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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 48, Issue 6 - Dec 2006
Volume 48, Issue 5 - Oct 2006
Volume 48, Issue 4 - Aug 2006
Volume 48, Issue 3 - Jun 2006
Volume 48, Issue 2 - Apr 2006
Volume 48, Issue 1 - Feb 2006
Selecting the target year
Genetic Parameters for Milking Duration, Milk Flow and Milk Yield Per Milking in Holstein Dairy Cattle
An, Byeong-Seok ; Ju, Jong-Cheol ; Jeon, Byeong-Sun ; Park, Seong-Jae ; Baek, Gwang-Su ; Park, Su-Bong ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 4, 2006, Pages 487~492
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.4.487
This study estimated characteristics and genetic parameters for milking traits in Holstein dairy cattle. Daily records (12,561) were available from a hundred fifty four lactating cows with sixty six sires at National Livestock Research Institute from November, 2005 to April, 2006. The cows were fed same rations, and were milked twice daily using milking parlour equipped with Alpro-system?? to collect milking records automatically. The experimental cows have averaged 1.9 parities, 139.7 days in milk, and 13kg milk yield per milking. Average milk flow was 64% of peak milk flow. Milking duration, peak milk flow, average milk flow, and milk yield per milking were 5.57±1.67 minutes, 3.58±0.79kg/minute, 2.28±0.51kg/minute, and 13.02±4.09kg, respectively. All traits in the morning milking were higher than those of in the evening milking, and were also increased with parity. Heritabilities for milking duration, peak and average milk flow, and milk yield per time were 0.49, 0.70 0.58 and 0.36, respectively. The genetic correlations of milking duration with peak milk flow, average milk flow, and milk yield per time were 0.48, 0.54, and 0.41, respectively. The correlations of milk yield per milking with peak milk flow and average milk flow were 0.23 and 0.30, respectively. In conclusion, milk flow was increased with milk yield; however milk flow was opposite relationship with milk duration. Further studies are not only necessary to warranty genetic parameters, but pre-installation of automatic recording system to collect daily milking record is also necessary.
Growth Efficiency, Carcass Quality Characteristics and Profitability of Finishing Pigs Slaughtered at 130 vs. 110Kg
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 4, 2006, Pages 493~502
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.4.493
The slaughter weight (wt) is a most important economic factor in swine roduction. The present study was undertaken to determine if it is feasible to increase the slaughter wt of finishing pigs to 130kg without significantly affecting the growth efficiency and carcass quality. One hundred and sixty gilts and 160 barrows born from lean-type Yorkshire×Landrace (YL)-dam and Duroc (D)-sire lines, which are most widely used for terminal breeding for pork production in Gyeongsangnam-do, were randomly allocated into 16 pens under a 2 (sex)×2 (slaughter wt; 110 vs. 130kg) factorial arrangement of treatments. The animals were fed ad libitum a diet containing 3,200kcal DE/kg and 15.5% crude protein. After slaughter at the predetermined wt, yields of trimmed primal cuts and physicochemical characteristics of the longissimus dorsi muscle (LD) were measured or analyzed. Average daily gain was greater (P<0.01) in barrows than in gilts (0.86 vs. 0.79kg), but it was not different between the 110- and 130-kg slaughter wt groups (P>0.05). Backfat thickness was greater in the 130- vs. 110-kg group in both sexes (gilts: 21.6 vs. 17.6 mm, barrows: 25.1 vs. 20.8 mm). The yield percentage of belly was greater in barrows than in gilts (21.2 vs. 20.5%) and also in the 130-kg vs. 110-kg group (21.4 vs. 20.2%). Major physicochemical characteristics of LD including the color, percentage of 48-h drip loss, 24-h pH and percentages of crude protein and fat were not influenced by slaughter wt. Marginal profit of the 130-kg vs. 110-kg market pig was approximately 20,000 won/head, which resulted primarily from the heavy carcass weight of the former exceeding the upper limit of the A- or B-grade. However, if it had not been for the carcass weight limit of the current grading system, a 130-kg market pig would have had a potential marginal profit greater than 20,000 won. Results suggest that slaughter wt of lean-line finishing pigs can be increased to 130kg without significantly compromising the growth efficiency and carcass quality and accordingly, the upper weight limit of the ‘good-grade’ carcass needs to be increased or abolished to accommodate the larger market pigs.
