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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 54, Issue 6 - Dec 2012
Volume 54, Issue 5 - Oct 2012
Volume 54, Issue 4 - Aug 2012
Volume 54, Issue 3 - Jun 2012
Volume 54, Issue 2 - Apr 2012
Volume 54, Issue 1 - Feb 2012
Selecting the target year
Characterization and Evaluation of Melanocortin 4 Receptor (MC4R) Gene Effect on Pork Quality Traits in Pigs
Roh, Jung-Gun ; Kim, Sang-Wook ; Choi, Jung-Suk ; Choi, Yang-Il ; Kim, Jong-Joo ; Choi, Bong-Hwan ; Kim, Tae-Hun ; Kim, Kwan-Suk ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 54, issue 1, 2012, Pages 1~8
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2012.54.1.1
This study aimed to investigate the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the porcine MC4R gene and validate the effect of the MC4R genotype for marker assisted selection (MAS). Six amplicons were produced to analyze the entire base sequences of the porcine MC4R gene and six SNPs were detected (c.-780C>G, c.-135C>T, c.175C>T-Leu59Leu, c.707A>G-Arg236His, c.892A>G-Asp298Asn, and c.*430A>T). Linkage disequilibrium (LD) of the six SNPs was analyzed by performing haploid analysis. There was a perfect linkage disequilibrium in c.-780C>G, c.-135C>T, c.175C>T-Leu59Leu, c.707A>G-Arg236His, and c.*430A>T. Only the c.892A>G (Asp298Asn) SNP showed a very low LD with an
value of 0.028 and the D' value of 0.348. As a result, the two SNPs-c.707A>G (Arg236His) and c.892A>G (Asp298Asn)-were selected to extract the genotype frequencies from the 5 pig breeds by using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) genotype analysis method. The SNP frequency of c.707A>G (Arg236His) indicated the presence of the A (His) allele only in Yorkshire, while the G allele was fixed in the KNP, Landrace, Berkshire, and Duroc. Association analysis was carried out in 484 pigs with the c.707A>G (Arg236His) SNP and the meat quality traits of four different pig cross populations: a significant association was noted in crude fat, sirloin moisture, meat color, and the degree of red and yellow coloration. The frequency of the c.892A>G(Asp298Asn) SNP genotype varied among the breeds; while Duroc showed the highest frequency of the A (Asn) allele, KNP showed the highest frequency of the G (Asp) allele. Association analysis was carried out in 1126 pigs with the c.892A>G (Asp298Asn) SNP and the meat quality traits of four pig populations: a highly significant linkage was noted in the back-fat thickness (P<0.002). It was found that the back-fat thickness was higher in individuals with the AA genotype than in those with the AG or GG genotype. Thus, in this study, we verified that the c.892A>G (Asp298Asn) SNP in the pig MC4R gene has a sufficient effect as a gene marker for MAS in Korean pork industry.
Genetic Parameter Estimates for Reproductive and Productive Traits of Pig in a Herd
Cho, Chung-Il ; Ahn, Jin-Kuk ; Lee, Joon-Ho ; Lee, Deuk-Hwan ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 54, issue 1, 2012, Pages 9~14
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2012.54.1.9
The purpose of this study was to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations for reproductive and productive traits and to apply their estimates to selection strategies in a swine population. Reproductive and productive traits considered in this study were number of born alive piglet (NBA), number of weaned piglet (NW), loin eye area (LEA), days to 90 kg (D90KG), back fat thickness (BF), and lean meat content (LEAN). Data were collected from 9,886 litters on 2,447 sows for reproductive traits and 10,181 gilts and boars for productive traits from Jan. 2000 to Dec. 2008 in a swine GGP farm. The statistical model to estimate genetic parameters for considering traits was a multiple traits animal model with including animal and maternal additive effects and litter effects on reproductive traits and animal additive effects on productive traits as random as well as some of fixed effects. For estimating (co) variance components of several random effects, restricted maximum likelihood methodology was used on this assumed model. The estimated heritabilities by animal additive effects and maternal effects were 0.07 and 0.02 for NBA and 0.03 and 0.02 for NW, respectively. Genetic correlation estimate for direct genetic effects between NBA and NW was 0.14. Heritability estimates for direct genetic effects were 0.19, 0.39, 0.36, and 0.43 for LEA, D90KG, BF and LEAN, respectively. The genetic correlation of LEA with LEAN was 0.35. Productive traits were antagonistically correlated with reproductive traits. From these results it is concluded that, if selection is done for strong positive effects of reproductive traits, then this would decline productive performance.
