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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 48, Issue 6 - Dec 2006
Volume 48, Issue 5 - Oct 2006
Volume 48, Issue 4 - Aug 2006
Volume 48, Issue 3 - Jun 2006
Volume 48, Issue 2 - Apr 2006
Volume 48, Issue 1 - Feb 2006
Selecting the target year
Genetic Parameter Estimation on the Growth and Carcass Traits in Hanwoo(Korean Cattle)
;;Salces, Agapita J;;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 6, 2006, Pages 759~766
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.6.759
This study was conducted to investigate the genetic correlations among the traits used to select young bulls and proven bulls in Hanwoo Performance and Progeny Test Program in Korea. For the estimation of heritabilities and correlations among the growth traits of bulls and carcass traits of progeny steers, 2,532 records of performance tested bull calves and 1,819 records of progeny tested steers were collected from Livestock Improvement Main Center (LIMC), National Agricultural Cooperative Federation (NACF). Fixed effects of mixed model for each traits were selected by using stepwise regression analysis and prior values of variance components were estimated by MTDFREML. The prior values of variance components were estimated with pairwise 2 traits model followed by single trait analysis. The estimated heritability of backfat thickness(BF), dressing percentage(DP), loin-eye muscle area(LMA), marbling score(MS) and weight at 12 months(WT12) was 0.51, 0.32, 0.27, 0.33, 0.50 and 0.26, respectively. Genetic correlation of WT12 of bull calves with backfat thickness, carcass weight and loin-eye muscle area of steers was positive correlation as 0.05, 0.35 and 0.21, respectively. However genetic correlation of WT12 with DP and MS showed negative correlation as 0.09 and 0.27, respectively and these negative genetic correlations implies that bulls that may be superior in carcass traits can be lost at the first step of selection and current selection method should be modified to solve this problem.
Analysis of Environmental Effects for Linear Type Traits and Scoring Traits on Holstein Cows
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 6, 2006, Pages 767~776
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.6.767
Corresponding author:Deukhwan Lee, Department of Animal Life Resources, Hankyong National Univ. Seokjeong-dong Anseong-si Gyeonggi-do, Rep. of Korea 456-749Tel: 031-670-5091, Fax: 031-676-5091, E-mail : firstname.lastname@example.orgGeneral performance with including environmental and management effects on linear type traits in Holstein cows were investigated. 115,646 valid records measured from cows over 1 yrs of age by Korean Animal Improvement Association from 2000 to 2004 were used for this study. Farm, appraisal year-month, appraisal person should affect linear type and scoring traits. Most of type traits and scoring traits would be significantly affected by parity and lactation stage after absorbing farm-appraisal year-month-person effects. Otherwise, some traits such as traits related to udder would be affected by registration criteria. However, interval of appraisal time and milking time would not affect these traits. The scores related to udder, teat placement and foot angle would be positively related to parity. Final score would be optimized at cows of 2nd and 3rd parities. Dairy form, front teat placement, rear udder height, rear udder width and final score would show similar to pattern of lactation curve at lactation stage. Dairy capacity composite index would also show similar to lactation curve. This result would be indicated that more concise standardizing system for linear type scoring rules would be needed. Furthermore, correcting system for parity and lactation stage would be needed because this factor should affect physiological status, specially, udder status.
Studies on Correlation Among Sperm Characteristics, Farrowing Rates by AI and Chromatin Structure in Boars
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 6, 2006, Pages 777~784
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.6.777
This study was designed to investigate between the semen characteristics and sperm chromatin structure in boar with different farrowing rates and relationship between fertility by AI and results of sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). The CASA (computer-aided sperm analysis) and SCSA were performed with liquid semen in boars. The all SCSA parameters based on the farrowing rates by AI were significantly differ (P<0.05). The significant negative correlations (P<0.05) were observed between all SCSA parameters and farrowing rate obtained by AI in the field. In conclusion, these results suggest that the sperm parameters evaluated in these studies may be useful indicators to predict the fertility by AI.
