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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 47, Issue 6 - Dec 2005
Volume 47, Issue 5 - Oct 2005
Volume 47, Issue 4 - Aug 2005
Volume 47, Issue 3 - Jun 2005
Volume 47, Issue 2 - Apr 2005
Volume 47, Issue 1 - Feb 2005
Selecting the target year
Genetic Analysis of Carcass Traits in Hanwoo with Different Slaughter End-points
Choy, Y.H. ; Yoon, H.B. ; Choi, S.B. ; Chung, H.W. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 47, issue 5, 2005, Pages 703~710
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2005.47.5.703
Data from Hanwoo steers and bull calves were analyzed to see the phenotypic and genetic relationships between carcass traits from four different covariance models. Four models fit test station and test period as fixed effect of contemporary group and sire as random effect assuming paternal half-sib relationships among animals. Each model fits one of linear covariate (s) of different slaughter end points-age at slaughter in the first order, age at slaughter in the first and second order, slaughter weight or back fat thickness at 12-13th rib of cold carcass. Age at slaughter in its second order was not significant. Age at slaughter accounted for signifi- cant amount of genetic variances and covariances of carcass traits. Heritability estimates of back fat thickness, rib eye area, carcass weight, marbling score and dressing percentage were 0.34, 0.22, 0.24, 0.42 and 0.18, respectively at constant age basis. The genetic correlation between carcass weight and the other variables were all positive and low to high in magnitude. Genetic correlations between back fat thickness and rib eye area and between marbling score and dressing percentage were low but negative. Variance and covariance structure between these traits were shifted to a great extent when these variables were regressed on slaughter weight or on back fat thickness. These two covariates counteracted to each other but they adjusted each carcass variable or their interrelationship according to differential growth of body components, bone, muscle and fat. Slaughter weight tended to decrease genetic variances and covariances of carcass weight and between component traits and back fat thickness tended to increase those of rib eye area and between rib eye area and carcass weight.
Immunohistochemical Study on the TNFα-Secreting Macrophages and Endothelial Cells in the Porcine Corpus Luteum
Park, C.S. ; Han, S.R. ; Kim, S.I. ; Cho, K.J. ; Kim, W.S. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 47, issue 5, 2005, Pages 711~720
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2005.47.5.711
In the corpus luteum, TNF
is known to induce functional and structural luteolysis. In addition, it acts as luteotropic agent during the initial and early stage of luteal development. In spite of its importance in corpus luteal development, there is still different opinions for the source cells of TNF
in the corpus luteum. One is the macrophages only, and the other is macrophages are the main source and endothelial cells are the minor source. In this experiment, using the porcine corpora lutea of pregnancy and ovulatory stages, hematoxylin-eosin stain, macrophage and TNF
immunohistochemistry were carried to reveal the sources of TNF
. As a result, MAC 387-positive macrophages were present in all the stages of corpora lutea. In the mature corpora lutea of nonpregnant stages, the sites of MAC 387-positive macrophages and those of TNF
- positive macrophages were coincided, and the sites of endothelial cells and those of TNF
-positive endothelial cells were nearly coincided. But, in the mature CL of pregnant stage, mid- and advanced luteolytic stages of both nonpregnant and pregnant stages, the sites of MAC 387-positive macrophages and those of TNF
-positive macrophages were coincided, but not in the endothelial cells. Accordingly, it can be concluded that macrophages are the main source of TNF
in the corpus luteum and endothelial cells are the minor source in the mature and mid-lytic stages, but, in the advanced luteolytic stage, macrophages are the only source of TNF
The Effects of Supplemental Levels of Bamboo Vinegar Liquids on Growth Performance, Serum Profile, Carcass Grade, and Meat Quality Characteristics in Finishing Pigs
Kook, K. ; Jeong, J.H. ; Kim, K.H. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 47, issue 5, 2005, Pages 721~730