Effects of Dietary Lactobacillus brevis Supplementation on Growth Performance, Dry Matter and Nitrogen Digestibilities, Blood Cell Counts and Fecal Odor Emission Compounds in Growing Pigs
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 4, 2006, Pages 503~512
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.4.503
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary Lactobacillus brevis (3.4×108 CFU/g) supplementation on growth performance, DM and N digestibilities, blood cell counts and fecal odor emission compounds in growing pigs. Ninety six crossbred [(Landrace×Yorkshire)×Duroc] pigs with an initial BW of 24.60±1.28kg were used for 42-d feeding trial according to a completely randomized design. Three corn- soybean meal based dietary treatments included: 1) CON (basal diet); 2) LB1 (basal diet + Lactobacillus brevis 0.2%) and 3) LB2 (basal diet+Lactobacillus brevis 0.4%). There were three dietary treatments with eight replicate pens per treatment and four pigs per pen. Through the entire experimental period, ADG, ADFI and gain/feed had no significant differences among treatments(P>0.05). Nitrogen digestibility was increased in LB1 and LB2 treatments compared to CON treatment (linear effect, P<0.05), however, DM digestibility had no significant difference among all the treatments (P>0.05). The WBC, RBC and lymphocyte concentrations in whole blood were not affected by treatments (P>0.05). Fecal NH3N and H2S concentrations were significant decreased in LB2 treatment compared to CON treatment (linear effect, P<0.05). Fecal VFA (acetic acid and propionic acid) concentration was also reduced in LB2 treatment compared to CON treatment (linear effect, P<0.05). In conclusion, Lactobacillus brevis (3.4×108 CFU/g) supplementation at the level of 0.4% can improve nitrogen digestibility and decrease the concentrations of fecal odor emission compounds in growing pigs.
An Evaluation of Condensed Molasses Solubles (CMS) as a Source of Nitrogen for Ruminal Microbes In Vitro
Yeo, J.M. ; Kim, C.H. ; Lee, J.H. ; Nho, W.G. ; Lee, S.H. ; Kim, W.Y. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 4, 2006, Pages 513~520
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.4.513
A series of four in vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate condensed molasses solubles (CMS) as a source of nitrogen for ruminal microbes. In experiment 1, as compared with urea, the value of CMS as a nitrogen source was examined. In experiment 2, to determine the time needed for maximal response of microbial synthesis, the treatments were incubated for increasing times (from 6 h to 16 h). Because a sediment that was assumed to cause nitrogen loss was found after incubation in experiments 1 and 2, it was decided to avoid formation of sediment using sugar instead of molasses or a shorter time incubation (experiments 3 and 4). Furthermore, in experiment 4, because the extent to which ammonia nitrogen is released from CMS and urea before 6 h of incubation was uncertain, it was decided to examine the peaks of concentrations of ammonia nitrogen released from CMS and urea by sampling after 2 h incubation. There was no significant difference in the concentration of microbial-N between molasses/CMS and molasses/ urea treatments in experiment 1, although there were greater decreases in ammonia concentration with the molasses/CMS treatment. The microbial protein synthesis was increased progressively until 10 h for both treatments (experiment 2). Although ingredients that were completely soluble (sucrose, urea) were used in experiment 3, the sediment was still evident suggesting that the sediment was largely of microbial not feed origin. Ammonia release from CMS was much faster than from urea during 2 h incubation. In conclusion, the results of the present studies suggest that the feed value of CMS as a source of nitrogen for ruminal bacteria was similar to that of urea when it was estimated in vitro.
Effect of the Level of Carbohydrates on Bio-hydrogenation and CLA Production by Rumen Bacteria When Incubated with Soybean Oil or Flaxseed Oil In vitro
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 4, 2006, Pages 521~532
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.4.521
An in vitro study was conducted to examine the effect of addition level of carbohydrates on fermentation characteristics, and bio-hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids by mixed rumen bacteria when incubated with soybean oil or flaxseed oil. Four levels(0%, 0.3%, 0.6% and 0.9%, w/v) of the mixed carbohydrates(glucose, cellobiose, soluble starch, 1:1:1, in weight basis) and oil sources(soybean or flaxseed oil, 60mg in 150ml culture solution) were added to the mixed solution of strained rumen fluid with artificial saliva(1:4, v/v), and incubated anaerobically for 12 hours at 39℃. pH and ammonia-N concentration were lower by increasing the substrate levels at all incubation periods(P<0.05～P<0.001). The propionate proportion increased(P<0.001), but acetic acid and butyric acid decreased(P<0.001) with the substrate level at 6 and 12 h incubations. Oil sources did not influence the proportions of individual VFA. At the end of incubation, the proportions of C18:0(P<0.01), C18:1(P<0.001) and trans-11C-18:1(P<0.01) were reduced but those of C18:2(P<0.001) and C18:3(P<0.01) were enhanced by the addition of flaxseed oil compared to addition of soybean oil. The proportions of C18:0 and total CLA were reduced(P<0.01) but those of trans-11-C18: (P<0.05) and C18:2(P<0.01) were increased with the substrate level when incubated with soybean oil or flaxseed oil. There were interactions(P<0.05) in the proportions of C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3(P<0.01) between oil source and substrate level. The proportions of cis-9, trans-11-CLA and trans-10, cis-12-CLA tended to reduce with substrate level, although there was no significant difference between treatments.