Effect of Storage Times on Sperm Function, Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA) and Correlations Between Fertility and SCSA in Boars
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 6, 2006, Pages 785~796
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.6.785
This study was designed to evaluate the changes in sperm motility, viability, HOST(hypo-osmotic swelling test), IVP(in vitro penetration), SCSA(sperm chromatin structure assay) during storage of liquid semen collected from boars with different farrowing rates using AI, and to find the relationship between boar fertility through AI and sperm diagnostic parameters during semen storage. The results of HOST were significantly decreased according to the increasing of in semen storage days and the results of IVP were significantly decreased at 3 days of semen storage (P<0.05). The %Red was significantly different among the >80%, 7080% and <70% farrowing rate group at semen storage day 6(P<0.05). The correlation coefficients between the %Red and farrowing rate were increased according to the semen storage. In conclusion, these results suggest that the sperm parameters evaluated in these studies may be useful indicators to predict the fertility of AI and evaluate the semen quality in boars.
Effect of Sucrose Concentration on Survival After Frozen-thawed of Bovine IVF Blastocysts in Ethylene Glycol Based Freezing Medium for Slow-Cooling
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 6, 2006, Pages 797~804
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.6.797
The present study was undertaken to investigate the post-thawed survivability of bovine embryo depending on different dose of ethylene glycol and sucrose. Ovaries were collected at local slaughterhouse and the cumulus-oocyte-complexes aspirated from ovaries were in vitro matured, fertilized and cultured at 39°C in an atmosphere of 5% CO2 incubator. For conventional slow-freezing, d 7 or 8 expanded blastocysts were collected. Embryos were equilibrated in 1.5 M and 1.8 M ethylene glycol(EG) with 0.1 M and 0.3 M sucrose in Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline(D-PBS) supplemented with 0.5% bovine serum albumin. Embryos were then loaded individually into 0.25ml-straw and placed directly into cooling chamber of programmable freezer precooled to 7°C, after 2 min, the straw was seeded, maintained at 7°C for 8 min, and then cooled to 35°C at 0.3°C/min, plunged and stored in liquid nitrogen for at least 3 days. For thawing, the straw containing embryos were warmed in air for 10 sec and exposed to 37°C water for 20 sec. Straws were then removed from 37°C water. Rates of blastocyst survive and hatching were evaluated at 24 to 72 h post-warming. No difference of the survivability was shown between 1.5 M and 1.8 M EG (71 and 70%, respectively). Addition of 0.1 M sucrose to 1.5 M and 1.8 M ethylene glycol in the freezing solution did not differ significantly embryo survival (74 and 77%, respectively), whereas survival rates was higher(89%) in freezing solution contained 0.3M sucrose to 1.8M EG compared with 0.3M sucrose to 1.5M EG group(71%). However, there was no difference in the overall total cell number between the two groups (122±1.8 vs 131±1.4, respectively). In conclusion, the results suggest that 0.3 M sucrose in 1.8 M EG may be optimal condition for freezing and thawing methods with in vitro produced embryos and may be applied to on-farm conditions for embryo transfer.
Development of In vitro Fertilized Bovine Embryos in Medium Supplemented with Matrigel
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 6, 2006, Pages 805~812
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.6.805
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Matrigel on the development of bovine embryos after in vitro fertilization. Bovine embryos were cultured in Ⅰ) SOF+ 0.8% BSA(SOF-B), Ⅱ) SOF+ 0.8% BSA plus 0.8% Matrigel(SOF-M) and III) SOF+0.8% BSA and 10% FBS(SOF-BF). The addition of Matrigel appeared not to increase the proportion of blastocysts (SOF-B, 26.6%; SOF-M, 28.2%; SOF-BF, 26.2%). However, the proportion of hatched blastocysts were significantly increased(P<0.05) by Matrigel(SOF-B, 23.7%; SOF-M, 48.7%; SOF-BF, 18.5%). The means of cell number blastocyst was not significantly different among the treatment groups(SOF-B, 172.7±35.5; SOF-M, 175.1±37.4; SOF-BF, 172.8±38.1). The proportion of apoptotic cells in blastocyst was also found to be not significant among the treatment groups(SOF-B, 3.6±3.2%; SOF-M, 4.3±2.6%; SOF-BF, 4.9±4.3%). In this experiment, Matrigel appeared to support embryonic hatching of bovine embryos. Results suggest that Matrigel, as extracellular matrix components, may be another avenue for formulating more physiological culture system in serum-free culture.
