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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 48, Issue 6 - Dec 2006
Volume 48, Issue 5 - Oct 2006
Volume 48, Issue 4 - Aug 2006
Volume 48, Issue 3 - Jun 2006
Volume 48, Issue 2 - Apr 2006
Volume 48, Issue 1 - Feb 2006
Selecting the target year
Estimation of Genetic Parameter for Carcass Traits According to MTDFREML and Gibbs Sampling in Hanwoo(Korean Cattle)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 3, 2006, Pages 337~344
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.3.337
The objective of this study was to compare of genetic parameter estimates on carcass traits of Hanwoo(Korean Cattle) according to modeling with Gibbs sampler and MTDFREML. The data set consisted of 1,941 cattle records with 23,058 animals in pedigree files at Hanwoo Improvement Center. The variance and covariance among carcass traits were estimated via Gibbs sampler and MTDFREML algorithms. The carcass traits considered in this study were longissimus dorsi area, backfat thickness, and marbling score. Genetic parameter estimates using Gibbs sampler and MTDFREML from single-trait analysis were similar with those from multiple-trait analysis. The estimated heritabilities using Gibbs sampler were .52～.54, .54 ～.59, and .42～.44 for carcass traits. The estimated heritabilities using MTDFREML were .41, .52～.53, and .31～.32 for carcass traits. The estimated genetic correlation using Gibbs sampler and MTDFREML of LDA between BF and MS were negatively correlated as .34～.36, .23～.37. Otherwise, genetic correlation between BF and MS was positive genetic correlation as .36～.44. The correlations of breeding value for marbling score between via MTDFREML and via Gibbs sampler were 0.989, 0.996 and 0.985 for LDA, BF and MS respectively.
Lipogenesis Gene Expression Profiling in Longissimus dorsi on the Early and Late Fattening stage of Hanwoo
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 3, 2006, Pages 345~352
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.3.345
Korean native cattle (Hanwoo) have a good capacity to produce heavily marbled meat of high value. The intramuscular fat in Hanwoo is known to be deposit from 12 months of age by degree of slightly visible and significantly developed in 28 months of age. Lipogenesis gene expression profiling in longissimus dorsi at early and late fattening stage will be helpful to understand the mechanism of intramuscular fat deposition in skeletal muscle. Therefore, we analysed the gene expression patterns of six genes related lipid metabolism (FABP4, GLUT4, LPL, ACC, ACL and SCD) between early and late fattening stage. The mRNA expression of FABP4 at late fattening stage (27 months old) was higher about 3.0 fold than at early fattening stage (12 months old) in each three individuals of Hanwoo. However, GLUT4 mRNA expression was not different at late fattening stage compared with at early fattening stage. On the other hand, The expression patterns of LPL, ACC, ACL and SCD genes related lipid metabolism were significantly over-expressed about 3.5 fold, 2.7 fold, 3.7 fold and 7.5 fold at late fattening stage, respectively. Thus, these results suggested that lipogenesis in skeletal muscle at late fattening stage is due to increasing uptake of fatty acid by FABP4 and lipogenesis gene expression such as LPL, ACC, ACL and SCD.
Effects of Artificial Stimulations on the activation of oocyte and the expression of cyclin B1 protein in mouse oocytes
Hwang, S.S. ; Kim, C.K. ; Chung, Y.C. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 3, 2006, Pages 353~360
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.3.353
This study was performed to investigate the effects of artificial stimulation on the increase of the oocyte activation, to evaluate the expression of cyclin B1 protein levels in enucleated mouse oocytes, and to investigate correlation between the oocyte activation and the cyclin B1 protein levels. The oocyte activation was induced by 7% ethanol (EtOH) or 10μg/ml Ca-ionophore with or without 10μg/ml cycloheximide (CH). The activation rate was significantly higher in both single (p<0.05) and combined (p<0.01) stimulated groups compared to control group. The cyclin B1 protein level was significantly reduced in both stimulated groups (p<0.05), except for EtOH+CH treatment group. The expression of cyclin B1 protein showed a higher negative correlation with activation rate in EtOH+CH (r=0.61, p<0.05) and Ca+CH (r=0.86, p<0.01) stimulation groups, but not in a both single stimulation groups. Taken together, it can be suggested that single (EtOH and Ca- ionophore) and combined (EtOH+CH and Ca+CH) stimulation increases the oocyte activation, especially combined stimulation, because it induces the degradation of cyclin B1 protein after artificial stimulation treatments in mouse oocytes.
