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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Animal Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 50, Issue 6 - Dec 2008
Volume 50, Issue 5 - Oct 2008
Volume 50, Issue 4 - Aug 2008
Volume 50, Issue 3 - Jun 2008
Volume 50, Issue 2 - Apr 2008
Volume 50, Issue 1 - Feb 2008
Selecting the target year
Effects of Body Condition Score and Estimation of Growth Curves for Chest Girth and Ultra Sonic Longissimus Muscle Area, Backfat Thickness and Marbling Scores in Hanwoo(Korean cattle) Cows
Lee, Deuk-Hwan ; Lee, Gil-Hwan ; Cho, Chung-Il ; Kim, Nae-Soo ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 50, issue 5, 2008, Pages 581~590
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2008.50.5.581
Growth curves for ultrasonic carcass traits such as longissimus muscle area, backfat thickness and marbling score as well as chest girth which was simultaneously measured when carcass traits were investigated using ultrasound measuring technique were estimated to identify growth patterns and to adjust maturing effects in order to evaluating genetic merits on cows in farming basis. 27,410 records from 22,451 cows on which of 15~90 month of age were investigated from the national wide of Korea using by ultrasonic scanning techniques by the skilled persons from 2002 to 2007. Van Bertalanffy growth function was applied for estimating growth curves on these traits. Carcass traits and chest girth would be linearly increased by body condition score. It might be used for multiplicative correction factors for pre- adjustment on the body condition scores. Growth pattern on chest girth would be quickly reached to mature size and stable on after reached to asymptotic mature size. Longissimus muscle area would also be reached to mature size but little smoother than chest girth. Otherwise, growth curve on backfat thickness would be steadily increasing up to 7 years of age. It also showed large individual difference by way of mean square error. Marbling score would be steadily increased but sharper than those on backfat thickness. It would be reached to mature size up at 5 years of age. Those growth curves would be used for correcting function on age at investigating on genetic evaluation system.
Relationships Among Cow Daily Milk Yield, Calf Body Weight at Birth and 3 Month of Age and Preweaning Daily Gain in Hanwoo
Hwang, Jeong-Mi ; Kim, Si-Dong ; Choi, Jae-Gwan ; Lee, Chae-Young ; Kim, Byung-Wan ; Kim, Jong-Bok ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 50, issue 5, 2008, Pages 591~600
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2008.50.5.591
This study was conducted to investigate relationships among cow daily milk yield, calf body weight at birth and 3 month of age and calf preweaning daily gain. Cow daily milk yield(DMILK) of 90 days after postpartum measured by weigh-suckle-weight method, calf birth weight(BW), calf body weight at 3 month of age(WT3), and calf preweaning daily gain from birth to 3 month of age(PDG) were collected from June to November on 2002 and April to November on 2003. All traits studied were considered as cow traits and analysed by WOMBAT packages to obtain A-I REML(average information restricted maximum likelihood) estimates. Heritability estimate of daily milk yield uncorrected for cow-calf separation time(DMILK) was 0.39, which was not differ from 0.36 of heritability estimate corrected on the basis of 24 hour cow-calf separation time(CMILK). Heritability estimates for maternal genetic effects of BW, WT3 and PDG were respectively 0.28, 0.17 and 0.18. Genetic correlations between DMILK and maternal effect of BW, WT3 and PDG were respectively 0.59, 0.79 and 0.68. High genetic correlation coefficients of DMILK with WT3 and PDG indicate that selections for maternal breeding value for WT3 or PDG may be effective to enhance the cow’s milk production ability in Hanwoo.
