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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 55, Issue 6 - Dec 2013
Volume 55, Issue 5 - Oct 2013
Volume 55, Issue 4 - Aug 2013
Volume 55, Issue 3 - Jun 2013
Volume 55, Issue 2 - Apr 2013
Volume 55, Issue 1 - Feb 2013
Selecting the target year
The Impact of Milk Production Level on Profit Traits of Holstein Dairy Cattle in Korea
Do, Changhee ; Park, Suhun ; Cho, Kwang-Hyun ; Choi, Yunho ; Choi, Taejeong ; Park, Byungho ; Yun, Hobaek ; Lee, Donghee ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 55, issue 5, 2013, Pages 343~349
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2013.55.5.343
Data including 1,372,050 milk records pertaining to 438,019 cows from 1983 to 2011 collected during performance tests conducted by the National Livestock Cooperative Dairy Improvement Center were used to calculate milk income and profit of individuals and investigate the effects of production levels of early lactation (parity 1 and 2, respectively). Individuals with a moderate level of early lactation stayed longer in herds. Among parity 1, the 9,000 kg or higher group had a lower mean number of lactations than the overall mean of 3.13. The 7,000 kg or lower and 10,000 kg or higher groups had lower mean life time milking days than the overall mean of 1,076.8 days. Standard deviations of lifetime traits tended to decrease as production levels increased. For parity 2, the 11,000 kg or higher group had a lower mean number of lactation than the overall mean of 3.43. The lifetime milking days was highest in the 12,000 kg group (1,212.0 days), and generally smaller in the lower groups. Profit increased as the production level of groups increased for both parity 1 and 2. In groups with low production levels, profit of parity 1 was higher than that of parity 2, while the reverse was true in groups with high production levels. These results suggest that individuals in the low production groups had a greater likelihood to be culled due to reproductive or other problems. Furthermore, the accuracy of the prediction of lifetime profit of individuals with a milk yield of 305 days seems to be higher for parity 2 than parity 1; therefore, it is desirable to predict lifetime profit using the 305d milk yield of parity 2. In conclusion, breeding goals are based on many factors in functions for the estimation of profit; however, production levels during early lactation (parity 1 and 2) can be used as indicators of profit to extend profitability.
Correlation Analyses on Body Size Traits, Carcass Traits and Primal Cuts in Hanwoo Steers
Lee, Jae Gu ; Lee, Seung Soo ; Cho, Kwang Hyun ; Cho, Chungil ; Choy, Yun Ho ; Choi, Jae Gwan ; Park, Byoungho ; Na, Chong Sam ; Choi, Taejeong ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 55, issue 5, 2013, Pages 351~358
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2013.55.5.351
This study was conducted to estimate the correlation structure between body size traits, carcass traits, and primal cuts in Hanwoo steers. Hanwoo progeny test data (body weight and body measurements) were collected from 2008 to 2010 from a total of 882 steers at the Hanwoo Improvement Main Center (NACF). Carcass traits considered were cold carcass weight, eye muscle area, backfat thickness, and marbling scores evaluated at the time of carcass grading. Correlation analyses were performed with observed scales of the traits and with residuals considering fixed environmental effects in generalized linear models. The correlation coefficient estimated between loin weight and chest girth was high at 0.74. The shank negatively correlated with pelvic width (-0.23) and hipbone width (-0.27). In addition, rib weight and chest girth was highly correlated (0.80). The correlation between carcass weight and chest girth was 0.86 in observed scale. Residual correlation between these traits was estimated at 0.65. Correlation between carcass weight and loin was 0.87 in the observed scale. Residual correlation was estimated at 0.83. The correlation coefficient estimated between shank weight and brisket and flank weight was negative at -0.69. Chest girth had a high correlation between primal cuts weight and body measurements. Thus, we believe that these results will provide a greater understanding on the relationship of primal cuts and other phenotypes, thus enabling valid production models for Hanwoo steers.