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2005.47.5.721
Effects of levels of Bomboo Vinegar Liquids(BVL) on growth performance, serum profile and meat quality in employing 90 pigs were investigated. Ninety pigs were allocated into 3 groups and fed by dietary levels of BVL 0(control), 2.0 and 4.0% were included in experimental diets of each of the groups. Concentrated diet was supplemented with 2.0 and 4.0% BVL. The results showed that the daily weight gains and the feed conversion increased significantly(p<0.05) in 2.0% BVL and the feed intake increased slightly. The glucose and the cholesterol contents at the serum decreased significantly(p<0.05) in 2.0 and 4.0% BVL. On the other hand the total protein concentration and the blood urea nitrogen(BUN) increased significantly(p<0.05) in 4.0% BVL. The carcass weight increased significantly(p<0.05) in 4.0% BVL, and back fat thickness had decreased significantly(p<0.05) in 2.0 and 4.0% BVL. The carcass grade tended to increase in 2.0 and 4.0% BVL. The total fat content of loin tended to increase in 2.0 and 4.0% BVL while the cholesterol content decreased significantly(p<0.05). The pH had lower slightly in 2.0 and 4.0% BVL, the lightness and the yellowness of the meat color had higher significantly(p<0.05) while the redness decreased. Shear force values had lower significantly(p<0.05) in 2.0 and 4.0% BVL. For the fatty acid composition, the saturated fatty acids decreased significantly(p<0.05) in 2.0 and 4.0% BVL while unsaturated fatty acids(oleic acid and linoleic acid) increased significantly(p<0.05). For the sensory evaluation, 2.0 and 4.0% BVL had a significant(p<0.05) effect of diminishing the odor and improving the appearance. The taste was also significantly(p<0.05) improved. In conclusion the 2.0% BVL had a positive effect on the feeding performance, the carcass grade and the meat quality characteristics therefore 2.0% BVL is the appropriate supplemental levels of BVL for finishing pigs.
The Optimal TDN Levels of Concentrates and Slaughter Age in Hanwoo Steers
Kim, K.H. ; Lee, J.H. ; Oh, Y.G. ; Kang, S.W. ; Lee, S.C. ; Park, W.Y. ; Ko, Y.D. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 47, issue 5, 2005, Pages 731~744
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2005.47.5.731
Ninety Hanwoo steers(initial BW=167.2
13.4kg) were used to determine the effect of energy concentrations in concentrates and slaughter age on performance, carcass characteristics. Steers were allotted by BW to one of eighteen pens. Eighteen pens were randomly allotted to a low(70-70-71-72% for the growing, the early, the middle or the late fattening periods), medium(70-71-72-73%) or high(70-72- 73-74%) TDN level of concentrates. Five steers for each treatment of energy level were slaughtered every one month from 26 month of age to 31 month of age. Concentrates was fed restrictedly to achieve a predicted gain of 0.7-0.9kg from growing stage to middle fattening stage. All steers were fed orchard grass(Dactylis glomerata L.) hay as roughage during the growing period, fed rice straw gradually substituted for orchard grass hay during the early fattening period, and fed rice straw only thereafter. Overall body weight and feed intake were not affected by TDN levels of concentrates. Average daily gain for all treatments was higher than 0.9kg/d during the 19-21 month of age and decrease thereafter, but sustained above 0.7kg/d. Mean concentrates intake for all treatments was 1.0-1.3% of live BW during the growing period and 1.5% during the early fattening. Thereafter, it decreased up to 1.4% during the middle fattening and 1.0% during late fattening period. Delay of slaughter end point resulted in a gradual increase of rib-eye area, back fat thickness and marbling score, especially after slaughter age of 29 month there was significant increases(P<0.05). The appearance rate of 1+ and 1 grade related to the slaughter ages was 100% at 29, 30 and 31 months of age, whereas those at 26, 27 and 28 months were 93, 86 and 80%, respectively. Dressing rate was significantly(P<0.05) increased and rate of retailed cut weight significantly(P<0.05) decreased when slaughter age increased. In economic analysis, there was pronounced increase in net income up to 32-46% after slaughter age of 29 months. Under the conditions of this study, high TDN intake is not necessarily required for high quality Hanwoo meat production and slaughter age of 29 month might be the optimum for Hanwoo steers.