Effects of Fermented Food Waste Supplementation on Growth Performance and Pork Quality in Pigs
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 3, 2006, Pages 361~374
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.3.361
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fermented food waste (FFW) supplementation on growth, nutrient digestibility and pork quality of growing pigs. A total of 48 crossbred pigs were assigned to four treatments in a randomized complete block (RCB) design. Treatments were 1) Control (basal), 2) FFW 2% (basal+2%FFW), 3) FFW 4% (basal+4%FFW) and 4) FFW 6% (basal+6%FFW). Diets were formulated based on corn-soybean meal and the FFW products were provided to weaning, growing and finishing periods. During the whole experimental period, FFW treatment groups showed similar ADG, ADFI and G:F ratios (P>.10) compared to control group. However, In the finishing period, pigs fed 6% FFW tended to be lower ADG than other dietary treatments (P=0.13) resulting in lower final weight. All pigs showed inconsistent blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentrations pattern. In metabolic trial, nutrient digestibility was not affected by the supplementation of FFW. The pork quality was affected by the supplementation of FFW based upon pork pH, lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and meat color analysis. These results suggested that utilization of fermented food waste to growing pig's diet reduce production cost without any detrimental effect on pork quality when it was provided at low level.
Effects of Dietary Herbal Plant Mixture (Koppuul
on Growth Performance, Blood Immunological Parameters, Fecal VFA and NH
-N Concentrarions in Growing Pigs
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 3, 2006, Pages 375~382
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.3.375
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary herbal plant mixture on growth performance, blood immunological parameters, fecal VFA and NH3-N concentrations in growing pigs. The dietary treatments were 1) NC (negative control; antibiotics-free diet), 2) PC (positive control; NC diet added 0.16% antibiotic), 3) NCK0.2 (NC diet added 0.2% herbal plant mixture (koppuul??)) and 4) PCK0.1 (PC diet added 0.1% herbal plant mixture (koppuul??)). Eighty crossbred (Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc) pigs (16.35±0.05kg average initial body weight) were used for 42 days. The pigs were assigned to the treatments according to body weight and each treatment had 5 replicates of 4 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block design. During the whole experimental period, PCK0.1 and PC treatments had significantly higher ADG than NC treatment (P<0.05). Gain/feed of pigs fed PC diet was higher than that of pigs fed NC diet (P<0.05). For blood immunological parameters investigations, white blood cells (WBC) counts and IgG level increased in the pigs fed PC, NCK0.2 and PCK0.1 diets compared to pigs fed NC diet. In addition, higher (P<0.05) serum lymphocyte concentration was found in PCK0.1 treatment compared to NC treatment. NH3-N concentration in pigs fed NCK0.2% diet was lower than that in pigs fed PC and NC diets. There were no significant differences in DM and N digestibilities among the treatments. In conclusion, the results suggested that the dietary additions of herbal plant mixture or antibiotics increase ADG, the concentrations of WBC counts and IgG, lymphocyte, while decrease NH3-N concentration in feces.
Effects of Supplemental Bio-Active Substances on the Growth Performance, Nutrient Utilization, Blood Characteristics, Microflora Population and Diarrhea Frequency of Weanling Pigs
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 3, 2006, Pages 383~392
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.3.383
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of a supplemented mixture of herbs (artemisia, eucommia ulmoids and houttuynia cordata) on the growth performance, nutrient utilization, blood characteristics, microflora population and diarrhea frequency in weanling pigs. Eighty-four pigs were randomly allotted into one of the four dietary treatments, each of which had 3 replicates. Experimental diets were prepared by adding (0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%) a mixture of artemisia, eucommia ulmoids and houttuynia cordata to a commercial feed, and were given to pigs for 42 days. Daily feed intake was significantly increased in the groups supplemented with the mixture at 1.0% group and 2.0% group. Digestibility was significantly increased in 1.0% for protein and ether extract, and in 1.0% group and 2.0% group for NFE. Total bacillus and lactobacillus sp. were significantly (p<0.05) improved in 1.0% group and 2.0% group, respectively. Glucose concentrations of serum increased significantly (p<0.05) in 0.5% group and 1.0% group, and HDL increased significantly (p<0.05) in 1.0% group and 2.0% group. Diarrhea decreased by treatments except control (p<0.05). It is concluded that pigs fed the diet supplemented with 1.0% mixture of herbs can improve daily body weight gain, feed efficiency, nutrient utilizations and diarrhea frequency in pigs.