Estimation of Growth Curve Parameters for Body Weight and Measurements in Castrated Hanwoo (Bostaurus Coreanae)
Choi, Te-Jeong ; Seo, Kang-Seok ; Kim, Si-Dong ; Cho, Kwang-Hyun ; Choi, Jae-Gwan ; Hwang, In-Ho ; Choi, Ho-Sung ; Park, Chul-Jin ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 50, issue 5, 2008, Pages 601~612
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2008.50.5.601
This study was conducted to figure out how the shape of Hanwoo changes over time, examine the rank correlations between the carcass traits which are the selection traits and parameters of growth curve, and determine the correlation between body shape and carcass. Body weight, body measurements and carcass traits were measured from 161 castrated Hanwoo, and 12 growth traits and 5 carcass traits were investigated in total. The logistic model(Nelder, 1961) used for the estimation of growth curve parameters and growth characteristics at inflection point were calculated by these growth curve parameters. The value of this parameter was greatest for pinbone width, which suggests that it is an early ripening trait, while it was lowest for chest girth, suggesting it to be a late ripening trait. The rank correlations of chest depth, chest width, and hip width with backfat thickness steadily increased from 6 to 24 months, while the rank correlations of other traits decreased after 18 months until 24 months of age. Only phenotypic records were analyzed in this study, but for examine the genetic changes over growth phase in Hanwoo, if another additional genetic analysis like as estimation of genetic parameters should achieve, body measurements may be useful traits in proven bull selection.
Genetic Parameter Estimation of Carcass Traits of Hanwoo Steers
Hwang, Jeong-Mi ; Kim, Sidong ; Choy, Yun-Ho ; Yoon, Ho-Baek ; Park, Cheol-Jin ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 50, issue 5, 2008, Pages 613~620
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2008.50.5.613
The genetic parameters used in National Hanwoo Genetic Evaluation(NHGE) were needed to be monitored and updated periodically for accounting any possible changes in population parameters due to selection and environmental changes. Genetic parameters were estimated with single and two-trait models with MTDFREML package using 2,791 carcass records of steers collected from Hanwoo Progeny Test Program(HPTP). Single and two-trait models gave similar parameter estimates for all traits. The heritability estimates from single and two-trait models for carcass weight(CW), dressing percentage(DP), eye muscle area(EMA), back fat thickness(BFT) and marbling score(MS) were 0.30, 0.30, 0.37, 0.44 and 0.44, respectively. The heritability estimates for all the traits except BFT were slightly lower than those used in NHGE but seemed to be within the acceptable ranges. However, further monitoring is needed because the data might not have fully reflected the changes such as carcass grading standards in performance testing program. In order to shift statistical model of NHGE from single trait model to multiple-trait model, the genetic correlations between carcass traits were estimated with pairwise two-trait models. The genetic correlation coefficients between CW and DP, between CW and EMA, between CW and BFT and between CW and MS were 0.44, 0.63, 0.17 and 0.06, respectively. Those between DP and EMA, between DP and BFT and between DP and MS were 0.29, 0.40 and 0.20. Those between EMA and BFT and between EMA and MS were －0.24 and 0.15, respectively. The genetic correlation coefficient between BFT and MS was 0.03.
Effects of ADCYP1R1, FABP3, FABP4, MC4R, MYL2 Genotypes on Growth Traits in F
Population Between Landrace and Jeju Native Black Pig
Han, Sang-Hyun ; Shin, Kwang-Yun ; Lee, Sung-Soo ; Ko, Moon-Suck ; Jeong, Dong-Kee ; Jeon, Jin-Tae ; Cho, In-Cheol ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 50, issue 5, 2008, Pages 621~632
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2008.50.5.621
Genetic polymorphisms was investigated at five single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNP) sites in four porcine genes(ADCYAP1R1, FABP3, MC4R, and MYL2) and analyzed their statistical association with growth traits in F2 reciprocal-crossbred population between Landrace and Jeju native black pig(JNP). All populations, JNP, Landrace and their F2 were polymorphic for all five SNP loci tested, however, the homozygote T/T of FABP3 g.-158T>C and the homozygote G/G of ADCYAP1R1 intron 2 337A>G were not found in JNP and Landrace, respectively. The genotypes of ADCYAP1R1 were significantly associated with body weights(BW) at 3 weeks and at 20 weeks(P<0.05), respectivley, those of FABP3 g.-135delT were associated with late average daily gain(LADG) (P<0.01), and those of FABP3 g.-158T>G were associated with body weights during late growth period such as, BW20 and LADG(P<0.01). Those of MC4R were also significantly associated with BW10 suggesting by the difference of early average daily gain(EADG) (P<0.05), and with LADG(P<0.01). The body length of F2 animals was affected by the genotypes of ADCYAP1R1, MC4R, and MYL2(P<0.05), respectively. Among these, MC4R A/A homozygotes showed over 3 cm longer in body length than those of other genotypes. As the useful basic information, these results suggested that SNP markers showing statistical association with growth traits and the results help to select the sires of JNP for improving the productivity in JNP-related crossbreeding system in pig industry and also to construct the molecular breeding system for breed improvement of JNP itself.