Development of Algorithm in Analysis of Single Trait Animal Model for Genetic Evaluation of Hanwoo
Koo, Yangmo ; Kim, Jungil ; Song, Chieun ; Lee, Kihwan ; Shin, Jaeyoung ; Jang, Hyungi ; Choi, Taejeong ; Kim, Sidong ; Park, Byoungho ; Cho, Kwanghyun ; Lee, Seungsoo ; Choy, Yunho ; Kim, Byeongwoo ; Lee, Junggyu ; Song, Hoon ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 55, issue 5, 2013, Pages 359~365
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2013.55.5.359
Estimate breeding value can be used as single trait animal model was developed directly using the Fortran language program. The program is based on data computed by using the indirect method repeatedly. The program develops a common algorithm and imprves efficiency. Algorithm efficiency was compared between the two programs. Estimated using the solution is easy to farm and brand the service, pedigree data base was associated with the development of an improved system. The existing program that uses the single trait animal model and the comparative analysis of efficiency is weak because the estimation of the solution and the conventional algorithm programmed through regular formulation involve many repetition; therefore, the newly developed algorithm was conducted to improve speed by reducing the repetition. Single trait animal model was used to analyze Gauss-Seidel iteration method, and the aforesaid two algorithms were compared thorough the mixed model equation which is used the most commonly in estimating the current breeding value by applying the procedures such as the preparation of information necessary for modelling, removal of duplicative data, verifying the parent information of based population in the pedigree data, and assigning sequential numbers, etc. The existing conventional algorithm is the method for reading and recording the data by utilizing the successive repetitive sentences, while new algorithm is the method for directly generating the left hand side for estimation based on effect. Two programs were developed to ensure the accurate evaluation. BLUPF90 and MTDFREML were compared using the estimated solution. In relation to the pearson and spearman correlation, the estimated breeding value correlation coefficients were highest among all traits over 99.5%. Depending on the breeding value of the high correlation in Model I and Model II, accurate evaluation can be found. The number of iteration to convergence was 2,568 in Model I and 1,038 in Model II. The speed of solving was 256.008 seconds in Model I and 235.729 seconds in Model II. Model II had a speed of approximately 10% more than Model I. Therefore, it is considered to be much more effective to analyze large data through the improved algorithm than the existing method. If the corresponding program is systemized and utilized for the consulting of farm and industrial services, it would make contribution to the early selection of individual, shorten the generation, and cultivation of superior groups, and help develop the Hanwoo industry further through the improvement of breeding value based enhancement, ultimately paving the way for the country to evolve into an advanced livestock country.
Study on Effective Population Size of Holstein Population in Korea
Won, Jeong-Il ; Kim, Si-Dong ; Cho, Kwang-Hyun ; Min, Hong-Lip ; Koo, Yang-Mo ; Yoon, Ho-Baek ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 55, issue 5, 2013, Pages 367~371
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2013.55.5.367
This study was carried out to estimate the average inbreeding coefficients and effective population size (EPS) and to seek alternatives on the problems of Holstein cattle in Korea. The data used in this study was obtained from the Korean Animal Improvement Association (KAIA) and 635,268 heads of Holstein records out of 1,872,195 Holstein registration data were used for the analysis. The average inbreeding coefficients were estimated at a range of 0.11 to 1.07%. The average inbreeding coefficients at the
generation were estimated at 0.43%, 0.92% and 1.07%, respectively. The estimated inbreeding coefficients within the range of 0%, 0 to 6.25%, 6.25 to 12.5%, 12.5 to 25%, and >25% were observed in 50.5%, 48.3%, 0.8%, 0.1%, and 0.3% of the animals, respectively. The estimated effective population size (EPS) was 619 heads from the
generation, and 922 heads from the
Estimation of Primal Cuts Yields by Using Body Size Traits in Hanwoo Steer
Lee, Jae Gu ; Lee, Seung Soo ; Cho, Kwang Hyun ; Cho, Chungil ; Choy, Yun Ho ; Choi, Jae Gwan ; Park, Byoungho ; Na, Chong Sam ; Roh, Seung Hee ; Do, Changhee ; Choi, Taejeong ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 55, issue 5, 2013, Pages 373~380
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2013.55.5.373
The study aimed to develop prediction models of primal cut yield using body measurements of Hanwoo steers in Korea. The progeny of 874 steers at Hanwoo Improvement Main Center from 2008 to 2010 were recorded. Pearson's correlation coefficients for primal cuts and other traits were estimated. Primal cuts were adjusted for slaughter date and age using the SAS GLM procedure. Afterwards, a stepwise regression was performed on each primal cut by fitting body measurement traits. An independent covariable was selected at the highest coefficient of determination with the greater fitness model using Mallows's Cp statistic. Results showed that primal cuts were significantly influenced by slaughter date (P<0.01). The age at slaughter, however, was only significant for the top round (P<0.05). There was a moderate to high correlation between chest girth and tenderloin (0.54), loin (0.74), and rib (0.80). Most primal cut percentages were negatively related to BFT. Similar negative to low positive correlations were observed for primal cut percentage and body size traits. In addition, a correlation of 0.21 was observed between rib percentage and chest girth. The regression of body measurements on the adjusted primal cuts were significant for later traits. Regression estimates revealed that wither height, body length, rump length, hip bone width, and chest girth are important for primal cut weight and percentage determination. In particular, chest girth was always important for primal cut weight estimates.
