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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 53, Issue 6 - Dec 2011
Volume 53, Issue 5 - Oct 2011
Volume 53, Issue 4 - Aug 2011
Volume 53, Issue 3 - Jun 2011
Volume 53, Issue 2 - Apr 2011
Volume 53, Issue 1 - Feb 2011
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Characterization of the Prolactin Receptor 3 (PRLR3) and Retinol-Binding Protein 4 (RBP4) Genes in the Birth Weight and Early Growth of Berkshire Pigs
Do, Chang-Hee ; Lee, Dong-Hee ; Cho, Byung-Wook ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 53, issue 3, 2011, Pages 185~193
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2011.53.3.185
To investigate the influences of candidate genes on the birth weight and the early stages of life, genotyping of the prolactin receptor 3 (PRLR3) and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) genes was performed in 156 and 141 Berkshire pigs, respectively. The frequency of both PRLR3 alleles A and a was 0.50. The frequencies of the RBP4 alleles B and b were 0.42 and 0.58, respectively. Neither locus was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. No significant associations of the PRLR3 alleles with birth or weaning weights and of the RBP4 alleles with birth weight were observed. The proportions of the phenotype variances due to the genotypes of PRLR3 in the feeder weights was 4.0% and those of RBP4 in the weaning and feeder weights were 11.9 and 3.3%, respectively (P < 0.05). The dominance effect of PRLR3 and RBP4 on feeder weights was 2.40 and -1.86 kg, respectively (P < 0.01). The additive and dominance effects of RBP4 on weaning weights were 0.332 and -0.682 kg, respectively (P < 0.01). Even if no significant epistasis of PRLR3 and RBP4 was detected, a considerable trend of consistent positive epistasis estimates of AA/BB and Aa/Bb was observed for all traits. The results of this study may have a considerable impact on early-stage growth by both loci, and a selection strategy should be designed separately for each marker in Berkshire pigs.
Expressional Profiling of Telomerase and Telomere-Associated Molecules in the Rat Testis and Seminal Vesicle during Postnatal Developmental Period
Seo, Hee-Jung ; Lee, Seong-Kyu ; Baik, Haing-Woon ; Cheon, Yong-Pil ; Chun, Tae-Hoon ; Choi, In-Ho ; Lee, Ki-Ho ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 53, issue 3, 2011, Pages 195~202
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2011.53.3.195
Maintenance of adequate telomere length in developing cells is the most important concern to preserve the integrity of the genome. The length of telomere is strictly regulated by numerous telomere-binding proteins and/or interacting factors. Even though the expression of telomerase in the male reproductive tract has been characterized, developmental expressional profiling of telomerase and other telomere-associated proteins has not been determined in detail. The present study was attempted to examine expression patterns of catalytic subunit (Tert) and RNA component (Terc) of telomerase and two telomerase associated factors, telomerase associated protein 1 (Tep1) and TERF1 (TRF1) interacting nuclear factor 2 (Tinf2) in the testis and seminal vesicle of male rat during postnatal development. The real-time PCR analysis was utilized to quantify mRNA expression of molecules. The abundance of Tep1 mRNA in the testis and seminal vesicle was the highest at 5 months of age. Expressional fluctuation of Tinf2 during postnatal development was found in the testis, while expression of Tinf2 in the seminal vesicle was gradually increased until 5 months of age and then significantly decreased later. mRNA level of Tert gene in the testis was significantly increased at the adult and the elder, while the highest expression of Tert gene in the seminal vesicle was found at 5 months of age. Expression of Terc transcript in the testis and seminal vesicle was the highest at 5 months of age, followed by significant reduction at 1 and 2 years of ages. Such differential gene expression of telomere-associated factors and telomerase components in different male reproductive tissues during postnatal development indicates that maintenance of telomere length would be regulated in tissue- and/or age-specific manners.
