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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 48, Issue 6 - Dec 2006
Volume 48, Issue 5 - Oct 2006
Volume 48, Issue 4 - Aug 2006
Volume 48, Issue 3 - Jun 2006
Volume 48, Issue 2 - Apr 2006
Volume 48, Issue 1 - Feb 2006
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Genetic Comparison Between Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus Linnaeus) and Crucian Carp (C. cuvieri Temminck and Schlegel)
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 5, 2006, Pages 637~650
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.5.637
Genomic DNA isolated from two crucian carp species obtained from Yesan (Carassius auratus) and Dangjin (Carassius cuvieri) in Korea were amplified at several times by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplified products were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE) with oligonucleotides decamer primer and stained with ethidium bromide. The seven arbitrarily selected primers OPC-11, OPC-14, OPC-18, OPD- 02, OPD-11, OPD-15 and OPD-20 generated the shared loci by each species, the polymorphic and specific loci. The seven primers generated the total 458 loci that can be scored from the crucian carp obtained in C. auratus species. 358 fragments were generated from the species obtained in C. cuvieri species. The size of DNA fragments varies from 150 to 1,600bp. The complexity of the banding patterns varies dramatically between the primers and two locations. In this study, 458 loci were identified in the crucian carp species from Yesan and 358 in the crucian carp species from Dangjin: 84 polymorphic loci (18.3%) in the C. auratus species and 48 (13.4%) in the C. cuvieri species. 154 shared loci by each species, the average 22 per primer, were observed in the C. auratus species and 187 loci, the average 26.7 per primer, in the Dangjin species. Based on the average bandsharing (BS) values of all samples, the similarity matrix ranged from 0.434 to 0.868 in the C. auratus species and from 0.449 to 0.924 in the C. cuvieri species. The average BS value was 0.641±0.013 within the C. auratus species and 0.684±0.013 within the C. cuvieri species. The average BS value between two crucian carp species 0.484 ± 0.007, ranged from 0.307 to 0.682. The BS value between the individual No. 09 and No. 16 was 0.682, which was the highest between two crucian carp species. Compared separately, the BS value of individuals within the C. cuvieri species was higher than the C. auratus species. The dendrogram obtained by the seven primers, indicates three genetic clusters: cluster 1 (AURATUS No. 01, 02, 03, 04, 05, 06, 07, 08, 09, 10 and 11), cluster 2 (CUVIERI No. 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 and 21) and cluster 3 (CUVIERI no. 22). The shortest genetic distance displaying significant molecular difference was between the individual AURATUS No. 09 and AURATUS No. 08 from Yesan (genetic distance=0.064). The longest genetic distance displaying significant molecular differences was between the individual CUVIERI No. 17 and AURATUS No. 11 between two crucian carp species (0.477). RAPD-PCR analysis has revealed the significant genetic distance between two crucian carp species pairs.(Key words: Carassius auratus, Carassius cuvieri, Crucian Carp, DNA Polymorphism, Genetic Distance)
Effects of Phthalate/Adipate Esters Exposure during Perinatal Period on Reproductive Function after Maturation in Rats
;;;;;;Yamanouchi, K.;Nishihara, M.;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 5, 2006, Pages 651~662
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.5.651
Phthalate esters that are used as plasticizers and also found at low levels in foods such as dairy products are often mentioned as suspected endocrine disrupters. The purpose of the present study is to elucidate whether perinatal exposure to di-n-butyl phthalate(DBP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and di-2-ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA) affects several aspects of reproductive function in rats especially sexual differentiation of the brain. To this end, the dams were provided with pulverized soy-free diet containing 20, 200, 2,000 and 10,000 ppm of DBP, 40, 400, 4,000 and 20,000 ppm of DINP, or 480, 2,400 and 12,000 ppm of DEHA from gestational day (GD) 15 to postnatal day (PDN) 21, the day of weaning, and serum sex steroid hormone, gonadotropin levels and sexual behaviors after maturation were assessed. At Postnatal week (PNW) 20-21, serum levels of sex steroids and gonadotropins in both male and female rats, as well as estrous cyclicity in females, were not changed by perinatal exposure to DBP, DINP and DEHA, indicating that these chemicals did not affect sexual differentiation of the brain controlling the endocrine system of hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. On the other hand, inhibitory influences on sexual behaviors, especially on ejaculation in males and lordosis in females, were observed by perinatal exposure to these chemicals. These results suggest that these chemicals may act directly on discrete regions of the hypothalamus regulating sexual behaviors, but not regulating gonadotropin secretion, thereby affect sexual differentiation of the brain with a resultant decrease in sex-specific behaviors in adulthood.