Comparative Analysis on Growth Performances, Behavioral Characteristics and Blood Parameters of the Sex in Different Group Sizes of Hanwoo calves
Ha, Jae Jung ; Oh, Dong Yep ; Lee, Jea Young ; Yang, Ka Young ; Kim, Jong Bok ; Ohh, Sang Jip ; Song, Young Han ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 55, issue 5, 2013, Pages 381~388
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2013.55.5.381
This study examined the effects of sex in different group sizes of Hanwoo calves. The growth performance including the mean daily gain, feed conversion rate, behavioral characteristics, and blood parameters in Hanwoo calves were investigated. A total of 54 heads of Hanwoo calves were housed separately at 4 heads per group, 3 heads per group, and 2 heads per group per pen. In the heifer calves, except for those 10 months of age, the growth performance was improved by increasing the group size, which was similar to steer calves (p<0.05). The heifer calves housed in 3 heads group spent more time lying down (p<0.05). The steer calves spent more time standing in the 3 heads group, lying down (2 heads group), and walking (4 heads group). The heifer calves housed in 2 heads group had a lower frequency of drinking, self-grooming, pairwise grooming, and fighting (p<0.05). On the other hand, the steer calves in the 4 heads group had a higher frequency of drinking, rubbing, and fighting (p<0.05). The white blood cell and cortisol were highest in the heifer calves in the 2 heads group (p<0.05).
Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Gestation Length, Wean to First Service, Litter Size and Stillborn Piglets in a Closed Nucleus Swine Breeding Herd
Lee, Deukhwan ; Son, Jihyun ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 55, issue 5, 2013, Pages 389~398
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2013.55.5.389
This study was conducted to investigate the genetic relationships among four reproductive traits. Data for this study were 7616 records from 1910 Landrace (L) and 10,454 records from 2283 Yorkshire (Y) in a closed nucleus swine herd. Traits considered on this study were gestation length (GL), total number of piglets born (TNB), wean to first service (WFS), and number of stillborn per litter (NSB). Heritabilities and genetic correlations were estimated by using the Bayesian inferences via Gibbs sampling in a four trait linear-threshold repeatability animal mixed model by designating NSB as a categorical trait in the L and Y purebred populations. Effects on the statistical model were considered for parity, contemporary group as fixed and service sire, permanent environmental, animal additive genetic effects as random. Estimates of heritability were 0.21, 0.23, 0.16, and 0.09 for GL, WFS, TNB, and NSB in the L population and 0.35, 0.16, 0.14 and 0.10 for corresponding traits in the Y population, respectively. Genetic correlation for GL was -0.59 and -0.28 with TNB and -0.58 and -0.17 with NSB in the L and Y populations, respectively. The NSB was positively correlated with TNB in the L and Y populations in genetic and environmental aspects. Therefore, the NSB should be taken into account in selecting sows for improving prolificacy of dam line breeding swine stock.