Crude Protein Requirements for Maintenance of Hanwoo Steers by Protein Balance Trial
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 4, 2006, Pages 533~540
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.4.533
This experiment was conducted to determine crude protein requirements for maintenance (CPm) of growing Hanwoo steers. Eighteen Hanwoo steers (173.7kg) were allocated randomly to diets with three levels of crude protein in the concentrate by replacing ground corn with corn gluten meal: 0% (LCP), 7.2% (MCP) and 14.2% (HCP), respectively. Hanwoo steers in each treatment were fed diets containing rice straw (20%) and concentrates (80%). CP intake was 5.5, 7.8 and 10.7g/BW0.75 for LCP, MCP and HCP, respectively. Protein balance was －0.05, 2.36 and 4.07g/BW0.75 for LCP, MCP and HCP, respectively. Intercept of the regression equation between CP intake and retained CP indicated that CPm was 5.56g/BW0.75. The estimate of CPm adopted by Korean Feeding Standard (2002) was almost 20% higher than that adopted by Japanese Feeding Standard for Beef Cattle (2000); this would need to be verified with more feeding trial data set including protein requirements for growth.
Interpretation of Protein Feed Degradation Pattern in Ruminant Using an Omasal Digesta Sampling Technique
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 4, 2006, Pages 541~554
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.4.541
Present review is to introduce an omasal sampling technique in rumen proteolysis and to consider some information on the omasal sampling technique with particular emphasis on methodological aspects. Use of the omasal sampling technique provides a new opportunity for accurate estimation of rumen metabolism with overcoming limitations of previous in vivo, in vitro and/or in situ methods. The potential advantages of the present technique compared with post-ruminal sampling techniques include following points; 1) only rumen cannulated animals are required, 2) less endogenous nitrogen (N) is contaminated in omasal digesta and 3) omasal digesta are devoid of exposure to acid peptide hydrolysis occurring in the abomasum. Estimates of soluble non-ammonia N (SNAN) in omasal digesta indicate that the assumptions underlying the in situ method that rapidly degradable N fraction can be degraded at an infinite rate and only insoluble dietary N escapes the rumen may be not valid. Quatitatively higher peptide concentration rather than free amino acid and soluble protein in escapable SNAN suggests that hydrolysis of peptide to amino acid may be the rate-limiting step in rumen proteolysis.