Effects of Slow Release Recombinant Porcine Somatotropin (rpST) Administration on Growth Performance and pST and IGF-1 of Blood in Finishing Pigs
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 5, 2006, Pages 663~670
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.5.663
The present study was performed to investigate the effect of plant type recombinant porcine somatotropin (pST) adminstration on growth performance and blood profile of finishing pigs. Forty-eight Landrace barrows weighing 78 kg were employed for six week growth trial. Twelve barrows were allocated into various rpST types ; the control (CONT), the 4:1 type rpST (TRT 1), the 1:1 type rpST (TRT 2); and the 4:1 type rpST group(TRT 3) respectively. CONT group were not planted rpST. TRT 1 group was treated with rpST once a week for 6 weeks. Each dose contained the rpST equivalent to 100mg from initial to two weeks and 125mg from three weeks to finial week. TRT 2 and TRT 3 groups were planted rpST four times contained the rpST equivalent to 100mg during trial period from initial to two weeks, and 125 mg from three weeks, to four weeks, respectively. All pigs were fed a commercial feed containing 0.9% lysine ad lib. Daily gain increased by 19.4% in TRT 1(p<0.05) compared to the CONT. rpST improved feed/gain by 13.4～28.9% in all treatment groups(p<0.05). Back fat thickness of the all rpST treated groups were 23.3～29.2% thinner than that of the CONT. These results indicated that the rpST stimulated growth performance in finishing pigs and plant type rpST could be used as a growth stimulant for finishing pigs.
Effects of Dietary Isoflavone and Casein Phosphopeptide on Hatching Egg Production and Eggshell Quality in Aged Egg-Type Breeder Hens
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 5, 2006, Pages 671~682
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.5.671
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary Ca levels and some feed additives such as isoflavone and casein phosphopeptide (CPP) on eggshell quality and hatching egg production in aged egg-type breeder hens. A total of three hundred and sixty, 56-week-old Hy-Line Brown breeder hens were divided into six groups and fed experimental diets of two levels of Ca (3.3% or 3.6%) either with addition of 0.2% isoflavone, 0.5% CPP or devoid of all for 5 weeks. There were no significant differences in laying performances and settable egg production among the groups. Significant increases (P<0.05) in eggshell strength were observed with increasing dietary Ca and addition of isoflavone, but not with addition of CPP. Fertility and hatchability were not influenced by dietary Ca and addition of isoflavone or CPP. The treatment had few significant effects on tibial proximal compositions and breaking strength. The concentrations of Ca, P, estrogen and calcitonin in serum were not affected by the dietary treatments. These results indicated that relatively high level of dietary Ca in combination with isoflavone had a beneficial effect on improving eggshell quality in aged egg-type breeder hens. But hatching egg production was not affected by dietary isoflavone or CPP.
Effects of Molasses Supplementation Levels to Daesihotang (Herbal Medicine) Meal on Quality of Silage and the Palatability in Goats
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 5, 2006, Pages 683~690
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.5.683
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of molasses supplementation levels to silage materials in ensiling herbal medicine meal on the quality of silage, and its palatability in Korean native goats. In experimentⅠ, molasses were added at the levels of 0, 0.5, and 1.0% to herbal medicine (Deasihotang) meal, with three replicates per each level. They were kept at room temperature for 40 d in glass bottles in order to get silage samples. In experiment Ⅱ, nine 1.5-yr-old Korean native female goats were employed to measure their palatability. In experimentⅠ, lactic acid contents in molasses treatments were significantly (p<0.05) higher, and pH and butyric acid contents was lower than those of non-molasses control treatment. In addition, molasses treatments increased total microbial cell counts in MRS medium for lactobacillus, but decreased total microbial cell counts in PDA medium for fungi. Molasses supplementation to silage materials increased in vitro dry matter disappearance rate. Molasses supplementation tended to increase silage intake in Korean native goat (experiment II), however, the difference was not significant. It is concluded that molasses supplementation to silage materials in ensiling Daesihotang meal could improve its preservability and palatability, the larger the amount the better the quality.