Evaluation of Feeding Value of Brown Rice in Korean Native Beef Steers (Hanwoo)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 3, 2006, Pages 393~400
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.3.393
The present study was conducted to evaluate feeding value of brown rice in Korean native beef steers (Hanwoo) fed concentrates and orchardgrass hay (50:50 on a wet basis) as a basal diet. Either 50% or 100% of corn in concentrates was substituted for brown rice, and ruminal fermentation characteristics, in situ degradability of feeds and in vivo digestibility of concentrate were investigated. The digestibility and nutritive values of corn and brown rice feeds were similar, whereas rumen degradability of brown rice was higher than that of corn. Compared with corn-based diets, the brown rice substitution decreased (P<0.05) ruminal NH3-N concentration, but did not affect rumen pH. Total volatile fatty acid content in ruminal digesta for the corn based diet was higher than those for the brown rice-contained diets. The brown rice substitution increased (P<0.05) the ratio of ruminal acetic acid to propionic acid (A/P) compared with corn-contained diets.Present results indicate that corn might nutritionally be substituted for brown rice as cattle feeds. In addition, we expect that relatively high A/P with brown rice may produce affirmative effects in rumen physiological aspect, particularly under the grain based feeding system for beef cattle in Korea.
Effects of Different Levels of Crushed Bamboo Chip on Performance and Carcass Characteristics in Holstein Steers
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 3, 2006, Pages 401~414
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.3.401
Twenty eight Holstein steers 12 months old and weighing about 300kg were andomly allotted into one of four groups being fed ammoniated rice straw(ARS) and substituted 30%, 40% and 50% crushed bamboo chip for ARS to determine the effects of different levels of bamboo chip on performance, digestibility and carcass characteristics. Daily weight gain was reduced as the substitution levels of bamboo chip for ARS as a roughage source increased but there were no differences in daily weight gain between steers fed ARS alone and 30% bamboo chip for ARS. Concentrates intakes were not different between treatments by the substitution levels of bamboo chip for the whole fattening period. Roughage intake tended to increase as the substitution levels of bamboo chip increased. Total feed intake was not affected by the substitution levels of bamboo chip. However, feed efficiency got worse with increasing levels of bamboo chip. Animals fed the roughage substituting 30% bamboo chip for ARS were higher in profit by 13% than animals fed ARS alone as a roughage source. Digestibilities of Dry matter(DDM) and crude fiber(DCF) were highest in animals fed ARS alone as a roughage source. DDM's were lower in higher substitution levels of crushed bamboo chip but there were no differences in DCF among animals fed different levels of bamboo chip as a roughage source. Crude protein digestibility was not affected by ammoniated rice straw or by the different levels of bamboo chip. Dressing percentage and backfat thickness were not affected by ammoniated rice straw or by the levels of bamboo chip but ribeye area was narrowed as the levels of bamboo chip increased. Beef color, fat color, texture, maturity and marbling score were not affected by feeding of ammoniated rice straw or by the levels of bamboo chip. According to these results, it may be concluded that profit can increase when Holstein bulls are castrated and roughage containing ammoniated rice straw plus 30% bamboo chip is offered.
Comparison of the Influence of Carbon Substrates on the Fibrolytic Activities of Neocallimastix sp. NLRI-3
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 3, 2006, Pages 415~424
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.3.415
The purpose of this study was to investigate the fungal growth and enzyme production under different carbohydrate substrate conditions. The anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix sp. NLRI-3 isolated from the rumen of Korean native goat was incubated with different carbohydrate media containing 0.2% of glucose, starch, rice straw, filter paper, carboxymethyl cellulose(CMC), Sigmacell cellulose, xylan or xylose, respectively. The culture head gas production was the highest in the culture of filter paper medium, and the lowest in the culture of CMC medium at 96h incubation (P<0.05). The fungal zoospore production reached peak at 72h incubation, and its number was the highest in rice straw medium among the treatments (P<0.05). At 96h incubation, carboxymethyl cellulase(CMCase) activity was the highest in the culture of filter paper medium and the lowest in the culture of starch medium (P<0.05). While xylanase activity was the highest in the culture of rice straw medium and the lowest in the culture of xylose medium(P<0.05) at 72h incubation. There were no differences in culture supernatant protein expression among the treatments. However, the patterns of enzyme expression were different among the treatments with zymogram analysis. Six CMCases and 4 xylanase were detected from the results of zymogram analysis. Therefore the present study indicating that the fungal enzyme expression could be stimulated with insoluble substrates in the culture medium.