Effects of Dietary L-leucine Levels in Low-lysine Diets on Growth Performance and Meat Quality Parameters in Finishing Duroc Pigs
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 6, 2006, Pages 813~818
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.6.813
The objective of this study was to investigate effects of supplementation levels of L-leucine in low-lysine diets on growth performance and meat quality parameters in finishing Duroc pigs. A total of fifty-four pigs with an average initial weight of 74±1kg were allotted to one of three dietary treatments. Each treatment had six replications of three pigs per replicate. The treatment diets included 1)a corn-soybean meal basal diet containing lysine as low as 0.45% (CON), 2) basal diet plus 1.5% L-leucine (LEU 1.5), and 3) basal diet plus 3.0% L-leucine (LEU 3.0). No difference was found in ADG, ADFI and Feed/Gain among treatments. In carcass parameters, dressing precent and back-fat thickness were not affected by L-leucine levels, however, longissimus dorsi area tended to increase by supplementation of L-leucine. Marbling score was significantly higher (P<0.05) in LEU 1.5 and LEU 3.0 than in CON. In meat quality parameters, CIE L* of meat color significantly increased (P<0.05) and crude fat tended to increase by supplementation of L-leucine. However, there was no difference in water holding capacity, cooking loss and shear force value. This study suggests that dietary supplementation of L-leucine in low-lysine diets at the end of finishing period can produce high marbled pork which is preferred by Korean consumers.
Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Cultured Wild-ginseng Powder or its Fermented Culture Byproducts on Growth Performance and Carcass Parameters in Finishing Pigs
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 6, 2006, Pages 819~826
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.6.819
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of cultured wild-ginseng powder or its fermented culture byproduct on growth performance, blood parameters, carcass and meat quality in finishing pigs. The animals used in the experiment were a total of 36 Landrace×Yorkshire and weighted 65.81±2.02kg. The experimental diets were basis diet, 2.5% wild-ginseng fermented culture byproduct of B. subtilis replaced lupin in basis diet and 0.2% cultured wild-ginseng powder replaced lupin in basis diet to CON, T1 and T2 for 60 days, respectively. The pigs were allotted at 4 pigs per pen with three replicate pens per treatment by completely randomized design. In growth performance, ADG was not significantly different between treatments. ADFI was significantly lower (P<0.05) in T1 and T2 than in CON. Feed/Gain was not different between treatments. In plasma's biochemical composition, total protein was significantly higher (P<0.05) in T1 than in CON. Blood urea nitrogen was not different between treatments. Glucose and albumin were significantly higher (P<0.05) in T1 than in other treatments. Calcium was significantly higher (P<0.05) in T1 than in CON. Inorganic phosphate was significantly higher in T1 than in other treatments. In plasma's lipid composition, triglyceride was significantly higher (P<0.05) in T1 than in other treatments. Total cholesterol was not different between treatments. HDL cholesterol was significantly higher (P<0.05) in T1 than in other treatments. In carcass and meat quality, carcass weight, dressing precent, meat precent and back-fat thickness were not significantly different between treatments. Moisture and crude fat were also not significantly different between treatments. The results indicate that growth performance, carcass and meat quality were not affected but plasma's biochemical and/or lipid composition were affected when replaced with wild-ginseng fermented culture byproduct of B. subtilis and cultured wild-ginseng. Our research indicates that wild-ginseng fermented culture byproduct of B. subtilis and cultured wild-ginseng powder were able to using with pig's diet in finishing period.
Effects of Dietary Vitamin E Levels on Carcass Characteristics, Vitamin E Concentration of Longissimus Muscle and Lipid Oxidation in Hanwoo Steers
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 6, 2006, Pages 827~838
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.6.827
This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary vitamin E levels on carcass characteristics and vitamin E contents, fatty acid composition and lipid oxidation as indicated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances(TBARS) of the longissimus muscle in Hanwoo steers. Forty Hanwoo steers were randomly assigned to one of four groups and fed the diet containing 200(control), 1000, 2000 or 2500 IU a(alpha)-tocopherol acetate/head/day for 3 months of last finishing period. Backfat thickness was thinner and beef fat color was whiter(P<0.05) in steers fed the vitamin E supplemented diets than those fed the control diet. But the longissimus muscle area and yield grade did not differ among treatments. Marbling score and quality grade were higher(P<0.05) in steers fed the diets containing 1000 and 2000 IU vitamin E than those fed the other diets. Vitamin E concentration in the longissimus muscle was higher(P<0.05) as the vitamin E content in diet was higher. The levels of oleic and linoleic acids in the longissimus muscle were not affected by dietary vitamin E levels. But linolenic and arachidonic acids were lower in steers fed the vitamin E supplemented diets than those fed the control diet. TBARS in the longissimus muscle was not affected by the vitamin E levels in diet until 5th day of storage but delayed muscle lipid oxidation in steers fed the vitamin E supplemented diets after 7th day of storage. Therefore according to this result, it may be concluded that steers have a higher quality grade and higher vitamin E concentration in muscle and lower in TBARS when diet contains 1000 or 2000 IU vitamin E per kg of diet.