Effects of Ad libitum and Restricted Feeding of Concentrates on Body Weight Gain, Feed Intake and Blood Metabolites of Hanwoo Steers at Various Growth Stages
Kwon, E.G. ; Hong, S.K. ; Seong, H.H. ; Yun, S.G. ; Park, B.K. ; Cho, Y.M. ; Cho, W.M. ; Chang, S.S. ; Shin, K.J. ; Paek, B.H. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 47, issue 5, 2005, Pages 745~758
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2005.47.5.745
Two hundred fifty eight Hanwoo steers were used in a completely randomized design experiment to determine the effects of ad libitum or restricted feeding of concentrates on body weight(BW) gain, feed intake, blood metabolites and hematological parameters. Steers were assigned at 6 months of age to feeding groups of ad libitum(T1) or restricted(T2) by 18 months of age. Steers in both groups were fed ad libitum from 19 months of age. The restrictive feeding levels were 1.2-1.5% of BW for the growing period and 1.7-1.8% of BW for the early fattening period. Average daily gains were significantly higher in T1 than in T2 from 10 to 14 months of age, but were significantly higher in T2 than in T1 from 20 to 24 months of age(p<0.05). Total dry matter intake(DMI) was higher in T1 than in T2 at 10, 12 and 16 months of age(p<0.05). Total DMI of T2 was higher than that of T1 at 22 months of age(p<0.05). Feed conversions were significantly lower in T2 than in T1 from 20 to 30 months of age(p<0.05). Blood albumin concentrations were significantly higher in T2 than in T1 at 12, 14, 16 and 18 months of age. Blood triglyceride concentrations were significantly higher in T1 than in T2 at 14 and 16 months of age(p<0.05). Blood inorganic phosphorus concentrations were significantly higher in T2 compared with T1 at 8, 10, 16 and 22 months of age(p<0.05). Mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin were significantly lower in T2 than in T1 from 8 to 12 months of age(p<0.05), but those were significantly higher in T2 than T1 from 10 months to 12 months of age(p<0.05). Present results may indicate that the restricted feeding for the growing period does not show adverse effects on body weight gain with better feed conversion for the following late fattening period.
Estimation of Rumen By-pass Rate of Chromium-methionine Chelates by Ruminal Bacteria Analysis
Kim, C.H. ; Park, B.K. ; Park, J.G. ; Kim, H.S. ; Sung, K.I. ; Shin, J.S. ; Ohh, S.J. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 47, issue 5, 2005, Pages 759~768
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2005.47.5.759
The study was designed to estimate the in vitro rumen by-pass rate of both chromium methionine chelate as an organic supplement and
as an inorganic supplement. Rumen by-pass rates of the supplements were evaluted by comparing ruminal metabolites in rumen fluid and Cr and methionine contents in the body of ruminal microorganism. For in vitro digestion examination, basic nutrients for ruminal microbes were supplied with 7g(DM) of feed, 2g of rice straw, and 2g of corn silage per each incubation jar. Three treatments including Control(no supplementation of Cr), T1(1000ppb supplementation of
) and T2(chromium methionine chelate supplementation equivalent to 1000ppb of Cr content) were prepared with five replications per each treatment. pH of T2 was lower than that of Control and T1 regardless of incubation time. Ammonia content was higher in T2 than in Control and T1 during first 6 hours of incubation. However, the ammonia content in Control was remained low after 6 hours. Total volatile fatty acids(VFA) content in control was increased constantly as incubation time was extended. Therefore, VFA content in T1 and T2 were significantly lower (P<0.05) than those of Control. Dry matter recovery rate by ruminal microorganism was the lowest in T1, however ruminal microbial population was increased most efficiently in T2 during 12 hours of in vitro incubation. Cr concentrations in the body of ruminal microbes were not different(P>0.05) between Control and T2, but it was significantly high in T1(P<0.05). Contents of methionine and cystine in ruminal microbes also were not different between Control and T2(P>0.05), but it was relatively low in T1. Based on the above results, the chromium methionine chelate was believed to by-pass rumen and could remain intact until it reaches small intestine compared to inorganic chromium. This results implies that chromium methionine chelate could be more effective to function in the small intestine of ruminant animals.