Expression of Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor 3 in the Uterine Endometrium of Pigs with Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Cloned Conceptuses
Seo, Hee-Won ; Ka, Hak-Hyun ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 53, issue 3, 2011, Pages 203~209
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2011.53.3.203
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a small lipid molecule that plays an important role through LPA receptors (LPARs) in reproductive processes. Our previous study has shown maximal expression of LPAR3 in the uterine endometrium on day (D) 12 of pregnancy in pigs, the period when conceptus secretes various molecules such as estrogen and interleukin-
(IL1B) and initiates implantation. We determined that endometrial expression of LPAR3 was increased by conceptus estrogen in the previous study, but the effect of IL1B on LPAR3 expression has not been determined. Thus, in this study we examined whether LPAR3 expression was also affected by IL1B. Endometrial explant cultures from D12 of the estrous cycle showed that levels of endometrial LPAR3 expression did not changed in response to IL1B. We also investigated LPAR3 expression in the uterine endometrium on D12 and D30 of pregnancy from gilts with conceptuses derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The expression of LPAR3 mRNA was lower in endometria from gilts with conceptuses resulting from SCNT compared with those from gilts with embryos resulting from natural mating on D12 of pregnancy, but it was not different between them on D30 of pregnancy. Our results indicate that estrogen of conceptus origin is responsible for induction of LPAR3 expression during the peri-implantation period and appropriate LPA signaling is impaired in the uterine endometrium with SCNT-derived conceptuses during the implantation period in pigs.
Feasibility of Increasing the Slaughter Weight of Finishing Pigs
Park, Byung-Chul ; Lee, C.-Young ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 53, issue 3, 2011, Pages 211~222
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2011.53.3.211
The present review was aimed to assess the feasibility of increasing the slaughter weight (SW) of finishing pigs. Growth performance, including ADG, ADFI and gain:feed, does not change significantly with increasing SW between 110 and
in lean-genotype pigs, whereas in non-lean pigs, ADG and gain:feed decrease with increasing SW within the similar range of BW. Backfat thickness (BFT) and marbling of the carcass, which are greater in barrows than in gilts, increase with the increase of SW. The SW could be increased by using a low-energy diet and thereby reducing the rate of fat deposition per weight gain. The yield of the belly increases with the increase of SW, which may be economically significant in Korea. However, yields of some other primal cuts do not change so much as to affect the carcass value. The redness and fat content of the muscle increase slightly with the increase of SW whereas moisture content is minimally influenced by SW. Muscular protein content rarely changes, but sometimes increases slightly, with increasing SW. Other physicochemical characteristics, including lightness, pH, drip loss, and cooking loss of the muscle, are barely influenced by SW. Marbling of fresh loin and ham increases with increasing SW. Sensory characteristics of fresh loin, ham, and belly, including color, aroma, off-flavor, drip, and acceptability, are not influenced significantly by SW. The eating quality of cooked pork also has almost no relation to SW. In conclusion, it is thought that the current SW for moderately lean barrows and gilts can be raised up to 125 and 135 kg, respectively, with BFT at these weights predicted to be approximately 24 mm near the last rib, without compromising the meat quality.
Effect of Retinoic Acid on Proliferation and Differentiation of Preadipocytes from Male and Female Pigs
Song, Mi-Yeon ; Dang, Chang-Gwon ; Chung, Chung-Soo ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 53, issue 3, 2011, Pages 223~226
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2011.53.3.223
The current study was undertaken to determine the effect of retinoic acid (RA) on proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes from male and female pigs. The preadipocytes were isolated from new-born male and female pigs by collagenase digestion and washed three times one day after seeding (designated as day 0 of culture). RA was included in the media at various concentratives from day 0 to 2. The cell number was measured on day 2 with hematocytometer after trypsin digestion. Cell differentiation was determined on day 6 by measuring glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. RA (0.1, 1 and 10 uM) showed no effect on proliferation of preadipocytes from both male and female pigs. However, RA significantly decreased differentiation of pig preadipocytes. Degree of differentiation with 0.1 uM, 1 uM and 10 uM of RA treatment was 80%, 41% and 29% respectively, compared with control. Similar inhibitory effect was found in the female pigs; 77%, 28% and 16% respectively. It is interesting that RA treated on cell proliferation stage had no effect on proliferation but had a strong inhibitory effect on differentiation which is happening in the late stage of cell culture.