Effects of Dietary Addition of Sucrose, Propylene Glycol and Tween 80 on the Performance of Transitional Holstein Cows
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 6, 2006, Pages 839~846
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.6.839
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary addition of sucrose, propylene glycol and Tween 80 (Polysorbate 80 : Non-ionic Surfactants) on pre-partum (21 d) and post-partum (21 d) nutrients intake, blood metabolites, occurrence of metabolic disorders, milk yield and its composition in Holstein cows. Two basal diets were formulated each for pre- and post-partum period. The diets were mixed daily and fed at ad libitum to transitional cows. Forty cows of similar parity and milk yield were randomly divided into four groups (ten animals in each). The cows in three groups were supplemented either with 280g of sucrose/day (SU), SU+64g propylene glycol/day (SUP) or SUP+50g Tween80/day (SUPT). The feed for the fourth group was not supplemented and this group served as control (C). Pre-partum DM, total digestible nutrients (TDN), and crude protein (CP) intake was similar in cows fed C, SU, SUP, and SUPT diets. Post-partum DM, TDN, and CP intakes were the highest with SUPT diet followed by SU, SUP and control diets. Pre-partum blood non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentration was noticed significantly higher in cows fed control diet compared to those fed SU, SUP and SUPT diets. The concentration of NEFA was similar at calving and during post-partum period across cows fed different experimental diets. Blood glucose and Ca concentration during pre- and post-partum periods were not significantly different in cows fed C, SU, SUP and SUPT diets. Milk yield (kg/day) was similar in cows fed different experimental diets. However, milk fat percent and 4% fat corrected milk yield were higher in cows fed SU diet (p<0.05) followed by SUP, SUPT and C diets. One case of ketosis was recorded in cows fed control diet however its occurrence was not observed in cows fed other diets. Occurrence of retained placenta and mastitis was numerically higher in cows fed control diet compared with those fed SU, SUP and SUPT diets. In conclusion, the NIS and propylene glycol feeding along with sucrose could improve the 4% fat corrected milk and fat yield in early lactating cows with significant reduction in NEFA and metabolic disorders during transitional period.
Effects of Diet and Time on Feed on Fatty Acid Composition in Muscle of Charolais Steers
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 6, 2006, Pages 847~860
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.6.847
This study investigated the effects of feeding Charolais steers on diets rich in either n-6 or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and time on feed (TOF) on muscle fatty acid composition and content. Twenty eight steers were fed on ad libitum forage and one of two concentrates varying in the source of fat; soya (high in C18:2 n-6) or whole linseed (high in C18:3 n-3) for either 60 or 90 days in IGER (Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, UK). The concentrates were fed at approximately 0.73 of total DM intake. TOF influenced carcass weight, conformation and fatness scores, which were higher at 90 v. 60 days (P<0.05). Diet did not affect total fatty acid content of neutral lipid in m. longissimus thoracis but feeding linseed increased total phospholipid fatty acid by approx- imately 15%(P<0.05). Linseed increased the amount and proportion of C18:3 n-3 (P<0.001) and the proportion of CLA (cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid), while soya increased the content (P<0.05) and proportion (P<0.001) of C18:2 n-6 in muscle neutral lipid. In muscle phospholipid, linseed significantly increased the amount of CLA, C18:3 n-3 and its longer chain derivatives as well as C14:0, C16:0, C18:0. C18:1 trans and C18:2 n-6. The amount and proportion of C18:2 n-6 and its longer chain C20 derivatives were higher on feeding soya. TOF (90 v. 60 day) increased the content of C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, CLA, C18:1 n-9, C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3 in muscle neutral lipid. The P:S was not affected by diet or TOF. The ratio of C18:2 n-6 : C18:3 n-3 and sum of n-6 : n-3 fatty acids were higher in muscle from animals fed on linseed v. soya (P<0.001). The study indicates that the PUFA composition of beef muscle may be significantly modified by feeding contrasting dietary lipids, soya vs. linseed. Feeding linseed produced a better balance of muscle fatty acids, more in line with current nutritional recommendations with a lower C18:2 n-6:C18:3 n-3 ratio associated with higher muscle content of C18:3 n-3 and C20:5 n-3 and CLA and lower C20:4 n-6.