Analysis of the Genotype Distribution in Cattle Breeds Using a Double Mismatched Primer Set that Discriminates the MC1R Dominant Black Allele
Han, Sang-Hyun ; Kim, Young-Hoon ; Cho, In-Cheol ; Jang, Byoung-Gui ; Ko, Moon-Suck ; Jung, Ha-Yeon ; Lee, Sung-Soo ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 50, issue 5, 2008, Pages 633~640
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2008.50.5.633
With a double mismatch primer set designed for amplifying the modified DNA sequence fragments, bovine melanocortin-1 receptor(MC1R) gene encoded in Extension locus which plays a critical role in coat color development was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction mediated restriction fragment length polymorphism(PCR-RFLP). Amplified PCR fragments were successfully discriminated with combining the MspI- and AluI-RFLP into three major alleles(ED, E+, and e), directly related to bovine coat color phenotypes. The genotyping results showed that Jeju black cattle contained three MC1R alleles, but yellowish-red colored Hanwoo and bridle colored Korean Brindle cattle did not contained the dominant black allele ED. However, two dominant black-colored cattle breeds, Holstein and Angus, contained the ED allele over 96% in frequency. Hanwoo×Holstein F1 and Hanwoo×Angus F1 crossbred calves showed ED/e MC1R genotypes, and uniformly black coat color. the results suggested that this MC1R genotyping method be useful in allele discrimination for bovine MC1R gene which used for breed classification and characterization, as one of the important genetic markers, using combination of MspI- and AluI-RFLP for modified PCR product amplified with a newly designed double mismatch primer set.
Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes Between Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer and Normal Placenta in Cattle
Yu, Seong-Lan ; Jeong, Hang-Jin ; Sang, Byung-Chan ; Ryoo, Seung-Heui ; Jung, Kie-Chul ; Yoon, Jong-Taek ; Seong, Hwan-Hoo ; Jin, Dong-Il ; Lee, Jun-Heon ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 50, issue 5, 2008, Pages 641~648
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2008.50.5.641
There has been great success for making transgenic animals using somatic cell nuclear transfer(SCNT) up to this time. However, the success rates of the production of live transgenic animals are still very low. The current research has been carried out for delineation of differentially expressed genes between SCNT and normal placenta in cattle. In the present observations, high expression has been observed for CTSZ, LOC509426 and ELF1 genes in normal placenta. On the other hand, TIMP2, PAG1B, PAG-21, LOC782894, SERPINB6 and mKIAA2025 protein were highly expressed in SCNT placenta. Five genes, which were highly expressed in SCNT placenta, have been further investigated using semi-quantitative real-time PCR. The results were similar to that we observed using ACP. In the future, all genes affecting the SCNT and normal placenta have to be discovered and their networks will be fully investigated. The genes were identified in this study would be great help for identifying differential gene expressions in SCNT placenta.