Effects of Roughage Feeding Type during the Growing and Early-Fattening Periods on Growth Performance, Feed Efficiency and Carcass Characteristics in Holstein Steers
Kang, S.W. ; Ki, K.S. ; Oh, Y.K. ; Kim, K.H. ; Choi, C.W. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 47, issue 5, 2005, Pages 769~782
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2005.47.5.769
Twenty four Holstein steers fed commercial concentrates with rice straw(T1), mixed grass hay(T2), or wet brewer’s grains based TMR ad libitum(T3) were used to investigate the effects of roughage feeding type during the growing and early-fattening periods on growth performance, feed efficiency and carcass characteristics. Growth performance and feed efficiency were investigated during the feeding trial conducted from 6 to 23 mo of age, and carcass characteristics were investigated after slaughter. Body weight at slaughter and daily gains were 751 to 802 kg(mean 782 kg) and 1.064 to 1.159 kg/d(mean 1.122 kg/d), respectively, showing that those for T2 were highest followed by T3. Compared with T1, the daily gain for T2 was improved by 8.9%. The TDN intakes per kg gain were 6.87, 7.17 and 7.15 kg for T1, T3 and T2, respectively, indicating that feed efficiency for T2 was improved(approx. 5%) compared with T1. The feeding treatments did not change dressing percentage(mean 60.8%), back fat thickness(6.68 mm) and rib-eye area(84.0
). Neither meat quality characteristics nor physicochemical properties were significantly different among the treatments. However, economic analysis accounting for 882.8, 991.7 and 943.8 thousand won per head for T1, T2 and T3, respectively, indicated that T2 and T3 increased(7-12%) total net income compared with T1. Therefore, it may be concluded that high quality meat of Holstein steers can be produced if they are fattened until 23 mo of age and that feeding mixed grass hay as roughage or TMR containing mainly wet brewer's grains during the growing and early-fattening periods can improve growth performance compared with feeding rice straw.
Effects of Dietary Crude Protein Level on Growth and Meat Quality of Korean Native Goats
Choi, S.H. ; Kim, S.W. ; Park, B.Y. ; Sang, B.D. ; Kim, Y.K. ; Myung, J.H. ; Hur, S.N. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 47, issue 5, 2005, Pages 783~788
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2005.47.5.783
This study was conducted to investigate the optimal CP level in growing goat kids. Forty male goats were divided into four treatment groups fed diets containing CP 12, 14, 16, and 18% of concentrate feed, and rice straw, respectively. Results are summarized as follows. Average daily gain’s(ADG) of groups fed diets with CP 14% and CP 18% were 84.0 and 83.0g/d each, which were higher than group fed diets with CP 12% grown at 69.2g of ADG(P<0.05). Daily feed intakes of concentrate and rice straw were 590g and 45g each and there was no difference found between treatments. The amounts of feed required for body weight gain(g) were similar in the range of 7.0-7.3 for groups fed diets with CP 14%, 16% or 18%. But the group fed diets with CP 12% required somewhat more feed for gain at 8.8g. Dressing percentage of groups fed diet with CP 12% was 61.7%, which was higher than groups fed diets with CP 14% or CP 18%(P<0.05) but similar to that fed diet with CP 16%. Meat percentage from goats fed diet with CP 16% was 51.7%, which were higher than goats fed diets with CP 12% or CP 14%(P<0.05). Fat deposition of CP 12% group was higher than the other groups(P<0.05). Percentage of bone weight averaged 17.0% without any difference among treatment groups. Shear force and cooking loss, which are physical properties of goat meats, were lower in CP 16% and CP 14% groups than the other two groups. Water holding capacity of goats meats from CP 16% was higher than those from CP 18% group(P<0.05). Results from panel test showed that juiciness of meats from CP 16% group was higher than those from CP 12% group(P<0.05). Meats from CP 16% also was tested to be more tender than meats from the other groups. Results from this work suggest that the optimum crude protein level in growing goat's concentrate is 14-16% and that increase above this level seems not to improve meat production.