Effects of Higher Dietary Cation with or without Protected Fat and Niacin on the Milk Yield and Thermoregulatory Ability in Holsteins During Summer Heat Stress
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 4, 2006, Pages 555~562
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.4.555
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) with or without ruminally protected fat and niacin on the thermoregulatory ability, milk yield and milk composition of lactating dairy cows during summer in Korea. Thirty mid-lactating Holstein cows (134±12.4 DIM and 23.4±2.3kg/d of milk yield) were divided into three groups (10 animals/group). Cows were housed in a free-stall barn and were provided with forced- air ventilation (wind velocity = 4 m/s) using 41 cm diameter fans. Diet one was formulated to contain low DCAD (+15 DCAD) while the remaining two diets were higher in DCAD (+30 DCAD). One higher DCAD diet was formulated to contain by-pass fat and the second higher DCAD diet contained the niacin along with by-pass fat. The maximum ambient temperature during July was 28.5℃ which could be seen as a period of mild heat stress. As summer progressed, August was characterized as a severe heat stress condition with maximum ambient temperature (32.4℃) and THI (74.0). Dry matter, crude protein and total digestible nutrients intake was not affected by the DCAD level and supplementation of ruminally protected fat or niacin. Milk production was higher in cows fed diets supplemented with fat and niacin than those fed un-supplemented diet. No difference in milk yield was observed in cows fed diets supplemented with fat or niacin plus fat. Milk fat and rectal temperature were not affected by the DCAD level and supplementation of ruminally protected fat or niacin. However, respiration rate was decreased in cows fed diets supplemented with either fat or fat and niacin compared to those fed. The results of the present study indicated that higher DCAD (+30) and supplementation of fat along with niacin can somehow mitigate the negative effects of heat stress on milk yield and physiology of lactating Holsteins during July and August in Korea. In present study reduced respiration rate and increased milk yield in lactating cows may be attributed to the cooling effect of supplemented fat along with vasodilatory functions of niacin. (Key Words: DCAD, Heat stress, THI, milk yield, Milk fat, Holstein)
Evaluation of High Molecular Weight of Chitosan as a Replacer of Sodium Nitrite on the Physico-Chemical Properties and Microbial Changes of Low-fat Sausages During Refrigerated Storage
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 4, 2006, Pages 563~574
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.4.563
This study was performed to investigate if high molecular weight(～200kDa) of chitosan can be a potential possibility to replace with the sodium nitrite in low-fat sausages. pH, proximate analysis, Hunter color values, vacuum purge, expressible moisture(EM, %), texture profile analysis(TPA), shelf-life effect were measured. No differences in physico-chemical properties were observed between controls and chitosan treatments(p>0.05). Since Hunter-a-values(redness) were reduced with the addition of chitosan as compared to the sausages containing sodium nitrite and sodium lactate, it could not be replaced by chitosan completely. However, total plate counts(TPC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance(TBARS), volatile basis nitrogen(VBN) did not differ between chitosan treatments and controls. These results indicated that the addition of chitosan into meat products would be replaced with sodium nitrite partially, but it may not be completely replaced due to the reduced Hunter-a-values. Further research will be continuously performed to screen the natural ingredients which might have a cured pigment in meat products.
Product Quality of Low-fat/salt Sausages Containing Lactoferrin and Antimicrobial Activity Against Escherichia coli O157:H7
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 4, 2006, Pages 575~586
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.4.575
This study was performed to determine potential antimicrobial activity of lactoferrin, which incorporated into the low-fat/salt sausages during storage either at 30 or 4℃. First, the model study on the antimicrobial activity of lactoferrin was performed. Based on the model study, more than 0.25% of lactoferrin was required to have a distinctive antimicrobial activity for the growth of E. coli O157:H7 in the broth. However, extended shelf-life was not shown in the low-fat/salt sausages manufactured with lactoferrin during refrigerated storage. In addition, no synergistic effects of lactoferrin with sodium lactate were observed in the sausages. These results indicated that the addition of lactoferrin into the low-fat sausages did not have antimicrobial activity of E. coli O157:H7, due to the denaturation of lactoferrin or the complexity of the sausage, even though it had a distinctive antimicrobial effect in the model study.
Effect of γ-Oryzanol on Lipid Oxidation of Linoleic Acids and Ground Pork
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 4, 2006, Pages 587~594
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.4.587
Gamma-oryzanol was prepared from rice bran, and added at 0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15% or 0.20%(w/w) to linoleic acid and ground pork to determine their antioxidant effect. Linoleic acid containing γ-oryzanol had significantly lower peroxide values than the control during the storage of 10 days at 40℃ compared to the control (P<0.05). The peroxide values of linoleic acids containing γ-oryzanol decreased as the addition level increased (P<0.05). Raw ground pork patties containing oryzanol 0.20% had significantly lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values as equivalent with butylated hydroxy anisole(BHA) when stored at 4℃ for 6 days. Cooked ground pork patties containing more than 0.05% of γ-oryzanol showed lower TBARS values than those containing BHA during storage at 4℃ for 4 days (P<0.05). This study indicated that γ-oryzanol can be used to inhibit lipid oxidation for meat and meat products.
Antimicrobial Activities of Lactoferrin and its Hydrolysate Obtained from the Colostrum of Hanwoo and Holstein Cattle
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 4, 2006, Pages 595~602
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.4.595
The purpose of this study is to demonstrate antimicrobial activities of the lactoferrin and its peptic hydrolysates obtained from the colostrums of Hanwoo(Korean native cattle) and Holstein cattle. In the measurement of antimicrobial activity to E. coli O111 and other microorganisms, bovine lactoferrin showed a higher antimicrobial activity than that of Hanwoo cow's lactoferrin . The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of lactoferrin against E. coli O111 was exhibited 1.5mg/ml(Holstein) and 2.75mg/ml (Hanwoo). The same result was also observed between bovine lactoferrin hydrolysate (0.12mg/ml) and Hanwoo cow's lactoferrin hydrolysate (0.25mg/ml). In addition of lysozyme, antimicrobial activity of lactoferrin was increased.