Insulin-like Growth Factors-Ι and II Promote Proliferation and Differentiation of Cultured Pig Preadipocytes by Different Receptor-mediated Mechanisms
Ownes, Phillip ; Kim, Won-Young ; Kim, Hye-Rim ; Chung, Chung-Soo ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 50, issue 5, 2008, Pages 649~656
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2008.50.5.649
The current study was undertaken to investigate the mechanism of action of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) on proliferation and differentiation of pig preadipocytes. The preadipocytes were isolated from the backfat of new-born female pigs and cultured in serum-deprived medium in the presence and absence of recombinant native IGFs or recombinant mutant IGFs that have reduced affinity for binding to both type-1 IGF receptors and insulin receptors. Fifty ng/ml of either IGF-I, [Leu60]IGF-I, IGF-Ⅱ or [Leu27]IGF-Ⅱ were included in the media in which preadipocytes were cultured for 4 days. IGF-I, [Leu60]IGF-I, IGF-Ⅱ and [Leu27]IGF-Ⅱ stimulated proliferation of pig preadipocytes by 39%, 8%, 25% and 2% respectively, as measured by increased numbers of cells. This indicates that both IGF-I and -II promote replication of pig preadipocytes by actions mediated either by type-1 IGF receptor or insulin receptor. IGF-I, [Leu60]IGF-I, IGF-Ⅱ and [Leu27]IGF-Ⅱ stimulated differentiation of pig preadipocytes by 50%, 17%, 37% and 30%, respectively, measured as glycerolphosphate dehydrogenase activity. Reducing the affinity of IGF-I for type-1 IGF receptors or insulin receptors significantly reduced the differentiation response. However, the differentiation response to [Leu27]IGF-II was not significantly different from the response to IGF-II. This shows that IGF-I and IGF-Ⅱ promote cell differentiation by different receptor-mediated mechanisms. IGF-II promotes differentiation of pig preadipocytes by actions that do not involve either type-1 IGF receptors or insulin receptors. These actions therefore appear to be mediated by binding of IGF-II to type-2 IGF receptors(also known as cation-independendent mannose-6-phosphate receptor[CIM6P/IGF2 receptor]). This is the first study to find evidence that IGF-II promotes differentiation of preadipocytes from any animal species by actions mediated by CIM6P/IGF2 receptors. In summary, this study shows that IGF-I and IGF-Ⅱ promote differentiation of pig preadipocytes by mechanisms that involve different cellular receptors.
Effect of Dietary Combined Probiotics(Any-Lac, ®) Supplementation Contained with Phaffia rhodozyma on the Growth Performances and Meat Quality of Pigs
Kim, Kyeong-Su ; Lim, Jong-Cheol ; Shin, Myeong-Su ; Choi, Yang-Il ; Lee, Suk-Cheon ; Cho, Seong-Ku ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 50, issue 5, 2008, Pages 657~666
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2008.50.5.657
This study investigated the effects of dietary probiotics which contained antioxidant astaxanthin on growth performances and meat quality in two pigs farms. A total of 2,400 pigs were gilt and barrow with same number assigned to one of two treatments. The two treatments were control(commercial feed), treatment(probiotics 0.1% feed). Each treatment had 3 replicates. Weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency were periodically recorded for 90 days. Survival ratio was shown 99.85% in treatment group. Average daily gain was higher in treatment group(0.91kg) than that of control(0.84kg). Back fat thickness was lower in treatment group than that of control, even though the treatment group tended to be higher carcass weight. The treatment group trended higher carcass weight, back fat thickness was lower in treatment group than control. The ratio of carcass grade A was shown higher in treatment than that of control, respectively. Treatment group showed higher value of fat content and water holding capacity. Treatment showed lower value than control in shear force and cooking loss. Hunter value(a and b) of treatment group in meat color was higher than control. Treatment group was lower cholesterol content than control. Control group was shown higher unsaturated fatty acid(stearic acid(C18:0)) value than treatment. Treatment group was shown lower saturated fatty acid(oleic acid(C18:1)) value than that of control. These results suggested that the supplementation of probiotics contained Phaffia rhodozyma could be used effectively for increase productivity of livestock industry
Effect of Dietary Lactobacillus on Growth Performance, Intestinal Microflora, Development of Ileal Villi, and Intestinal Mucosa in Broiler Chickens
Kim, Sang-Ho ; Kim, Dong-Wook ; Park, Su-Young ; Kim, Ji-Hyuk ; Kang, Geun-Ho ; Kang, Hwan-Ku ; Yu, Dong-Jo ; Na, Jae-Cheon ; Lee, Sang-Jin ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 50, issue 5, 2008, Pages 667~676
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2008.50.5.667
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of various Lactobacilli strains on growth performance, intestinal microflora, ileal villi development and ileal mucosal surface of broiler chickens. Six hundred 1-d-old male chicks(Avian) were randomly divided into five groups of four replicates, each replicates containing 30 birds and fed corn-soybean meal diets containing Latobaillus were isolated from cecum of chichens at 107cfu/g diet for five weeks. The treatments were control(antibiotics-free diet), Lactobacillus crispatus avibro1(LCB), Lactobacillus reuteri avibro2(LRB), Lactobacillus crispatus avihen1(LCH) or Lactobacillus vaginalis avihen2(LVH). The body weight gain in groups fed Lactobacillus significantly improved as compared to those of control(P<0.05). Feed intake was not statistically different among the groups. The number of Lactobacillus in ileum and cecum of chicks fed various Lactobacillus tended to be increased or significantly increased as compared to those of the control(P<0.05), but there was difference by age of chicks and species of Lactobacillus. The number of yeast was significantly increased in cecum and ileum at three weeks old chicks fed Lactobacilli compared with the control(P<0.05). The anaerobes’ number of ileum and cecum tended to increase or significantly increased in Lactobacillus treatments compared with the control(P<0.05). The ileal villi length extended greatly at three weeks of age in groups fed Lactobacillus compared with the control(P<0.05). The length of ileal villi in chicks fed Lactobacillus was continuously increased up to five weeks of age, but did not increased in the control(P<0.05). Lactobacillus was found on ileal mucosal surface. And ileal mucosal surface was maintained better with Latobacillus feeding. These results suggest the possibility that cecal Lactobacillus of chickens could be used as probiotics by improving the growth performance and promoting development of ileal villi in broiler chicks.