Intestinal Growth and Development of Weanling Pigs in Response to Dietary Supplementation of Antibiotics, Phytogenic Products and Brewer's Yeast plus Bacillus Spores
Lee, C.-Young ; Lim, Jung-Won ; Ko, Young-Hyun ; Kang, Sun-Young ; Park, Man-Jong ; Ko, Tae-Gu ; Lee, Ji-Hoon ; Hyun, Young ; Jeong, Kyu-Sik ; Jang, In-Surk ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 53, issue 3, 2011, Pages 227~235
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2011.53.3.227
A total of 96 crossbred weanling barrows aged 21 days were randomly allocated to 32 pens of a new nursery to investigate the effects of antibiotics, phytogenics, and probiotics on intestinal growth and development. The animals were fed a set of three-phase basal diets containing 0.3% zinc oxide (CON) or the basal diets supplemented with 353 ppm of a combination of tiamulin, neomycin, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline (ANTI), 75 ppm triterpenoid saponin plus 150 ppm mixed saccharides (HERB; Sacchapin
brewer's yeasts plus
spores of each of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis per kilogram feed (PROBIO; Yeasture Plus 2B
) for five weeks. Thirty-two pigs representing as many pens were slaughtered at the end of the feeding trial, after which morphological measures and digestive enzyme activities of intestinal mucosa were determined. Weight gain and gain:feed of the pigs were not affected by the dietary treatments (TRT) during the overall feeding trial. Total intestinal length was greater in PROBIO than in ANTI (P<0.05). Wet mucosa weight of the duodenum was not affected by TRT. However, jejunal mucosa weight was greater in PROBIO than in any other group sum of mucosa weights of the duodenum and jejunum was greater (P<0.05) in PROBIO than in ANTI and HERB. The height and width of duodenal villus were not affected by TRT, but crypt depth decreased (P<0.05) in response to HERB and PROBIO vs CON. Specific activities of alkaline phosphatase, sucrase, maltase, lactase, and leucine aminopeptidase in the duodenum and jejunum were not changed by TRT. In conclusion, results suggest that the present dietary treatments have no effects on growth performance of weanling pigs and that of PROBIO enhances intestinal growth and development under a clean experimental setting.
Supplementation of Either Conjugated Linoleic Acid or γ-linolenic Acid with or without Carnitine to Pig Diet Affect Flavor of Pork and Neutrophil Phagocytosis
Lee, Jun-Yeob ; Cha, Keun-Hwan ; Chae, Byong-Jo ; Ohh, Sang-Jip ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 53, issue 3, 2011, Pages 237~252
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2011.53.3.237
In this study, four different oils containing either CLA, GLA, GLA+Carnitine or corn oil (control) were supplemented to finishing pigs (average 70.8 kg initial BW) diet for 28 d of feeding period. To evaluate the values of the dietary fatty acids, especially in view of sensory and nutritional characteristics of pork; pig performances, carcass characteristics, serum cholesterol, neutrophil phagocytosis, TBARS, electronic nose flavor and fatty acids profile of pork were measured. There were no differences in daily gain and nutrients digestion among treatments, but daily feed intake of CLA enriched diet was lower (P<0.05) than that of other diets. There were no differences in backfat thickness, dressing percentage and carcass grade among pigs fed diets supplemented with different oils. Serum total cholesterol showed a tendency to be lowered in pigs fed GLA enriched diet. TBARS values during storage of pork were higher in belly from pigs fed control diet whereas the values of belly from pigs fed GLA+Carnitine diet were lower than others. However, difference in TBARS was not remarkable in adipose tissue and 4 weeks extended storage regardless of pork parts. Proportion of saturated fatty acids such as C16:0 and C18:0 were higher (P<0.05) in pork loin and thin skirt from pigs fed CLA enriched diet compared to those from other diets. There were no differences in fatty acids profiles of belly and adipose tissue. CLA accumulation in pork was increased by the dietary CLA supplementation and this could be also confirmed by a slight de novo synthesis of CLA in pork from pigs fed CLA free diets. GLA was selectively accumulated to pork adipose tissue and loin from pigs fed GLA enriched diets. There was no accumulation of GLA when GLA was not supplemented, indicating no de novo synthesis of GLA. Phagocytic activity was the highest (p<0.05) in neutrophil of pigs fed GLA+Carnitine supplemented diet, then, followed by pigs fed GLA supplemented diet. There was no difference in phagocytosis between control and CLA treatment although the phagocytosis was numerically lowest in pig fed CLA enriched diet. There were distinct differences in electronic nose flavor pattern among treatments regardless of the parts. This study showed that dietary supplementation of functional fatty acids like CLA or GLA was able to result in characteristic differences in feed intake, TBARS, fatty acids profile and flavor of pork, serum cholesterol regulation and neutrophil phagocytosis.