Effect of Yeast Addition in Rice Straw Silage Fermentation
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 5, 2006, Pages 691~698
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.5.691
Three species of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Humicola grisea and Candida glabrata were assumed as microbial inoculants for fermentation of rice straw silage. Four types of silage innoculated with three yeasts including control (non-treatment) were opened on day 1, 3, 6, 9, 15 and 20 after ensiling, and analyzed for fermentation status (pH, crude protein, microbial counts) and the microbial population attached with silage texture using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy). The results obtained were summarized as fallow; The pH of silage juice was decreased to 4.3 after 6th day of fermentation in the treatments innoculated with yeast, but was not changed at the ranges of 5.47 to 5.67 in control. Crude protein concentration of silage was increased by 38～41% with yeast inoculation compared to control. From SEM observation, it could be confirmed that crude protein concentration of silage was increased by microbial growth and SCP synthesis. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida glabrata could be used as useful fermenters of rice straw silage.
Studies on In situ and In vitro Degadabilities, Microbial Growth and Gas Production of Rice, Barley and Corn
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 5, 2006, Pages 699~708
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.5.699
Ground rice, barley and corn were fed separately to the ruminally cannulated Hanwoo (Korean native cattle) for comparing their in situ and in vitro degradabilities, microbial growth, pH and gas production. It has been found that nearly all the dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) in barley and rice disappeared during 24 hr suspension in the rumen, but those in corn were only reduced by around 67%. Water soluble DM and OM fractions(‘a’), ranked from highest to lowest was corn, then rice and finally barley, but the order was reversed for content ‘b’, degradable fraction during time ‘t’. Judging by the degradation parameter of ‘b’ fraction, degradation rates per hour of DM and OM for barley were 38.3% and 37.2% respectively, significantly higher than those for rice (7.7% and 5.6%) and corn (4.1% and 1.3%). In general, results obtained from in vitro degradability of DM and OM were lower than those from in situ trials, but the ranking order of degradability was in agreement between both trials. In particular, ground rice has relatively lower in vitro microbial growth than corn or barley, but exhibited higher gas production. In addition, in vitro microbial growth of ground rice increased with up to 12 hr of incubation period, thereafter experienced a decrease with extended incubation time. pH of in vitro solution of rice decreased following 9 hr of incubation but gas production increased rapidly during the same period. From the results of DM and OM degradabilities and pH changes of in vitro solution with incubation time, it is concluded that rice represents a good source of energy for stability of rumen fermentation.
Effects of Plant-origin Biological Active Materials on the Activities of Pathogenic Microbes and Rumen Microbes
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 5, 2006, Pages 709~718
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.5.709
In order to know the effects of Garlic, Scallion, Flavonoid, Urushiol, Anthocyanidin and Bio-MOS?? on pathogenic microbes and rumen anaerobic microbes, the growth rate of pathogens (including Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella paratyphi, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) and in vitro rumen microbial growth, gas production, ammonia concentration, carboxymethylcellulase(CMCase) activity, and microbial populations were investigated.The growth of pathogens was inhibited by supplementation of 0.1% Flavonoid, Scallion or Bio-MOS?? as biological active materials. And Scallion and Flavonoid had powerful antimicrobial properties on the pathogens applied in paper disc method.Although few effects by biological active materials disappeared in rumen fermentation in vitro, CMCase activity removed with supplementation of 1% of Flavonoid which had antimicrobial property in paper disc method. Scallion, having powerful antimicrobial property on pathogens and no inhibiting on rumen fermentation, might be a source in development of natural antimicrobial agent for ruminants.
Effect of Whey Protein Isolate and Lactobacillus spp. Cell Extracts on Intracellular Antioxidative Activities in Human Prostate Epitherial Cells
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 5, 2006, Pages 719~726
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.5.719
Bovine whey protein are rich in cysteine, which is the rate limiting amino acid for synthesis of antioxidant glutathione(GSH). Some strains of Lactobacillus caseihas been reported to contain high level of GSH in cell extracts. The objective ofthis study was to determine whether enzymatically hydrolyzed whey protein isolate(WPI) and cell extract of Lb. casei HY2782 could increase intracellular GSH concentrations and protect against oxidant induced cell death in human prostate epithelial cell line (designated as RWPE1, and PC3MMM2 cells). Treatment of RWPE1 cellsandPC3MMM2 cells with hydrolyzed WPI (500g/ml) significantly increased GSH by28.2% and38.4% respectively. Compared with control cells receiving no hydrolyzed WPI(P<0.05). hydrolyzed WPI and Lb casei HY2782 cell extracts significantly protected RWPE1 and PC3MMM2 cellsfrom oxidant induced cell death compared with controls receiving no WPI. DNA damage associated with oxidant treatment was demonstrated by single cell gel (SCG) electrophoresis.