Effects of Dietary Wild-Ginseng Adventitious Root Meal on Growth Performance, Blood Characteristics and Meat Quality in Growing-Finishing Pigs
Jang, Hae-Dong ; Hahn, Eu-Joo ; Jeon, Won-Kyung ; Paek, Kee-Yeoup ; Kim, Hyo-Jin ; Shin, Seung-Oh ; Kim, In-Chul ; Park, Jun-Chul ; Kim, Jin-Dong ; Kim, In-Ho ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 50, issue 5, 2008, Pages 677~686
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2008.50.5.677
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary wild-ginseng adventitious root meal on growth performance, blood characteristics and meat quality characteristics in growing-finishing pigs. Ninety six pigs[(Landrace×Yorkshire)×Duroc] with average initial body weight of 68.29±0.31kg were used in 70d growth trial. Dietary treatments included 1) CON(Basal diet), 2) WGR1(Basal diet+0.5% wild- ginseng adventitious root meal), 3) WGR2(Basal diet+1.0% wild-ginseng adventitious root meal) and 4) WGR3(Basal diet+1.5% wild-ginseng adventitious root meal). The pigs were allotted into four dietary treatments with six replicate pens and four pigs per pen in a completely randomized design. For the whole period, final body weight and ADG were increased in CON treatment compared to WGR3 treatment(Linear effect, P=0.005). In blood characteristics, red blood cell(RBC) was significantly increased in CON and WGR2 treatments compared to WGR1 treatment (Quadratic effect, P=0.019). WGR2 treatment resulted in higher white blood cell(WBC) than CON and WGR1 treatments(Linear effect, P=0.041). WBC difference was significantly improved in WGR2 treatment compared to other treatments (Linear effect, P=0.042). Total protein was increased in WGR2 treatment compared to CON treatment (Quadratic effect, P=0.011). In cholesterol concentration of blood, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride were not significantly different among treatments. In meet quality, pH in WGR1 treatment was higher than WGR3 treatment(Quadratic effect=0.022). Water holding capacity(WHC) was significantly increased in WGR2 treatment compared to WGR3 treatment(Quadratic effect, P=0.050).