Effect of Grain Sources on the Ruminal Methane Production in Hanwoo Steers
Seol, Yong-Joo ; Kim, Kyoung-Hoon ; Baek, Youl-Chang ; Lee, Sang-Cheol ; Ok, Ji-Woun ; Lee, Kang-Yeon ; Choi, Chang-Weon ; Lee, Sung-Sil ; Oh, Young-Kyoon ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 54, issue 1, 2012, Pages 15~22
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2012.54.1.15
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of grain sources on the ruminal methane production in Hanwoo steers. Six Hanwoo steers (BW = 614.4
8.3 kg) were fed, on a DM basis (TDN 6.91 kg), 10% rice straw and 90% barley or corn based concentrate, respectively, according to Korean Feeding Standards (Hanwoo). Each period lasted 18 days including a 14-day adaptation and a 4-day measuring period. The steers were in the ventilated hood-type respiration chamber system (one cattle per chamber) during each measuring period to measure heat and methane production for 1 day. Nutrient intake and digestibility were not affected by steer fed grain sources. Methane concentration was not affected by steer fed either barley or corn-based concentrate, respectively (0.022% vs. 0.025%). Methane production was greater by steers fed corn than those fed barley (119.3 g/day vs. 139.4 g/day). This result indicated that methane emission factor by maintenance energy requirement for the late fattening Hanwoo fed corn was higher than the steers fed barley (43.6 kg/head/year) vs. corn (50.9 kg/head/year). Methane conversion rate (Ym) was 0.04 Ym and 0.05 Ym for barley and corn, respectively.
Quality Properties of Gouda Cheese Added with Fish Surimi
Kim, Kyoung-Hee ; Choi, Hee-Young ; Chun, Soon-Sil ; Bae, In-Hyu ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 54, issue 1, 2012, Pages 23~28
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2012.54.1.23
The effects of adding fish surimi to Gouda cheeses on quality characteristics during ripening were investigated. Cheese samples were prepared with 1.0% fish surimi, changes in chemical composition, lactic acid bacterial population, pH, non casein nitrogen, non protein nitrogen, water-soluble nitrogen, were monitored every 3 weeks during ripening. The electrophoresis patterns of cheese protein and the consumer's sensory evaluation test of Gouda cheese added with fish surimi also were analyzed. Slightly higher amounts of moisture, crude ash, crude protein, and crude fat were observed in the cheese supplemented with the fish surimi compared to the control cheese. The results suggested that the Gouda cheese prepared with fish surimi did not affect appearances or consumer's sensory characteristics of the cheeses.
Analysis of Carcass Quality Grades According to Gender, Backfat Thickness and Carcass Weight in Pigs
Kim, Gye-Woong ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 54, issue 1, 2012, Pages 29~33
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2012.54.1.29
This study was carried out to investigate carcass grade of pigs according to gender, feed intake, backfat thickness, carcass weight, etc. Data from a total of 26,983 heads in 5 farms were collected. The results obtained were as follows; The difference was significantly found in carcass quality grade between barrows and gilts (p<0.001). The meat grade
was high in gilts, but meat grade 1 was high in barrows, respectively. The carcass weight of 85.8 kg was lightly shown significantly (p<0.05) in group I taken little quantity of feed consumption. However, that of 89.5 kg was heavily shown in group IV taken plenty of feed consumption. Meat grade 2 was significantly (p<0.001) high ratio in group of backfat thickness with less than 15 mm (67.5%). However, the ratio for the grade 1 was high in group of 15~19 mm. The ratio for the meat grade 2 was highly shown in group of carcass weight with more than 85 kg (54.3%). On the other hand, that of grade 1 was highly shown in group of 78~84 kg. In conclusion, pigs for marketing to enhance high quality have been appropriately raised with the optimum system in consideration of feed intake, carcass weight, backfat thickness, etc.