Effect of Feeding Levels and Periods of Dietary Rhus verniciflua Stokes at Finishing Stage on the Meat Quality of Pigs during Refrigerated Storage
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 5, 2006, Pages 727~738
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.5.727
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of feeding levels and periods of Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS) on the quality of M. longissimus from gilts (Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc) at finishing stage. The gilts were fed diets containing 0 (control), 2 and 4% RVS for 5 weeks (the latter feeding periods) and 8 weeks (the first feeding periods+the latter feeding periods) before slaughtering, respectively. Samples were stored at 3±0.2℃ for 8 days. Crude fat content was decreased by feeding diets of 4% RVS (p<0.05). Water-holding capacity (WHC) was higher in RVS treatments than in control during storage (p<0.05). L*(Lightness) value was higher in 5 weeks-RVS treatment than in control during storage (p<0.05). a*(Redness) and b*(yellowness) were not affected by the levels and periods of RVS supplementation. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value was lower in RVS treatment than in control (p<0.05), and the 5 weeks with 4% RVS treatment showed the highest antioxidative activity. Fatty acid compositions of pork were changed by RVS feeding levels and periods. The meat supplemented with RVS showed high levels of unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) composition and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)/saturated fatty acid (SFA) ratio compared with control. The dietary 8 weeks-RVS treatments had lower stearic acid(18:0) and higher polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) contents than in other treatments. Melting point of backfat also decreased by increasing the level and period of RVS supplementation (p<0.05). Therefore, RVS fed pork decreased fat content and melting point, increased WHC and UFA composition, and delayed lipid oxidation during storage.
Effect of Replacing Pork with Horse Meat on Quality Characteristics of Emulsion-type Sausage
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 5, 2006, Pages 739~746
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.5.739
The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of emulsion-type sausage where part of the pork was substituted with horse meat during manufacturing. Three treatments of sausages were manufactured by replacing pork with 0, 50 and 100% horse meat. After manufacturing, sausages were vacuum-packaged and stored 4℃ for 1 day. An increase in horse meat resulted in higher moisture, protein content, and pH values, and lower fat content of sausage(P<0.05). However, no significant effects were observed on texture characteristics and sensory attributes of sausage. The horse meat sausage had higher K, Fe, Zn, Cu, saturated fatty acid contents than 0% horse meat level. Based on the results, it can be concluded that horse meat can be used as a meat replacer in the manufacture of emulsion-type sausages up to a level of 100%.
The Influence of Pig Breeds on Qualities of Loin
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 5, 2006, Pages 747~758
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.5.747
A total of 30 pigs (average 60kg) were used to investigate the influence of breeds on meat quality. Pigs were alloted into one of three experimental groups [A (Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc), B (England Berkshire), and C (Kagoshima Berkshire)]. Pigs were slaughtered at approximately 110kg of live weight for measurement of meat qualities. Crude protein was significantly higher in B than those of other pig breed groups. Shear force value was higher and pH was lower in A than those of other pig breeds. In color, C was significantly higher in a* of meat color and lower in b* of fat color and in brittleness, hardness, springiness, chewiness as compared with other pig breeds. Essential fatty acid were significantly higher in A and lower in B than those of other pig breeds. Aspartic, threonine, serine, glutamic and phenylalanine were higher in C, whereas glycine, alanine, cystine, valine, leucine, tyrosine, histidine, lysine and arginine were significantly higher in A. In sensory evaluation of fresh meat, color was significantly higher in C. However, moisture, crude fat, crude ash and drip loss, marbling score, overall acceptability of fresh meat and all items in sensory evaluation of cooked meat were not significant difference among the pig groups. In conclusions, loin from Kagoshima Berkshire had the lowest shear force and the highest a* value. In the current study few effects of pig breeds were observed. Further studies are needed on the relationship between physico-chemical properties and the pig breeds.