Effects of Supplementing Coated Vitamin C+E with Cottonseed on Rumen Fermentation and Growth Performance and Blood Metabolites in Hanwoo Steers Fed Fermented Feedstuff
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 6, 2006, Pages 861~870
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.6.861
This study was conducted to examine the effects of supplementing coated vitamin C+E with cottonseed on rumen fermentation and body weight gain, blood metabolites and hormone concentrations in Hanwoo steers fed fermented feedstuff. Experiments were done with two treatment groups, T1 without any supplements and T2 supplemented with coated vitamin C+E and cottonseed. Ruminal pH was lower in T2 than in T1 at 3h after morning feeding (p<0.05), but was higher in T2 than in T1 at 6 and 9h after morning feeding (p<0.05). Ruminal ammonia concentration was higher in T2 than in T1 for 12h after morning feeding (p<0.05). Concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate and total-VFA were higher in T2 than in T1 at 3h after morning feeding (p<0.05), but were lower in T2 than in T1 at 9 and 12h after morning feeding (p<0.05). Average daily gain and concentrations of blood metabolites and hormones between T1 and T2 were similar. Results indicate that supplementation of coated vitamin C+E and cottonseed to fermented feedstuff affects on ruminal pH, ammonia and VFA. But it has no influences on body weight gain and concentrations of blood metabolites and hormones in Hanwoo steers.
Effect of Ad libitum and Restricted Milk Feeding on Growth Performance of Holstein Calves
Khan, M. A. ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 6, 2006, Pages 871~880
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.6.871
This study was conducted to estimate the maximum amount and time of milk consumption by Holstein calves during two months of pre- weaning period and to compare ad libitum milk feeding with conventional system for their effects on dry feed consumption, nutrient intake, growth performance and occurrence of diarrhea during the pre-weaning phase. Holstein calves (n=20) were alternatively fed colostrum at 10% of their body weight or ad libitum for the first three days (d) and then assigned either to conventional (n=10; calves were fed milk at 10% of their body weight from birth to weaning at d 60 of their age) or ad libitum milk feeding (n=10; calves were fed ad libitum milk from birth to weaning at d 60 of their age). Milk intake as a percent of body weight was increased in ad libitum fed calves from 13.59% at d 1 to 23.50% at d 30 of their age, thereafter it was gradually reduced. Ad libitum fed calves consumed daily 9.8kg milk compared with 4.3kg milk in restricted fed calves(p<0.05). Daily starter and mixed grass hay intake was gradually increased in both groups with the age however; the group differences were noted non-significant up to 40 d of age. Overall from birth to weaning conventionally fed calves ate 18.4, 20 and 18.9% more dry matter, crude protein and total digestible nutrients, respectively than ad libitum milk fed calves (p<0.05). Weight gain was 49, 18.4 and 26% higher in ad libitum milk fed calves than conventionally fed calves during the first month, the second month and from birth to weaning, respectively(p<0.05). Body weight was not significantly different between groups for the first 20 d of age. However, it was significantly higher for ad libitum milk fed calves at d 30, 40, 50, 60 (weaning) and 90 (post weaning) of their age(p<0.05). Similar body weights for both conventionally and ad libitum milk fed calves were observed for the post weaning period at 120, 150 and 180 d of age. Feed efficiency was significantly higher for conventionally fed calves than ad libitum milk fed calves(p<0.05). No sign of diarrhea, fever or cough was observed in calves fed either conventionally or ad libitum milk during the experimental period. In conclusion, calves fed more milk remained healthy and gained higher weight before weaning and maintained this advantage at least up to 90 d of their age.