Effects of Dietary Lysine and Leucine Levels on Growth Performance and Meat Quality Parameters in Finishing Pigs
Moon, Hong-Kil ; Lee, Sung-Dae ; Jung, Hyun-Jung ; Kim, Young-Hwa ; Park, Jun-Cheol ; Ji, Sang-Yun ; Kwon, Oh-Sub ; Kim, In-Cheul ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 50, issue 5, 2008, Pages 687~694
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2008.50.5.687
This study was conducted to investigate effects of dietary supplementation of lysine and leucine on growth performance and meat quality parameters in finishing pigs. The experiment was designed using lysine levels(0.45%, 0.75%) and leucine levels(1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0%) according to 2×3 factorial design. A total of thirty-six pigs[(Landrace×Yorkshire)×Duroc] with an average initial weight of 75.5±2kg were allotted to one of the six dietary treatments. Each treatment had three replications of two pigs per replicate. No difference was found in average daily gain(P>0.05), while feed intake and feed/gain were higher in 0.45% of lysine treatments than in 0.75% of lysine treatments(P<0.05). Retail lean meat percentage was lower in 0.45% of lysine treatments than in 0.75% of lysine treatments(P<0.05), but there were no differences in other carcass characteristics(P>0.05). Marbling score was significantly increased(P<0.05) in 0.45% of lysine treatments compared to 0.75% of lysine treatments, while other meat quality parameters were not affected by lysine levels(P>0.05). Supplemental dietary leucine had no effect on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality parameters(P>0.05) except that Hunter b* value were increased with added levels of leucine(P<0.05). In conclusion, feeding of lysine-deficient diets in finishing pigs improved marbling scores of pork. Feeding diets high in leucine, however, did not increase intramuscular fat or marbling scores.
Effects of Dietary Protein Level and Supplementation of Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Growth Performance and Meat Quality Parameters in Finishing Pigs
Moon, Hong-Kil ; Lee, Sung-Dae ; Jung, Hyun-Jung ; Kim, Young-Hwa ; Park, Jun-Cheol ; Ji, Sang-Yun ; Kim, Chong-Dae ; Kwon, Oh-Sub ; Kim, In-Cheul ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 50, issue 5, 2008, Pages 695~704
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2008.50.5.695
This study was conducted to investigate effects of dietary crude protein(CP) level and supplementation of conjugated linoleic acid(CLA) on growth performances and meat quality parameters in finishing pigs. The experiment was designed using protein levels(11.3%, 16.0%) and CLA levels(0%, 2.5%) according to 2×2 factorial design. A total of forty-eight pigs [(Landrace×Yorkshire)×Duroc] with an average initial weight of 79±1kg were allotted to one of four dietary treatments. Each treatment had four replications of three pigs per replicate. Final body weight(P<0.05) and average daily gain(P<0.01) were lower in 11.3% CP treatments than in 16.0% CP treatments, while feed/gain was high(P<0.01) in 11.3% CP treatments compared with 16.0% CP treatments. Carcass weight was lighter in 11.3% CP treatments(P<0.001) and CLA 2.5% treatments(P<0.01) than in 16.0% CP and CLA 0% treatments, respectively. A significant interaction between CP and CLA on carcass weight was observed(P<0.01), where supplementation of 2.5% CLA to finishing diets decreased carcass weight in 16.0% CP treatments, while no difference was found in 11.3% CP treatments. Backfat thickness was thinner in 11.3% CP treatments and CLA 2.5% treatments than in 16.0% CP and CLA 0% treatments, respectively(P<0.05). A significant interaction between CP and CLA on backfat thickness was observed(P<0.001), where supplementation of 2.5% CLA to finishing diets decreased backfat thickness in 16.0% CP treatments, while no difference was found in 11.3% CP treatments. Marbling score and intramuscular fat contents were higher in 11.3% CP treatments than in 16.0% CP treatments(P<0.01). In conclusion, feeding of protein-deficient diets in finishing pigs could produce favorable pork with high marbling score and thinner backfat. On the other hand, supplementation of CLA was considered to decrease backfat thickness when diets with optimal level of crude protein were fed to finishing pigs.