Approximation of Multiple Trait Effective Daughter Contribution by Dairy Proven Bulls for MACE
Cho, Kwang-Hyun ; Choi, Tae-Jeong ; Cho, Chung-Il ; Park, Kyung-Do ; Do, Kyoung-Tag ; Oh, Jae-Don ; Lee, Hak-Kyo ; Kong, Hong-Sik ; Lee, Joon-Ho ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 55, issue 5, 2013, Pages 399~403
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2013.55.5.399
This study was conducted to investigate the basic concept of multiple trait effective daughter contribution (MTEDC) for dairy cattle sires and calculate effective daughter contribution (EDC) by applying a five lactation multiple trait model using milk yield test records of daughters for the Multiple-trait Across Country Evaluation (MACE). Milk yield data and pedigree information of 301,551 cows that were the progeny of 2,046 Korean and imported dairy bulls were collected from the National Agricultural Cooperative Federation and used in this study. For MTEDC approximation, the reliability of the breeding value was separated based on parents average, own yield deviation and mate adjusted progeny contribution. EDC was then calculated by lactation using these reliabilities. The average number of recorded daughters per sire by lactations were 140.57, 94.24, 55.14, 29.20 and 14.06 from the first to fifth lactation, respectively. However, the average EDC per sire by lactation using the five lactation multiple trait model was 113.49, 89.28, 73.56, 54.02 and 35.08 from the first to fifth lactation, respectively, while the decrease of EDC in late lactations was comparably lower than the average number of recorded daughters per sire. These findings indicate that the availability of daughters without late lactation records is increased by genetic correlation using the multiple trait model. Owing to the relatedness between the EDC and reliability of the estimated breeding value for sire, understanding the MTEDC algorithm and continuous monitoring of EDC is required for correct MACE application of the five lactation multiple trait model.
Estimation of Resonable Market Month of Age for Hanwoo Steer
Yoon, Ji Hwan ; Won, Jeong Il ; Lee, Kyung Soo ; Kim, Jong Bok ; Lee, Jeong Koo ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 55, issue 5, 2013, Pages 405~416
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2013.55.5.405
This aim of this study was to estimate the most reasonable slaughter month for Hanwoo steers according to carcass traits. Carcass trait data on Hanwoo steers (17,249 head) were collected from October 2008 to September 2011. To measure the regression coefficients, Hanwoo steers were divided into two groups according to slaughter age: early (25 to 31 months) and late (32 to 38 months) groups. Regression coefficients of carcass traits according to slaughter age were significantly different (p<0.001) with the exception of PPKG (estimated auction price per 1 kg of carcass weight) in the early slaughter age group and MAR (marbling score, p<0.05) and PPKG (p<0.05) in the late slaughter age group. To obtain a positive gross margin, Hanwoo should be slaughtered at around 28 months of age.
Comparison of Vitrification and Slow Freezing for the Cryopreservation of Chicken Primordial Germ Cell (Ogye)
Kim, Sung Woo ; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu ; Byun, Mijeong ; Do, Yoon Jung ; Han, Jae Yong ; Kim, Dong Hun ; Seong, Hwan-Hoo ; Kim, Hyun ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 55, issue 5, 2013, Pages 417~425
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2013.55.5.417
We sought to provide a method for freezing and preserving primordial germ cells, or an avian germ cell of a bird, as a material for developmental engineering or species preservation. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of slow freezing with a vitrification method for the cryopreservation of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs). PGCs obtained from the germinal gonad of day 5.5-6 day (stage 28) cultured chick embryos, using the MACS method, were classified into two groups: slow freezing and vitrification. We examined the viability of PGCs after Cryopreservation. Four freezing methods were compared with each other, including the following: Method 1: The PGCs were frozen by a programmed freezer in a plastic straw, including 2.0 M ethylene glycol (EG) as cryoprotective additive (slow freezing) Method 2: The PGCs were vitrified in a plastic straw, including 8.0 M EG, plus 7% polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) (rapid freezing). Method 3: The slow freezing was induced with a cryotube including 2.0 M EG Method 4: The PGCs were frozen in a cryotube including 10% dimethyl suloxide (DMSO) (rapid freezing). After freezing and thawing, survival rates of the frozen-thawed PGCs from Method 1 to 4were 76.4%, 70.6%, 80.5% and 78.1% (p<0.05), respectively. The slow freezing (
programmed freezer) method may provide better survival rates of frozen-thawed PGCs than the vitrification method for the cryopreservation of PGCs. Therefore, these systems may contribute to the cryopreservation of a rare avian species.