The Effects of Salting Levels and Drying Periods on Weight Loss and Nutritional Compositions of Dry-cured Ham under Controlled Ripening Condition
Seong, Pil-Nam ; Cho, Soo-Hyun ; Kang, Geun-Ho ; Kim, Jin-Hyoung ; Park, Beom-Young ; Jeong, Da-Woon ; Jung, Jae-Hong ; Jeong, Seok-Geun ; Kim, Dong-Hoon ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 54, issue 1, 2012, Pages 35~41
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2012.54.1.35
The aim of this study was to offer information about appropriate processing method for dry cured-ham with controlled ripening condition. In this study, three different treatments were performed: High salt group (HS), 18 hams were salted with 70 g
salt (w/w) Middle salt group (MS), 18 hams were salted with 50 g
salt Low salt group (LS), 18 hams were salted with 30 g
salt. Also three drying periods were applied (180 days, 270 days and 360 days). The weight loss in HS was higher (5.62%) on curing step and in LS was higher (12.35%) on post-salting step compared to other groups. On fermentation stage, weight loss of HS was higher than that of LS (p<0.05). Weight loss on drying was increased as the drying period passes (p<0.05). Moisture contents were significantly (p<0.05) decreased and fat contents were significantly (p<0.05) increased in all treatment groups as drying period increased. The different drying periods affected fatty acid compositions on all salting levels; saturated fatty acid contents were increased (p<0.05) with more drying, whereas unsaturated fatty acid contents were decreased (p<0.05) as drying period increased.
Effect of Age of Laying Hens and Grade of Egg Shell Abnormality on Internal Egg Quality
Kim, Heui-Soo ; Kim, Sun-Man ; Noh, Jae-Jung ; Lee, Jae-Ik ; Lee, Hyun-Jung ; Jo, Cheo-Run ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 54, issue 1, 2012, Pages 43~49
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2012.54.1.43
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of age of laying hens and grade of shell abnormality on internal egg quality. At each week, 1,000 eggs were randomly selected from 21,000 eggs laid by Hy-Line hens (100,000 birds) aged from 56 to 62 wk. The samples were divided into normal and externally abnormal eggs by an official egg grader. Then, egg quality including egg weight, egg white height, Haugh unit and yolk color was evaluated from each normal and abnormal eggs. The production rate of externally normal and abnormal eggs was 81.22 and 18.78%, respectively. No difference found in the production rate by the increase of hen's age, but Haugh unit of eggs from hens of 60-wk-old was higher (p<0.05) than that of 56-wk-old. When the same age groups were compared, egg white height and Haugh unit were lower in eggs which were externally abnormal. When the grade of abnormality increased, egg white height and Haugh unit were decreased further (p<0.05). Among the externally abnormal eggs, malformation showed the lowest Haugh unit. In conclusion, the shell abnormality of eggs laid by hens aged 56 to 62 wk was closely related with internal egg quality. Therefore, the grading external egg quality in the present egg grading system is directly related with the internal egg freshness.