Quality Characteristics of Press Ham Containing Ginseng Powder
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 3, 2006, Pages 425~434
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.3.425
Press ham were manufactured to investigate the effects of ginseng powder on quality characteristics of press ham. Each treatment added pork loin basis with Ginseng powder(0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0%) were stored until 28 days at 4℃. The changes in shear force value, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), fatty acid composition and sensory evaluation of each treatment were measured until 28 days at 4℃. Shear force value was not significantly different between the control and ginseng treatment groups. The value for all treatments were decreased significantly by the passage of storage time (P<0.05). Remarkable differences were found in sensory properties(color, flavor and acceptability) among control and ginseng treatment groups. This was not clearly changed by the passage of storage time. Ginseng treatment groups showed significantly (p<0.05) lower TBARS value than the control. TBARS value was increased significantly during storage in all treatments. Fatty acid composition did not significantly differ between the control and ginseng treatment groups. Summing up the a forementioned results, press ham manufacturing with ginseng powder was not affected in shear force value, sensory evaluation, TBARS and fatty acid composition. Also, it may be assumed that the high quality press ham can be manufactured with the extend of storage period and saponin accumulation.
Influence of Surimi-like Material (SLM) from Pig Heart on Quality of Frankfurter Sausage
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 3, 2006, Pages 435~442
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.3.435
Effects of surimi-like material (SLM) from pig heart on the quality of frankfurter sausage were investigated. The sausages were made by substituted addition of SLM at 5 and 10% levels in raw meats. Contents of moisture and fat in batter were not changed by addition of SLM, respectively, whereas protein content was significantly (P<0.05) decreased with SLM level increased. Although pH of frankfurter sausage was significantly (P<0.05) increased with SLM addition, percentage of cook yield was significantly (P<0.05) decreased. As increasing of addition levels of SLM, hardness and chewiness were decreased, but springiness was significantly (P<0.05) increased. Also, panel rated sausages of 10% SLM as having a higher tenderness and acceptability compared with control. These results suggested that a tender frankfurter sausage without any defects of flavor might be made with substitution of SLM from pig heart.
Feed Value, Growth and Dry Matter Yield of High Yielding Rice(Oryza sativa L.) for the Twice-cutting System
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 3, 2006, Pages 443~452
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.3.443
The four rice(Oryza sativa L.) lines, previously demonstrated to have vigorous herbage production at the vegetative growth stage, were investigated for their growth traits, dry matter yield and feed value using the twice-cutting system that 1st-cut is harvested at panicle formation stage and 2nd-cut at the yellow ripen stage. The twice-cutting system is regarded as an effective method in the production of forage rice by escaping lodging and insect damages caused by the overgrowth and typhoon around the heading stage.The feed value of the twice-cut rice plant of there lines were compared with the control of normal, cutting at the yellow ripen stage. The relative feed value(RFV), the total digestible nutrient(TDN) and the crude protein(CP) content of the twice-cut straw were higher the control in every lines. However, the dry matter yield (DMY), represented by the summed forage production of 1st and 2nd cut-rice plant, were lower the control, and the DMY of straws were increase but grains were decrease for twice-cutting system. In addition, TDN yield showed the similar tendency with DMY.Recently, as one of the breeding aims the researches for improving the digestibility of rice straw have been required. In this regard, twice-cutting system is recognized with the fact that it has the effect which raises the digestibility of the straw. Especially, the 2nd cut of IR73111-B-R-15-3-1 line was similar to the control at the TDN yield of straw, and would be used as a breeding material for product the roughage of good quality.