Effects of Sodium Bicarbonate and Vitamin Supplementation on Milk Production and Composition in Lactating Holstein Cows Under Heat Stress Condition
Oh, Yong-Kyoon ; Joeng, Chan-Sung ; Kim, Do-Hyeong ; Seol, Yong-Joo ; Lee, Sang-Cheol ; Lee, Hyun-Jeong ; Lee, Sung-Sil ; Kim, Kyoung-Hoon ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 50, issue 5, 2008, Pages 705~712
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2008.50.5.705
Sixteen multiparous lactating Holstein cows were used to compare effects of supplementing 1)no additive(Control), 2)1.2% sodium bicarbonate(NaHCO3); 3)niacin(80g/d), 4)vitamin A+E (140,000IU+1000IU) on feed intake, milk production, milk composition and somatic cell counts during the summer months. Insofar as possible, treatment groups were balanced for lactation number and days in milk. Cows were fed a diet of 9.1kg DM of concentrate and 10.2kg DM of corn silage. Daily maximum air temperature in free stall barn was 35℃ for 3 days of the pretreatment periods and decreased gradually up to 27℃ during the treatment periods of 15days. Dry matter intake of corn silage was higher(p<0.05) for cows consuming NaHCO3 than those not consuming NaHCO3. Daily milk production for niacin and vitamin A+E supplementations resulted in significant(p<0.001) increase in milk production from 3 day of trials than control and NaHCO3. Milk fat percentage tended(p=0.09) to increase and milk lactose percentage was increased significantly(p<0.001) for cows supplemented with NaHCO3, niacin and vitamin A+E. Milk protein percentages was higher significantly(p<0.05) with supplemental niacin and somatic cell counts was higher significantly(p<0.001) with supplemental vitamin A+E. These data strongly suggest that supplementation of NaHCO3, niacin or vitamin A+E should be increased for improving milk production and mammary gland health of dairy cows under heat stress.
Isolation and Identification of Hydrolytic Enzyme-producing Bacteria from Spent Mushroom Substrate
Kim, Young-Il ; Jeong, Se-Hyung ; Seok, Joon-Sang ; Yang, Si-Yong ; Huh, Jung-Won ; Kwak, Wan-Sup ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 50, issue 5, 2008, Pages 713~720
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2008.50.5.713
This study was conducted to isolate and identify xylanase- and cellulase-producing thermophilic bacteria from stacked spent mushroom substrates and to determine the optimal medium conditions for their growth. Bacteria with the highest xylanase and CMCase activities were strain 3 and 201-7. Both of them were identified as Bacillus spp. and named Bacillus subtilis KU3 and Bacillus subtilis KU201-7. The optimal medium condition of Bacillus subtilis KU3 was obtained when 3%(w/v) of yeast extract and 1%(w/v) of maltose were used as nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively. That of Bacillus subtilis KU201-7 was obtained when 0.5%(w/v) of yeast extract and 0.5%(w/v) of CMC were used as nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively.
Quality Characteristics of Pressed Ham Containing Grape Seed Oil
Lee, Jeong-Ill ; Jung, Jae-Doo ; Lee, Jin-Woo ; Ha, Young-Joo ; Joo, Seon-Tae ; Park, Gu-Boo ; Kwack, Suk-Chun ; Park, Jeong-Suk ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 50, issue 5, 2008, Pages 721~732
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2008.50.5.721
Pressed ham was manufactured to investigate the effects of grape seed oil on the quality characteristics of pressed ham. Five treatments were divided based on differences in the amount of grape seed oil added into the pressed ham. For control, 10% of back fat was only added without grape seed oil. For the first treatment, 10% of grape seed oil among the lard component added into the pressed ham was replaced. For the 2nd, 3rd and 4rd treatments, 20%, 30% and 40% of grape seed oil was respectively replaced. Pressed ham manufactured using grape seed oil was vacuum packaged and then stored for 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days at 4℃. Samples were analyzed for shear force value, sensory properties, TBARS and fatty acid composition. In the 1, 21 and 28 days of storage, shear force value of grape seed oil treatment (T4) was significantly lower than that of control (P<0.05). No remarkable differences were found in sensory properties among control and grape seed oil treatment groups. The TBARS value was significantly higher in control than in grape seed oil treatment group(T4) at 28 days of storage (P<0.05). The TBARS of control and grape seed oil treatment groups increased significantly as the storage period increased(P<0.05). The linoleic acid(C18:2) content of grape seed oil treatment groups was significantly higher than that of control(P<0.05). But the contents of C10:0～C20:4 were decreased significantly by grape seed oil additive (P<0.05). Saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid content of control was significantly higher than that of grape seed oil treatment groups(P<0.05). Whereas the increase level of grape seed oil additive resulted in the significantly higher polyunsaturated fatty acid content(P<0.05). Based on these findings, we conclude that the sensory properties and lipid oxidation(TBARS) of manufactured pressed ham were not affected by grape seed oil addition. Also, our results indicate that high-quality pressed ham can be manufactured with strengthen of polyunsaturated fatty acid content.