Changes of Carcass Traits and Surface Meat Color of Korean Cattle (Hanwoo) Reared Different Altitudes or Transferred from Different Distance
Jang, Yong-Seol ; Choi, Chang-Kun ; Lee, Jeong-Woo ; Kwak, Don-Kyu ; Sung, Cheol-Wan ; An, Jun-Sang ; Park, Byung-Ki ; Lee, Jong-In ; Shin, Jong-Suh ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 54, issue 1, 2012, Pages 51~58
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2012.54.1.51
The purposes of the study were to examine the changes in carcass traits and surface meat color, and cortisol concentration by different altitudes and shipping distances for steer and cow. The experimental animals were shipped from Kangwondo, Kyunggido, Choongchungdo, and Kyungsangdo to Wonju LPC. The animals were examined for yield traits, quality traits, carcass grade, lightness, redness, yellowness, croma value, and cortisol concentration by different altitudes and shipping distances. The results showed that the carcass traits of steer like back fat thickness were not different by shipping distances of 100 km, 150 km, and 200 km. However, the fat thickness was higher in steers shipped from 250 km than 100 km, 150 km, and 200 km distance. Ribeye area was reduced significantly in 200 km and 250 km than 50 km. Yield index and yield grade were significantly low in 250 km than 50-200 km. However, meat color, fat color, texture, mature, and quality grade had no differences between shipping distances. Marbling score was not different in 50-200 km. However, the marbling score in 250 km was significantly lower than that of 50 km. In case of surface meat color by shipping distance, redness, yellowness, chroma value, and hue-angle were not different in shipping distance of 250 km. The lightness had similar result in 50-200 km. However, in case of 250 km the lightness was significantly low. The REA of cow carcass by shipping distance had no differences by shipping distance. The BET had similar results in 50-150 km. However, it had significantly thick in 200 km. The yield index and yield grade had no differences in 50-150 km. However, yield index and grade were significantly low in 200 km. The carcass trait of cow had no differences in all items by shipping distance. Although the carcass traits and the BET for steer by altitude had no differences between 100, 200, 300 and 500 m, but those were significantly thick in 400 m. And the yield index and the yield grade at altitude 400 m were lower than that of other altitudes. The quality traits and the quality grade had no differences between 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 m altitudes. The yield traits, quality traits, yield grade, and quality grade had no significant differences by altitudes. In case of yield index of cow for 300 m was low than the cases of 100 m and 200 m. The surface meat color for steer and cow had no differences by altitudes. However, the lightness of cow had positive result in 100 m than 200 m and 300 m. In case of steer and cow the cortisol concentration by shipping distance was high as the shipping distances were longer. However, the cortisol concentrations of steer and cow by altitudes were decreased as the altitudes were increased. From the above results carcass traits and carcass grade were decreased and the cortisol concentration was increased as the altitudes were decreased for steer and cow.
Assessing Biological Safety of the Hanwoo Serum Obtained During Slaughtering Process
Kim, Min-Soo ; Yu, Ji-Eun ; Min, Kyung-Ho ; Kim, Ji-Hoe ; Choi, In-Ho ; Nahm, Sang-Soep ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 54, issue 1, 2012, Pages 59~63
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2012.54.1.59
Bovine serum contains various nutrients and growth factors that can be potentially used in biological experiments, drug manufacturing process and food industry. However, almost all the bovine blood has been wasted during slaughter process in Korea, thus there is a high demand for alternative uses of the wasted sera. In order to produce high quality and safe sera, it is necessary to screen zoonotic pathogens as well as other microbial contaminants to prevent any downstream contamination. The present research has been undertaken to assess biological safety of Hanwoo sera by determining microbiological contamination during slaughtering and handling processes. Serological tests have been performed to detect bacteria, mycoplasma and virus contamination in total of 52 Hanwoo sera. No sera were found to be contaminated with mycoplasma or virus, but only two sera were found to be contaminated with Bacillus thuringiensis. The present result shows that Hanwoo sera obtained from slaughtering process are biologically safe and have potentials to be developed as a biological reagent. Moreover, the methods employed in our study may provide basic standard for microbiological screening methods once wasted Hanwoo sera gain industrial values.