Effects of Supplementing Aqueous Direct-Fed Microbials on In Vitro Fermentation and Fibrolytic Enzyme Activity in the Ruminant Nutrition
Lee, S.H. ; Seo, I.J. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 47, issue 5, 2005, Pages 789~804
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2005.47.5.789
This study was conducted to determine effects of supplementation levels of aqueous direct-fed microbials (DFM; Bacillus spp.) to TMR(exp. 1.) and aqueous DFM addition under the various ratios of starch and cellulose(exp. 2.) on ruminal fermentation and fibrolytic enzyme activity. In experiment 1, ruminal fluids taken from rumen-cannulated Holstein cows were incubated during 24 hr by using TMR as substrates. Aqueous DFM was applied at a rate of 0, 0.025 and 0.05%, respectively. The pH of 0.025% treatment was not significantly different from that of control at 6 and 9 hr, but it was significantly lower (P<0.05) than 0.05% treatment. Concentrations of ammonia-N and VFAs were not affected by supplementing aqueous DFM. The A:P ratio of 0.05% treatment was significantly increased(P<0.05) by supplementation of aqueous DFM as compared with that of control at 24 hr. Although overall fibrolytic enzyme activities were not significantly affected by supplementing aqueous DFM, CMCase(carboxymethylcellulase) activity showed significant increase(P<0.05) compared to control at 6hr. However, the xylanase activity of 0.05% treatment significantly decreased(P<0.05) at 12 hr due to the application of aqueous DFM. There was no significant difference for in vitro dry matter disappearance among treatments. In experiment 2, ruminal fluids were incubated under the condition of various ratios of starch to cellulose(90:10, 70:30, 50:50, 30:70 and 10:90) with or without aqueous DFM(0.025%). Ruminal pH was unaffected by the addition of aqueous DFM, however, as increased level of starch, ruminal pH partially showed significant decrease(P<0.05). Ammonia-N concentration was not affected by aqueous DFM and ratio of starch and cellulose. On 9 hr incubation, DFM addition at a ratio of 70:30 showed significantly (P<0.05) lower value of ammonia-N(35.65 mg/dL) than that(65.05 mg/dL) of control. Concentrations of VFAs were significantly increased(P<0.05) by aqueous DFM addition compared with control at the same ratio on 6 hr incubation. The overall CMCase activity was not affected by aqueous DFM addition. However, the xylanase activity by aqueous DFM partially showed significant differences at the ratios of 90:10, 30:70 and 10:90. Our results indicated that supplementation of aqueous DFM did not significantly improve in vitro fermentation and fibrolytic enzyme activity. In addition, the DFM utilized in this study did not show consistent results by having various effects on ruminal fermentation under different feeding regimens.
Effects of Dietary Protein Level on Production and Chemical Composition of Velvet Antler in Spotted Deer (Cervus nippon)
Jeon, B.T. ; Lee, S.M. ; Kim, M.H. ; Moon, S.H. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 47, issue 5, 2005, Pages 805~812
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2005.47.5.805
The aim of this study was to provide basic information to allow improved feeding management for velvet antler production by investigating the effects of dietary protein level on production and chemical composition of velvet antler in spotted deer(Cervus nippon). Eighteen male spotted deer of 5~6 years old were assigned to 3 unreplicated groups by production record of the previous year. Deer were fed on experimental diets at different protein level of 10%(T1), 15%(T2) and 20%(T3). Dry matter intake, crude protein intake and daily gain were increased with increasing the protein level in diets and there were significant differences(P<0.05) between groups. Although not significant, mean length of main beam tended to be longer in either left or right beam with increasing the protein level, and in girth at part of base of main beam, it was a similar pattern to the result of length. The velvet antler production was affected by dietary protein level and thus that was the smallest in T1 and the largest in T3(P<0.05). The content of crude protein in velvet antler was higher in T1 than in T3, whereas the content of crude ash in velvet antler was contrast to that of crude protein, however, there were no significant differences.
Changes of Quality Characteristics of Spicy Fermented Pork with Atmosphere Packaging during Storage
Jin, S.K. ; Kim, I.S. ; Hah, K.H. ; Lyou, H.J. ; Park, K.H. ; Lee, J.I. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 47, issue 5, 2005, Pages 813~824
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2005.47.5.813
This study was carried out to evaluate the quality characteristics of the spicy fermented pork with traditional seasonings. The samples, outside muscle of pork ham, were cut to cube(
cm3) and five traditional seasonings such as soy sauce(T1), Kimchi sauce(T2), pickled shrimps sauce(T3), onion sauce (T4) were seasoned by the proportions of meat to seasonings(1:1), respectively. The seasoned samples were fermented at
for 10 days. And then, the spicy fermented meat was atmosphere packaged and stored at
for up to 28 days. The pH level of fermented pork has been decreased at the end of the storage compared to the early storage days. The pH level of T3 was higher than that of other treatments during the whole storage days. The salinity and saccharinity of treatments were increased during the storage periods in T1, T3 and T4. TBARS in all treatments was significantly high at the later days of the storage compared to the early days of the storage. VBN was increased until the 21 days of storage and decreased rapidly since then. There were no significant differences in WHC among the all treatments. The shear force was increased with storage in all treatments group. The L* values of surface meat showed a tendency of increasing value along the storage days and the a*, b* values showed a tendency of decreasing value. The number of total bacteria and lactic acid bacteria were tended to increase during storage, while E. coli was decreased as storage period extended. In the results of sensory evaluation, T1 had the highest score in overall acceptability.