Evaluation of Odors and Odorous Compounds from Liquid Animal Manure Treated with Different Methods and Their Application to Soils
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 3, 2006, Pages 453~466
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.3.453
To comply with stricter regulations provoked by increasing odor nuisance, it is imperative to practice effective odor control for sustainable livestock production. This study was conducted to assess odor and odorous compounds emitted from liquid animal manure with different treatment methods such as Fresh Manure(without treatment, FM), Anaerobic Digestion(AD) and Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion(TAD) and their application to soil. Air samples were collected at the headspace of liquid manure, upland and paddy soil, and analyzed for odor intensity and offensiveness using an olfactometry; odor concentration index using odor analyser; nitrogen-containing compound such as ammonia(NH3) using fluorescence method; and sulfur containing compounds such as hydrogen sulfide(H2S), methyl mercaptan(MeSH), dimethyl sulfide(DMS) and dimethyl disulfide(DMDS) using gas chromatography-pulsed flame photometric detector, respectively. Odor intensity, offensiveness and concentration index from TAD liquid manure was statistically lower than those from FM and AD(p<0.01). Mean concentrations of H2S, MeSH, DMS, DMDS and NH3 were 65.93ppb, 18.55ppb, 5.26ppb, 0.33ppb and 10.57ppm for liquid manure with AD; and 5.15ppb, 0.97ppb, 0.80ppb, 0.56ppb and 1.34ppm for liquid manure with TAD, respectively. More than 60% of malodorous compounds related to nitrogen and sulfur were removed by heterotrophic microorganisms during TAD treatment. When liquid manure was applied onto upland and paddy soil, NH3 removal efficiencies ranged from 51 to 94% and 22 to 91% for AD and TAD liquid manure, respectively. The above results show that liquid manure with TAD is superior to AD and FM with respect to the odor reduction and odor problem caused by land applied liquid manure is directly related to the degree of odor generated by the manure treatment method.
Evaluation of Odor Reduction in the Enclosed Pig Building Through Spraying Biological Additives
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 3, 2006, Pages 467~478
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.3.467
Maintenance of an optimal air quality in the enclosed pig building is potentially important in terms of pig performance and farmer health. The objective of this on-site experiment is to evaluate and compare efficiencies of currently utilized biological additives to reduce odor emissions from the enclosed pig building. As a result, generally all the additives except for salt water, artificial spice and essential oil were proved ineffective in reducing odor generation. The beneficial effects of salt water, artificial spice and essential oil on odor reduction were highlighted on ammonia, odor intensity and offensiveness, and sulfuric odorous compounds, respectively. To efficiently utilize odor masking agent such as the artificial spice, ventilation rate should keep slightly lower than the optimal level. Essential oil functioned well as not only masking agent but also antimicrobial agent for reducing odor. To precisely quantify odor concentration, it should be measured by not the odor sensor but the olfactometry technique.
Management, Feeding Practices, Milk Yield and its Quality in Korean Dairy Farms: a Survey
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 3, 2006, Pages 479~486
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.3.479
The current study was conducted to examine the effect of feeding and management practices on milk quality and dairy farm productivity in Korea. Fifty dairy farms in Gyunggi (11), Gangwon (22), Chungnam (17) provinces were surveyed to collect data on the herd size, housing style, feeding management, waste disposal, milking practices and milk yield. Milk tank samples from all farms under study were also collected to enumerate its composition and quality parameters. Large dairy herds are equiped with better housing, milking and waste control facilities than medium and small dairy herds. Higher concentrate feeding to lactating cows was noticed in small dairy herds (47.51 %) than in medium (32.59 %) and large dairy herds (31.82 %). The decrease in concentrate feeding to lactating cows with increase in number of cows per farm resulted in a simultaneous increase in the use of imported forages. Bacterial count in milk was affected by housing and milking facilities at dairy farms. Higher bacterial counts (Coliform and E. coli) in milk were observed in cows housed in stanchion than those under free stall with saw dust bedding. The bacterial counts were higher with bucket milking system than with pipe-line and parlour systems. The increase in the number of dairy cows per farm and thus better management and milking facilities resulted in a reduction in somatic cell score. Milk yield (per cow) was higher in herds with less somatic cell score. Average milk protein concentration was between 2.89 to 2.98 % and milk urea nitrogen was between 21.81 to 23.31mg/ml on surveyed dairy farms. This study concluded that large herd size with better dairy cow management facilities is crucial to produce quality milk with better dairy farm income.