Quality Prediction of Eggs Treated in Combination with Gamma Irradiation and Chitosan Coating Using Response Surface Methodology
Lee, Kyung-Heang ; Jung, Samooel ; Ham, Jun-Sang ; Lee, Jun-Heon ; Lee, Soo-Kee ; Jo, Cheo-Run ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 53, issue 3, 2011, Pages 253~259
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2011.53.3.253
The aim of this work was to determine the method and predict the optimum conditions for egg quality stored for 7 days when combination treatments of irradiation and chitosan coating were applied using response surface methodology (RSM). A central composite design was chosen for the RSM in this study and the factors were irradiation dose (0~2 kGy) and concentration of chitosan coating material (0~2%). Performance of the irradiation and chitosan coating were evaluated by analyzing the egg quality and functional property factors. The predicted maximum level of Haugh units and foaming ability calculated by a developed model were 74.19 at 0 kGy of irradiation with coating by 0.96% chitosan solution and 50.83 mm at 2.0 kGy with 1.01%, respectively. The predicted minimum value of foam stability and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value were 2.97 mm at 0.39 kGy with 0.21% and 0.54 mg malonaldehyde/kg egg yolk at 0 kGy with 0.90% of chitosan solution, respectively. Results clearly showed that gamma irradiation negatively affected the Haugh unit and TBARS but positively affected the foaming capacity. The estimated value from the developed model by RSM was verified by no statistical difference with observed value. Therefore, RSM can be a good tool for optimization and prediction of egg quality when 2 or more treatments are combined. However, one should decide the target quality first to achieve a successful implementation of this technology.
Biomass Production Potential of Chlorella vulgaris Under Different CO
Concentrations and Light Intensities
Lee, Chang-Min ; Kim, Mi-Jeong ; Sanjay, Kumar ; Kwag, Jung-Hoon ; Ra, Chang-Six ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 53, issue 3, 2011, Pages 261~268
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2011.53.3.261
The increasing demand of the crops (soybean and corn) for biofuel production has increased the focus of the animal nutritionists to look for alternative feeds, which are economic and environmental friendly. To identify microalgae as suitable candidate as an alternative feed, growth response of Chlorella vulgaris was studied under varying concentrations of carbon dioxide (0.07, 1.4, 3.0 and 5.0%) and photon densities (39.19, 72.97, 105.41, 116.22, 135.14,
) by employing a photo-bioreactor. Swine wastewater was also investigated as nutritional source to economize the biomass production. Results showed that the higher biomass production was found to be at 3.0%
compared to other
concentrations. However, no difference in biomass production was found at
and above photon densities with 12 h of photoperiodicity. It was observed that C. vulgaris could easily grow in 200 times diluted swine wastewater and growth was found to be similar with that of artificial medium. Provided the conducive conditions for optimal growth, it has also the potentiality of depleting ammonia nitrogen (
-N) and orthophosphate (
-P) completely from the wastewater after 3~4 days of cultivation. Thus, growing C. vulgaris would not only solve the problem of animal feed, but also help in biological
mitigation and wastewater treatment.
DNA methyltransferase 3a is Correlated with Transgene Expression in Transgenic Quails
Jang, Hyun-Jun ; Kim, Young-Min ; Rengaraj, Deivendran ; Shin, Young-Soo ; Han, Jae-Yong ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 53, issue 3, 2011, Pages 269~274
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2011.53.3.269
DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) are closely associated with the epigenetic change and the gene silencing through the regulation of methylation status in animal genome. But, the role of DNMTs in transgene silencing has remained unclear. So, we examined whether the knockdown of DNMT influences the reactivation of transgene expression in the transgenic quails. In this study, we investigated the expression of DNMT3a, and DNMT3b in blastoderm, quail embryonic fibroblasts (QEFs) and limited embryonic tissues such as gonad, kidney, heart and liver of E6 transgenic quails (TQ2) by RT-PCR. We further analyzed the expression of DNMT3a at different stages of whole embryos during early embryonic development by qRT-PCR. DNMT3a expression was detected in all test samples; however, it showed the highest expression in E6 whole embryo. Embryonic fibroblasts collected from TQ2 quails were treated with two DNMT3a-targeted siRNAs (siDNMT3a-51 and siDNMT3a-88) for RNA interference assay, and changes in expression were then analyzed by qRT-PCR. The siDNMT3a-51 and siDNMT3a-88 reduced 53.34% and 64.64% of DNMT3a expression in TQ2 QEFs, respectively. Subsequently the treatment of each siRNA reactivated enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression in TQ2 (224% and 114%). Our results might provide a clue for understanding the DNA methylation mechanism responsible for transgenic animal production and stable transgene expression.