Quality Characteristics of Vacuum Packaged Fermented Pork with Soy Sauce, Red Pepper and Soybean Paste Seasoning during Storage
Jin, S.K. ; Kim, I.S. ; Hah, K.H. ; Lyou, H.J. ; Park, K.H. ; Lee, J.R. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 47, issue 5, 2005, Pages 825~836
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2005.47.5.825
This study was carried out to evaluate the quality characteristics of the fermented pork with soy sauce, red pepper paste and soybean paste. The ham of pork were cut to cube (7 × 10 × 2 cm
) and Korea traditional seasonings such as soy sauce (T1), red pepper paste (T2), soybean paste (T3) were seasoned by the proportions of meat to seasonings (1:1), respectively. The pH of fermented pork with soybean paste seasoning were significantly higher compared to those for fermented pork with soy sauce and red pepper paste seasoning at 1 and 28 days of storage, but were significantly lower at 14 days of storage. The water-holding capacity of fermented pork with soy sauce seasoning were significantly higher compared to those for fermented pork with red pepper and soybean paste seasoning at 28 days of storage. The surface meat L* values of fermented pork with soybean paste seasoning were significantly higher compared to those for fermented pork with soy sauce and red pepper paste seasoning, but a* and b* values of fermented pork with red pepper paste seasoning significantly higher. The volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) of fermented pork with soybean paste seasoning were significantly lower compared to those for fermented pork with soy sauce seasoning at 1 and 28 days of storage. The shear force and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) of fermented pork with soybean paste seasoning were significantly lower compared to those for fermented pork with soy sauce and red pepper paste seasoning. The total plate counts of fermented pork with soybean paste seasoning were significantly higher compared to those for fermented pork with soy sauce and red pepper paste seasoning at 14 days of storage, but were significantly lower at 28 days of storage. The Escherichia coli of fermented pork with soy sauce and soybean paste seasoning were significantly lower compared to those for fermented pork with red pepper paste seasoning at 1 day of storage. The Lactobacilli spp. of fermented pork with red pepper paste seasoning were significantly lower compared to those for fermented pork with soy sauce and soybean paste seasoning.
Changes of Quality Characteristics of Seasoned Pork during Aging at 10℃
Jin, S.K. ; Kim, I.S. ; Hah, K.H. ; Lyou, H.J. ; Park, K.H. ; Lee, J.I. ; Chung, K.Y. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 47, issue 5, 2005, Pages 837~850
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2005.47.5.837
This study was conducted to investigate the changes of quality characteristics on seasoned pork with Korean traditional 4 types seasoning such as soybean sauce(T1); Kimchi sauce(T2); pickled shrimps sauce(T3); onion sauce(T4). The seasoned samples were aged at 10±1℃ for 13 days. The results obtained were as follows; Except for T2, pH of treatments were significantly decreased(P<0.05) as aging period increased. Salinity(%) and saccharinity(%) of seasoned meat were tended to increased during aging period. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances(TBARS) were increased significantly during storage in all treatment(P<0.05). T4 showed the highest TBARS among the all treatment groups. Volatile basic nitrogen(VBN) values of all treatments were significantly increased(P<0.05) as storage period increased. There were no significant differences in water holding capacity(WHC) among the all treatments, and those values were not changed by the passage of storage days. Shear force values of all treatments were tended to decreased by the passage of storage days. In surface color, the values of L*, a* and b* showed a tendency of increasing value along the storage days. The values of a* and b* of T2 were significantly higher than other treatments during aging period(P<0.05). In inner color, a* and b* values of T2 were significantly higher than those of other treatments during aging period(P<0.05). In the sensory evaluation of cooked meat, T3 treatment resulted in lower score in aroma, flavor, tenderness, juiciness and overall acceptability. The number of total plate counts and Lactobacilli spp. tended to increase with storage in all treatments group. The numbers of Escherichia coli were not changed by the passage of storage time.
Stability of Anti-Helicobacter pylori IgY Under Some Condition
Jung, S.H. ; Kim, H.J. ; Lee, S.W. ; Lee, N.H. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 47, issue 5, 2005, Pages 851~856
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2005.47.5.851
The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the stability of anti-Helicobacter pylori IgY in water soluble fraction(WSF) of egg yolk according to the heat, pH and digestive enzyme treatment. Anti-H. pylori IgY content of WSF remained 76% after pasteurization(63
for 30 min). The stability of anti-H. pylori IgY at different pH showed a tendency to diminish according to decreasing pH from 7.0 to 1.5(p＜0.05). Anti-H. pylori IgY content was 84.4% after treatment for 1 hour at 37
in pH 5.0. There were significantly differences in IgY content between 1 hour and 2 hours at pH 2.0 in 200 units of pepsin treatment(p＜0.05). However, IgY was relatively stable at pH 4.0 regardless of the reaction time and the concentration of pepsin. The stability of IgY of egg yolk after the treatment of trypsin was significantly higher than that of water soluble fraction (p＜0.05). This results indicated that anti-H. pylori IgY showed relatively a good stability on heat, pH and digestive enzyme.