Effects of Maternal Genetic Potential and Parity with Pre- and Postpartum on Body Weights, Body Condition Score and Blood Metabolites in Hanwoo Cows
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 6, 2006, Pages 881~888
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.6.881
This study was conducted to investigate effects of maternal genetic potential and parity with pre- and postpartum periods on body weights, body condition score (BCS) and blood metabolites in relation to physiological stress and nutritional metabolism in Hanwoo cows. Also, this study was designed to develop effective husbandry technique for Hanwoo cows concerning of pre- and postpartum periods, and to get basic data for it. Forty five cows were allocated into two groups, 24 cows with high maternal genetic potentials and 21 cows with low maternal genetic potentials. The average parity of experimental cows with high and low maternal genetic potentials were 2.83±1.63 and 3.00±1.77, respectively. The growth performances such as body weights, average daily gain (ADG) and BCS were not different between two groups regardless of maternal genetic potential. However, pre- and postpartum periods had effects on the growth performances (p<0.05). Parity had no effects on ADG and BCS (p>0.05), but effect on body weight of cows (p<0.05). The metabolites of physiological stress such as neutrophil, hematocrit and cortisol, and nutritional metabolites such as albumin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), triglyceride, and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations in blood of cows were affected by pre- and postpartum periods in a large scale, while those were partially affected by maternal genetic potential. However, among the metabolites in blood, only neutrophil and triglylceride concentrations were affected by different parity of cows. Therefore, the present study suggests that nutritional intake and digestion are affected by physiological stress due to the parturition, and it should need to consider different husbandry technique based on the maternal genetic potential, and pre- and postpartum periods of cows.
Effects of Maternal Nursing Potential on Blood Metabolites, Body Weight Gain and Disease Occurrence of Hanwoo Calves
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 6, 2006, Pages 889~896
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.6.889
This study was arranged to investigate effects of maternal nursing potential on immune metabolites in blood, body weight gain and occurrence of disease in Hanwoo calves. Forty experimental calves were used and allocated into two groups with different maternal nursing potential. Thus, high or low maternal nursing potential group had twenty calves, respectively. The concentrations of IGF-I, RBC, Ca and IP in blood were similar between two groups, except for RBC. RBC concentration in blood from high maternal nursing potential group was significantly higher compared with low maternal nursing potential group at 5 days after birth (p<0.05). The concentrations of IgG, albumin, total protein and GGT in blood were similar between two groups during the whole experimental period. The days from birth had no effects on the concentration of IgG, albumin and GGT in blood from two groups, except for total protein. Similarly, the maternal nursing potential had no direct effect on body weight of calves, but body weight in high maternal nursing potential group tended to be higher compared with low maternal nursing potential group at 6 months age. The occurrence of respiratory disease and diarrhea in high maternal nursing potential group was relatively lower compared with low maternal nursing potential group. Therefore, the present study indicating that maternal nursing potential had effect on growth, and immune system in relation to disease in calves.
Effects of the Supplementation Period of Spent Composts of Selenium-Enriched Mushrooms on Plasma Glutathione Peroxidase Activity and Selenium Deposition in Finishing Hanwoo Steers
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 6, 2006, Pages 897~906
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.6.897
This study was conducted to determine effects of different supplementation periods (2, 3 and 4 months) of spent composts of Se-enriched mushrooms (Se-SMC) on plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and selenium deposition of finishing Hanwoo steers for the optimal supplementing period determination in order to produce Se-fortified Hanwoo beef. In the present study, 30 Hanwoo steers were allotted to treatments in six groups of five steers per pen. Treatments were separated into control and Se-SMC for each supplementation period. Dietary selenium contents were 0.1 and 0.9 ppm for control and Se-SMC treatments, respectively. At the end of each supplementation period, steers by periods were slaughtered to collect hind leg and liver samples for their selenium analyses. Blood samples were taken to analyze whole blood Se concentration and plasma GSH-Px activity at the last day of each supplementation period. Dry matter intakes were unaffected by Se-SMC and supplementation periods. In addition, average daily gain was not different between control and Se-SMC treatments and among supplementation periods. There was no difference for total body weight gain between control and Se-SMC treatments within each supplementation period. The supplementation of Se-SMC significantly (P<0.001) increased whole blood Se concentration, but whole blood selenium concentration was not affected by the supplementation period. Furthermore, plasma GSH-Px activity showed similar trend as shown in the pattern of whole blood Se concentration, but no difference by supplementation periods was observed. Selenium contents in hind legs significantly (P<0.05) increased with increasing supplementation periods, and also they were significantly (P<0.001) higher for Se-SMC supplementation groups in comparison to controls. However, there was no difference for selenium contents of hind legs between three and four months supplementation. Selenium contents in livers tended to slightly increase with increasing supplementation periods with no significant difference, but they were significantly (P<0.01) higher for Se-SMC supplementation groups compared with controls within the same period. The results indicated that the optimal Se-SMC supplementation period for the selenium deposition in Hanwoo steers might be around two or three months when we considered selenium contents in hind legs and livers.