Effect of Selenium Sources on Meat Quality of Hanwoo Steers
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 4, 2006, Pages 603~610
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.4.603
This study was conducted to investigate the feeding effect of selenium provided by different sources on the physico-chemical properties of M. longissimus thoracis. Twenty Hanwoo steers(20～24 months, approximately 613kg) were assigned to 4 different feeding groups of each five, depending on the sources of selenium such as inorganic selenium(sodium selenite), organic selenium(Yeast, USA Sel-Plex), Se-SMC(Se-spent mushroom compost) and the control(no selenium). The selenium level in feed was 0.9 ppm for all groups except the control. Animals were fed with different feeding treatments for 12 weeks and slaughtered at National Livestock Research Institute. The inorganic selenium group had the highest cooking loss(CL. %) and followed by the Se-SMC group and organic selenium group. No significant differences in chemical composition, WB-shear forces, water-holding capacity(WHC) and sensory properties were found among the groups(P>0.05). There were 40% frequencies of grade A in the inorganic selenium group and followed by the organic selenium group(20%). Se-SMC group had 80% of frequencies for grade 1+ and followed by the inorganic selenium group(40%), whereas the organic selenium group and the control group had the 20% frequencies for grade 1+. From the results of this study showed that the selenium sources did not affect chemical composition, WHC and tenderness of Hanwoo steers. However, the inorganic selenium group had the highest cooking loss(%) and lowest pH when compared to the other groups.
Fatty Acid Compositions and Physicochemical Properties of Feta Cheese Made from Bovine Milk
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 4, 2006, Pages 611~622
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.4.611
Fatty acid compositions and physicochemical properties of feta cheese made from bovine milk were studied. Nutritional compositions of feta cheese were fat 22.79%, protein 10.57% with moisture content of 59.87%. The log cfu/g of lactic acid bacteria in bovine feta cheese decreased from 10.25 to 7.95 and pH also changed from pH 6.22 to pH 5.55 during storage at 4℃ for 14 d aging. The color of feta cheese turned into more whitish (L-value, 100.1) with a red (a-value, 4.6) and gray (b-value,－4.1) color after 14day's aging. For the texture profile analysis of bovine feta cheese, resilience was increased significantly (p<0.01) throughout the aging periods and adhesiveness was rapidly increased right after progressing of aging at both temperatures, but no difference was found between the aging periods. Hardness, fracturability, gumminess and chewiness were gradually increased at 0℃, but no statistical significances were found. Springiness and cohesiveness were not changed at both temperatures. In organoleptic evaluations, organoleptic intensities in sweetness, milky taste and saltiness were significantly enhanced over those of the control cheese at the level of p<0.01, and masticatory texture at p<0.05 with the progress of aging to 14d. Organoleptic preferences were significantly (p<0.01) enhanced except smell, color, mouth feel, and masticatory texture with the aging. In the fatty acid compositions of feta cheese analyzed by gas chromatography, the content of SFA (52.61%) was slight higher than that of USFA (47.39%) composed with MUFA (28.98%) and PUFA (18.41%). Among the nutritionally important fatty acids; ω6 (9.27%) and ω3 (0.55%) fatty acids, CLA (0.12%), arachidonic acid (0.19%) and DHA (0.12%) were also found in bovine feta cheese.
A Suggestion for Improvement of the Quality of Research Articles in the Life Sciences Field Published in Domestic Journals Using Bibliometrics
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 4, 2006, Pages 623~636
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.4.623
6,161 research articles in the Life Sciences field published in domestic journals in 2004 were evaluated using bibliometrics. The total number of authors was 29,759 and the average number of authors per article was 4.8. 63.4 percent of the articles in domestic journals had more than 4 co-authors. However, this is about 25.5 percent points lower than that of Life Sciences articles in the CELL/NATURE/SCIENCE. The co-authored articles in the domestic journals mainly consist of university - university collaboration (19.9 percent). On the other hand, the co-authored articles in the CELL/NATURE/SCIENCE mainly consist of university-research institution collaboration (48.2 percent).