Changes in Taste Compounds of Seasoned Pork with Korean Traditional Sauces during Aging
Hah, K.H. ; Joo, S.T. ; Park, G.B. ; Sung, N.J. ; Lyou, H.J. ; Park, K.H. ; Kim, I.S. ; Jin, S.K. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 47, issue 5, 2005, Pages 857~866
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2005.47.5.857
This study was carried out to evaluate changes in taste compounds of seasoned pork with Korean traditional sauces. The samples, pork loins were cut by the shape of cube(
cm) and seasoned pork with Korean traditional sauces such as soy sauce base(T1), red pepper sauce base(T2), and soybean sauce base(T3) in the same proportion of meat seasonings, respectively. The seasoned samples were stored, at
during 28 days. Citric acid and fumaric acid were higher after 14 days of storage for the treatments, seasoned pork with red pepper sauce had higher compared to other treatments. While propionic acid and lactic acid were higher in seasoned pork with soybean sauce compared to other treatments. Free amino acids was higher in seasoned pork with soybean and red pepper sauce compared to seasoned pork with soy sauce. In all treatments, free amino acids was slightly increased with aging periods. 5'-inosine monophosphate(IMP) was decreased, whereas inosine was increased with increase of aging time. Inosine was higher in seasoned pork with soybean and red pepper sauce compared to seasoned pork with soy sauce. In sensory evaluation, aroma, flavor, tenderness and juiciness were increased with aging period increased in all treatments.
Microbiological Contamination of Ice Cream Commercially Available in Korea and its Irradiation Effect
Kim, Hyun-Joo ; Jo, Cheor-Un ; Kim, Dong-Soo ; Yook, Hong-Sun ; Byun, Myung-Woo ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 47, issue 5, 2005, Pages 867~876
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2005.47.5.867
The microbial contamination of ice cream product commercially available in Korea was determined using ice bar, ice cream, ice milk and non-milk fat ice cream. Irradiation effect on enhancement of microbiological safety was also investigated at doses of 1, 3, and 5 kGy. In all products, yeast and molds were not detected, however, total aerobic and coliform bacteria were detected at 1-2 and 1-1.5 Log CFU/g level, respectively. According to the different flavor used in ice cream, total aerobic bacteria were detected as 2.30, 2.90, and 3.32 Log CFU/g level in vanilla, chocolate, and strawberry ice cream, respectively. Yeast and mold was not detected in vanilla ice cream but 2.30 and 2.70 Log CFU/g in chocolate and strawberry ice cream, respectively. Coliforms were also detected 1-2 Log CFU/g in the ice cream with different flavors. Listeria inocua and Escherichia coli were detected from 3 commercial samples but Salmonella spp. was not detected using API kit. Gamma irradiation significantly reduced the level of the contaminated total aerobic bacteria, yeast and molds and coliform population in the ice creams. These results indicated that irradiation(5kGy or less) is effective to ensure safety of ice cream.
Effect of Different Growing Stages of Winter Cereal Crops on the Quality of Silage Materials and Silages
Heo, J.M. ; Lee, S.K. ; Lee, I.D. ; Lee, B.D. ; Bae, H.C. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 47, issue 5, 2005, Pages 877~890
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2005.47.5.877
This study was carried out to determine the effect of different growing stages of winter cereal crops on the quality of silage materials and silages. Silages were made from the silage materials harvested at four growing stages(boot, heading, flowering, and yellow ripe) of barley, rye, oat, and wheat. Approximately 1 kg of silage materials harvested from each growing stage stored in vinyl bags with vacuum packing method and fermented at room temperature for 40 days. As the growing stages progressed, the moisture and crude protein contents of the silage materials decreased, and fiber contents(NDF, ADF and hemicellulose) increased. All the silage materials showed significantly higher contents of water soluble carbohydrate in the boot stages than in the flowering and yellow ripe stages. There was no tendency in acetic acid contents of silage materials cut at different growing stages. The overall pH of silage materials were in the range of 5.91-6.01, and there was no significant difference among growing stages. Buffering capacity of silage materials were in the range of 26.23-29.47meq/100g DM, and showed a tendency to decline as the growing stages proceeded. The moisture and crude protein contents of silages decreased significantly in all species as the growing stages proceeded, and the fiber contents vice versa. As the growing stages proceeded, the pH of the silages tended to increase, and the acetic, butyric, and lactic acid contents tended to decrease. The buffering capacity of silages had a tendency to decrease as the growing stages of winter cereal crops proceeded. Therefore, these features described above should be taken into consideration in order to make silages from winter crops economically.