Inhibition Activity Against Pathogenic Organism of Probiotic Bacteria and Characterization of Inhibition Activity of Isolated Bacteria from Calf Dejecta
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 6, 2006, Pages 907~920
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.6.907
This study was conducted to investigate the inhibitory activity of Lactobacillus spp., Bacillus ssp., and calf fecal isolates against pathogenic Salmonella typhimurium, E. coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. Among thirteen strains of Lactobacillus ssp. tested, Lactobacillus helveticus CU631 showed the highest inhibition against three pathogens, whereas Bacillus spp. showed a weak inhibitory activity. Four calf fecal isolates were identified as Lactobacillus pentosus CU13, CU05, Pediococcus pentosaceus CUR02, and Lactobacillus lactis ssp. lactis CUM14. The whole cell and cell wall components of L. rhamnosus CU02 and L. pentosus CU13 were active in the inhibition of L. monocytogenes. The medium components and levels, which affect on the inhibitory activity, were revealed as Tween 80 1.0%, peptone 3.0%, yeast extract 3.0%, glucose 3.0%, beef extract 3.0%, and NaCl 1.0～3.0%, respectively. Inhibitory activity of the supernatant culture medium was not affected by catalase and proteinase K treatment but affected by heat treatment at 80℃ and netralization, which implies that the inhibitory activity is due to the production of organic acids during the growth. L. pentosus CU13 and L. rhamnosus CU02 exhibited broad inhibition spectrum against 16 out of 21 strains including some pathogens. Oral administration of L. rhamnosus CU02 to the mice infected with E. coli O157:H7 was proven to be effective to recover their body weight during the experimental period.
Post-slaughter Intervention Techniques to Ensure Tenderness of Beef Muscles for Korean Consumers
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 6, 2006, Pages 921~932
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.6.921
Management to improve beef tenderness is always been a historical idea, but during the recent past it has become an issue of prime importance to the meat scientists and the industries as well. Variation in tenderness is the prime explanation for consumer’s dissatisfaction for the concern meat. It has been well documented that both postmortem proteolysis and sarcomere length have significant effect on meat tenderness and its consistency. Electrical stimulation and tenderstretch techniques have been used by a number of countries to underpin carcass quality assurance schemes focused on eating quality. The mechanism(s) by which the postmortem interventions improve tenderness (or prevent toughness) has not been fully elucidated. However, it is evident that electrical stimulation accelerates the development of rigor mortis so that prevention of cold shortening is possible and ageing commences at higher temperatures. On the other hand, tendersretch appears to prevent meat toughness via placing tension of the myofibrils and connective matrix during rigor development. Previous findings indicated that electrical stimulation and tenderstretch improved beef tenderness even for fattened cattle under moderate chilling conditions. Recent studies demonstrate beef tenderness to be one of the most important factors determining satisfaction levels of Korean beef consumers. There are number of studies which reported that electrical stimulation and tenderstretch techniques improved Hanwoo tenderness and color. It is believed that the techniques are mostly useful wherein controls of carcass size, fatness and/or chilling regimes are not easy such as Korean beef industry. However, Korean beef industry is one such area where postmortem intervention techniques have not been adopted so far. Taking into consideration of the Korean beef industry, wherein carcass size and fatness varies the post-slaughter intervention technique could be the most feasible measurement to ensure eating quality. The manuscript attempts to highlight the current knowledge aiming primarily towards the assurance of beef tenderness.
