca supplement slightly (P<0.05) improved tenderness (4.9 vs 4.5) and flavor (4.9 vs 4.6), compared to feeding the control diet, but juiciness was not affected by diets. Results showed that deletion of Ca supplement from finishing diets is beneficial, increasing growth and marbling partly through an increased energy intake and induced 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin
synthesis that may increase intracellular
concentration and in turn fat synthesis.
Addition of Fermented Chitosan on Carcass Composition and Physico-chemical Characteristics of Meat in Finishing Pigs
Kim, J.W. ; Kim, J.D. ; Seong, K.S. ; Kang, S.N. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 3, 2003, Pages 463~472
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2003.45.3.463
This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of fermented chitosan additive(FCA) as a probiotics in finishing pig. The levels of 0.2% and 0.5% of FCA powder was added to the regular feed. A total of 30 pigs were used to evaluate the growing performance. Those FCA supplemented feeds were supplied to the pigs at 17 weeks of age for 6 weeks. After slaughtering, 4 pigs of each treatment were used to compare the physico-chemical characteristics and sensory evaluation. Addition of 0.2% of FCA improved the average daily weight gain and feed efficiency. The pH of the FCA treated loin was slightly higher than control. The L*, a*, b* values of the treatment groups were generally low compared to control group. So the effect of FCA to meat color was expression of purplish red color. Juiciness of the pork shoulder treated with 0.5% FCA was significantly(p<0.05) higher than the other groups. Flavor and overall preference scores for bacon treated with 0.5% of FCA were significantly(p<0.05) higher than the other groups.
Protective Activities of Lactobacillus casei YIT 9018 against Salmonella enteritidis KU101 and Characteristics of 16S-23S rRNA Intergenic Spacer Region Sequence
Sung, Bae-Jin ; Ho, Yoon-Yung ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 3, 2003, Pages 473~482
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2003.45.3.473
In vivo protective and in vitro inhibitory activities of Lactobacillus casei YIT 9018. against typical enteritis causing Salmonella enteritidis KU101 and IgA level after challenge have been determined. In order to identify the strains of lactobacilli the sequences of 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region were determined. All the test strains of Lactobacillus spp. inhibited Salmonella enteritidis, the intensity varied depending upon the species of lactobacilli. Effects on the survival rate of the mouse after challenge with Salmonella enteritidis KU101 on feeding Lactobacillus spp. have shown the highest survival rate in L. helveticus CU 631 followed by L. casei YIT 9018 and L. johnsonii C-4 and the lowest in control mice. The higher level of total Ig A concentration in the intestinal fluid of lactobacilli fed mice than control mice was observed. The sequences of 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region of seven strains of Lactobacillus casei could be utilized as a strain identification, those sequences showed some degree of difference in homology.
Comparison of Incidence of PSE Pork by Fattening Period, Transport Time and Lairage Time and Lairage Time
Park, B.Y. ; Lee, C.E. ; Kim, I.S. ; Cho, S.H. ; Kim, Y.G. ; Lee, J.M. ; Yoon, S.K. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 3, 2003, Pages 483~490
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2003.45.3.483
The incidence of PSE(Pale, Soft, Exudative) pork by slaughter weight and handling conditions at preslaughtering stage such as fattening period, transport and lairage time were compared. The incidence of PSE pork were 24.9% when pigs were fed under 180 days and 18.9% when pigs were fed over 180 days for fattening. In the transport time from farm to slaughter house, the incidence of PSE pork were 46.6% for shorter than 30min and 45.65% for 30 min
60 min and 35.44% for longer than 60min. The incidence of PSE pork were 55.6% for pigs had no lairage before slaughter, 33.9% for pigs held in lairage overnight. Therefore, the incidence of PSE pork were decreased by 6% with the extension of the fattening period and 9% with the transport time of longer than 1hr and 22.1% with lairage treatment before slaughter. The incidence of PSE pork were different in different location of farms and there were no significantly different in live weight, carcass weight and carcass yield between groups of lairage treatment. In conclusion, handling condition at preslaughtering stage such as extension of fattening period and lairage time were important to control pork quality and lairage treatment was not decreased the carcass yield.
Purification and Properties of Osteopontin from Bovine Milk
Choi, K.W. ; Kim, D.W. ; Lee, S.W. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 3, 2003, Pages 491~498
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2003.45.3.491
The purpose of this study is to observe purification and properties of osteopontin(OPN) from bovine milk. The purification of osteopontin from bovine milk was performed by using ion-exchange and hydrophobic chromatography. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the protein migrated at Mw. 60,000. NH2-terminal sequence analysis of the first seven amio acids revealed the protein to be identical to that previously reported for bovine OPN. 35-wk-old chickens, including 3 Single Comb White Leghorn (SCWL), were used to produce egg yolk antibody(IgY) against OPNas a antigen. However, the anti-OPN antibody activities determined by ELISA. Immunological assy of OPN in milk was performed using radial immunodiffusion test based on the standard curve of pure OPN. The radial precipitation lines of four different milk samples indicated that the concentrations of OPN in the milk samples were within the range of 31.7 to 39.7
/ml. On inhibition with OPN on precipitation of calcium phosphate, OPN was slightly higher than casein phosphopeptide(CPP) and poly-glutamic acid.
Effects of Dietary Biotite Powder on Physico-chemical Characteristics of Pork
Jin, S.K. ; Kim, I.S. ; Song, Y.M. ; Lee, S.D. ; Hah, K.H. ; Kim, H.Y. ; Nam, K.Y. ; Jang, A.R. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 45, issue 3, 2003, Pages 499~508
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2003.45.3.499
This study was carried out to analyze the physico-chemical characteristics of the loin from pigs fed biotite. Control was fed diet for piglets and growing pigs, and treatments were fed diet supplemented 1.25% and 1.75% biotite to piglet diet and to growing pigs, respectively. Ratio of carcass grade A was shown as 27.8% and 50% in control group and treatment, respectively. And that of carcass grade A and B was appeared as 52.8% in control and 80% in treatment. The control group showed higher value of water and protein content than treatment. However, fat and ash content of treatment were higher than those of control. Treatment showed lower value than control in shear force and cooking loss, and was higher than control in pH value(p<0.05). L*, a* and b* value of control in meat color were lower than those of treatments. Treatments group was shown lower value than control group in textural gumminess and brittleness. In the sensory test of fresh meat, there was no significant difference between control and treatment group. However, intramuscular fat content and overall acceptability of control were more or less lower than its of treatment. In cooked meat, the meat color of control was lower than those of treatments. Control group was shown higher saturated fatty acid value than treatment group. However, the poly unsaturated fatty acid, essential fatty acid, and the ratio of unsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid and essential fatty acid/saturated fatty acid were low.