The Conformation of the Jindo (Canis familiaris), Korean Native Dog - the trunk and limb
Park, Y.S. ; Kim, S.K. ; Lee, J.C. ; Oh, S.I. ; Lee, S.H. ; Park, B.K. ; Lee, J.I. ; Lee, C.Y. ; Lee, C.G. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 47, issue 5, 2005, Pages 891~898
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2005.47.5.891
The trunk and limb of the Jindo, Korean native dog was measured in the present study. One hundred and ninety five Jindoes were randomly selected from the 1,985 dogs in the Jindo County in August 1998, which were screened by the judging committee of the County and registered by inserting electronic chips in the withers. They were about a year and half old, and were white and fawn dogs. A total of 18 parts of the trunk and limb were measured using calipers and tapes. The average height at the withers was 50.67 cm in dogs and 47.48 cm in bitches. The average body length was 52.99 cm in dogs and 50.33 cm in bitches. And the average height : body length ratio was 104.70 in dogs and 106.08 in bitches. No differences were observed between the Jindoes of the two coat colors in these measurements. The results of this study would be useful for compiling the official standard for the adult Jindo.
Effects of Compulsory Casting on Velvet Antler Growth in Sika Deer
Kim, S.W. ; Choi, S.H. ; Sang, B.D. ; Kim, Y.K. ; Yoo, C.H. ; Seo, K.W. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 47, issue 5, 2005, Pages 899~904
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2005.47.5.899
The study was conducted to investigate the effects of physical stimulus on casting day of antler, velvet antler yield, length of velvet antler in Sika deer(Cervus nippon). Eigthen(18) stags were assigned into the treatment with six(6) stags for treatment. Results revealed that at the start of the velvet antler growth, compulsorily casting both pedicles group was 15 days later at first cycle but 11-14 days earlier at the second cycle than control group(P<0.05). The yields of velvet antler in control group, casting only left pedicle group and the both pedicle group were 775g, 835g and 757g at the first cycle and 1,004g, 1,194g and 998g at the second cycle, respectively. The average length of antler in control group, casting only left pedicle group and both pedicle group were 25.8cm, 27.4cm and 31.5cm, respectively. The average length of antler of the casting only left pedicle group and that of the both pedicle group showed 1.6cm and 5.7cm in first cycle and 2.7cm and 2.4cm in second cycle longer than that of control group(P<0.05). Results of the study suggest the possibility of controlling velvet antler producing point through compulsory casting method.
Effects of Medroxy Progesterone Acetate (MPA) Treatment on Growth of Velvet Antler in Sika Deer and Elk Deer
Kim, S.W. ; Choi, S.H. ; Sang, B.D. ; Kim, Y.K. ; Yoo, C.H. ; Seo, K.W. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 47, issue 5, 2005, Pages 905~912
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2005.47.5.905
The study was conducted to determine the effects of hormone injection on casting day of antler, velvet antler yield, and blood hormone concentration in elk deer and Sika deer. The study revealed that the casting day of Elk and Sika deer at medroxy progesterone acetate(MPA) injection averaged 21 days after MPA injection, which was earlier 38 and 24 days, respectively, compared control(P<0.01). The regrowth of antler in both Sika deer and Elk occurred in the MPA injection and the duration of antler growth was 2 times longer than control. The total yield of velvet antler of Elk in the control and MPA injection was 7.31 and 10.11kg and the that of sika deer was 1.00 and 1.41kg, respectively. Blood testosterone concentration of Sika deer and Elk was less than 4.0ng/ml for both at the casting and during the antler growing. Blood IGF-1 concentrations of Sika deer and Elk during the antler growing tended to increase with the same as growth curve of antler.