Effects of Natural Honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica) Venom Treatment on the Humoral Immune Response in Pigs
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 6, 2006, Pages 933~942
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.6.933
This experiment was carried out to investigate effects of honeybee venom treatment on the humoral immune response in pigs. Corresponding author : S. K. Cho, Dept. of Animal Sci. Chung-Buk National University, Kaesin-dong, Cheongju, 361-763, Korea. phone : 043-261-2551. E-mail : email@example.com To investigate effects of natural honeybee venom on the concentration of immunoglobulin G, A, and M, 20 piglets(LY×D) from 3 sows were allocated into two groups bee venom-treated group(10 piglets) and non-treated control(10 piglets). Natural honeybee venom was treated at 0, 3, 6 days after birth and the acupoints were Hai-men(ST-25), Du-kou(CV-8) and Jiao-chao(GV-1) points at 0, 3 days after birth and the regions of castration and tail amputation point at 6 days. Control group was injected 1㎖ of saline to the same site. Concentrations of IgG, A, and M were measured with immunoturbidimetric method at 0, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after treatment. To investigate the effect of bee venom on the production of antibodies against hog cholera and atrophic rhinitis vaccines that were used as indicator antigens, 40 piglets(LYxD) from 5 sows were grouped as bee venom-treated group (20 piglets) and control group(20 piglets). Natural honeybee venom was treated at 0, 3days(castration, tail amputation) and 21days after birth. The acupoints were Hai-men(ST-25), Du-kou(CV-8) and Jiao-chao (GV-1) points at 0 day, the regions of castration and tail ampution at 3 days and Jiao-chao(GV-1) and Bai-hui(GV-20) points at 21days after birth(weaning). Control group was injected 1ml of saline to the same site. Atrophic rhinitis vaccine was injected twice at 24 and 44 days after birth and hog cholera vaccine was also injected twice at 44 and 64 days after birth. Antibody titers against Bordetella bronchiseptica and hog cholera virus were measured by using tube agglutination and ELISA tests at 24, 34, 44, 54 and 74 days after birth. Concentrations of IgG of treated group were 339.52, 366.48, 296.52, 242.06 and 219.06mg/dl at 0, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after birth, respectively. In contrast, concentrations of IgG in control group were respectively 347.10, 334.14, 243.28, 205.18 and 191.58mg/dl during same periods with treated group. Concentrations of IgG at 0 day was not significantly different between the treated group and control group but treated group were significantly increased by 10.28% at 3 days after birth (P<0.02), 21.88% at 7 days after birth(P<0.01), 18.0% at 14 days after birth(P<0.07) and 14.3% at 21 days after birth(P<0.01). Concentrations of IgA and Ig M were not significantly different. Antibody titers against hog cholera virus were significantly increased by 57.0% at 24 days after birth(P<0.03), 74.6% at 34 days after birth (P<0.006), 48.6% at 44 days after birth(P<0.017), 45.0% at 54 days after birth(P<0.16) and 44.4% at 74 days after birth (P<0.006) in bee venom treated group in comparison with control group. Antibody titers against the Bordetella bronchiseptica was significantly increased in Beevenom treated group as 9.1% (P<0.32) at 24days, 39.7% (P<0.002) at 34days, 31.9% (P<0.02) at 44days, 33.4% (P<0.01) at 54days and 57.3% (P<0.007) at 74 days after birth when compared with those of control group pigs. Collecting together, the results in this study showed that immune responses were increased by treatment of natural honeybee venom to pigs. These results suggested that the treatment of bee venom could be used effectively for the increase of productivity in livestock industry.
Effects of Pedicle Amputation on Velvet Antler Growth in Sika Deer
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 6, 2006, Pages 943~948
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.6.943
This study carried out to investigate the effect of cutting stimulation on time of cutting, yield and length of antler in Sika deer. There was no significance between surgical stimulation and length of antler, but length was the longest in one side cutting group and the shortest in both side cutting group. Development of point was increased as the number of wounds in the second year (P<0.05). Time of casting was 2 weeks earlier in one side cutting group (P<0.05) than in both sides cutting group. Yields of velvet antler were 148±23g when pedicle was not cut, and 126±61g, 179±63g, 170g, and 48±25g when pedicle was cut by 0.3cm, 0.4cm, 0.5cm and 0.6cm thickness, respectively. In case of 0.6cm, yield was significantly smaller than others (P<0.05). The most desirable thickness of pedicle cut was 0.4～0.5mm. Yield of antler was increased as the size of wound in the first year, and 588, 790 and 657g in control, one-cut and both-cut, respectively. Yields of antler in one-cut is significantly high (P<0.05).
Influences of Pedicle Flap-graft Transplantation on Antler Growth in Deer
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 48, issue 6, 2006, Pages 949~956
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2006.48.6.949
The development of flip-graft, yield of antler and growth of antler in Sika deer, Red deer and Elk were investigated to establish the technology of transplantation of flip-graft. Pedicle flip-grafts were transplanted on the sides pedicle, on the midline of forehead and on the middle line of the skull. The success rate of transplantation was 42％, 5 animals out of 12. The yields of antler and number of point were 716g and 1,071g, and 2.3 and 1.0 in control and donor of flip-graft, respectively in red deer. The length and weight of anther of recipient of flip-graft in elk were 17cm, 302g. The length and weight of hard antler of recipient of flip-graft in red deer were 26cm and 122g. Flip-graft should be transplanted on the scull after removal of the corium for strong adherence.