The Effect of Modified Cryopreservation Method on Viability of Frozen-thawed Primordial Germ Cell on the Korean Native Chicken (Ogye)
Kim, Hyun ; Kim, Dong Hun ; Han, Jae Yong ; Choi, Sung Bok ; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu ; Do, Yoon Jung ; Seong, Hwan-Hoo ; Kim, Sung Woo ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 55, issue 5, 2013, Pages 427~434
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2013.55.5.427
This study was conducted to establish methods for preserving chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) for long-term storage in liquid nitrogen and for developmental engineering or preservation of species. The purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of fetal bovine serum (FBS) or chicken serum (CS) treatment on the viability of cryopreserved PGCs from Korean Native Chicken (Ogye). PGCs separated from a germinal gonad of an early embryo at day 5.5-6 (stage 28) were suspended in a freezing medium containing freezing and protective agents (dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol (EG) and glycerol). The values from 0, 5, 10, and 15 % DMSO plus FBS treatment were 21.6, 30.36, 36.42, 50.39, and 48.36 %, respectively. The viability of PGCs after freeze-thawing was significantly higher for 10% EG plus FBS treatment than for 10% EG + FCS treatment (p<0.05) (64.36% vs. 50.66%). This study establishes a method for preserving chicken PGC that enables systematic storage and labeling of cryopreserved PGC in liquid nitrogen at a germplasm repository and an ease of entry into a database. In the future, the importance for this new technology is that poultry lines can be conserved while work is being conducted to improve the production of germline chimeras.
Effects of Supplementary Rice Bran and Roasted Soybean in the Diets on Carcass Characteristics and Composition of CLA in Hanwoo Steers
Kim, Sung Il ; Lee, Gwang Ho ; Choi, Chang Bon ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 55, issue 5, 2013, Pages 435~442
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2013.55.5.435
This study investigated the carcass characteristics and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content in Hanwoo steers that received supplementary rice bran (Rice bran group) and roasted soybeans (Roasted soybean group) into their finishing concentrates. The final body weight was 754.58, 783.33, and 755.67 kg, and the average daily gain was 0.50, 0.57, and 0.50 kg for the Control, Rice bran, and Roasted soybean group, respectively, showing no statistical differences. Feed requirements for the Rice bran group were 14.5% higher than the Control and 12.8% higher than the Roasted soybean group. No statistical differences were found in indices for carcass yield and quality grade between the groups. The composition of c9, t11 CLA in perirenal fats was significantly higher in the Roasted soybean group (0.21%) compared to the Rice bran group (0.15%) and Control (0.16%) groups (p<0.05). The composition of c9, t11 CLA in the M. Longissimus dorsi was also higher in the Roasted soybean group (0.21%) compared to the Control (0.16%) group. The composition of t10, c12 CLA in the M. Longissimus dorsi was statistically lower in the Roasted soybean group compared to the Control group (p<0.05). In perirenal fats, the composition of t11 trans-vaccenic acid (TVA) was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the Roasted soybean group compared to the control group. The TVA composition in the Roasted soybean group increased to 15.09 and 6.92%, respectively, in subcutaneous and M. Longissimus dorsi fats comparing to the Control group, without statistical differences between the treatment groups. In conclusion, rice bran is beneficial for improving feed efficiencies, while roasted soybeans are effective for increasing CLA in the M. Longissimus dorsi of Hanwoo steers.
Effects of Dietary Type During Late Fattening Phase on the Growth Performance, Blood Characteristics and Carcass Traits in Hanwoo Steers
Cho, Woong Gi ; Lee, Shin Ja ; Ko, Young Hyun ; Chang, In Surk ; Lee, Sung Sill ; Moon, Yea Hwang ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 55, issue 5, 2013, Pages 443~449
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2013.55.5.443
To develop a diet for Hanwoo steers during the late fattening phase, three different feeding treatments were investigated: a group fed concentrate and rice straw separately (Formula feed), a group fed TMR during the whole late fattening period (TMR), and a group fed TMR plus concentrate (Formula-TMR). Thirty Hanwoo steers 20 months of age (average body weight = 445 kg) were allotted by a completely randomized design into three treatment groups (ten steers in each group). The impact of these treatments on the performance, carcass traits, and blood composition related to body fat synthesis was assessed. The average dry matter and TDN intake were greater in Formula-TMR compared to other treatments (p<0.05); however, body gain, carcass weight, meat production index, and fat color were not affected by dietary type. Blood characteristics, such as concentrations of retinol, insulin, and leptin were not affected by any of the treatments; however the marbling score of the longisimus muscle was significantly higher in Formula-TMR (p<0.05), which was relatively high in blood leptin concentration. The muscle texture, meat quantity index, and meat quality index were highest in the Formula feed, TMR, and Formula-TMR, respectively (p<0.05).
Effects of Sesame Meal on Growth Performances and Fatty acid Composition, Free Amino Acid Contents, and Panel Tests of Loin of Hanwoo Steers
Kim, Sung Il ; Cho, Bong Rae ; Choi, Chang Bon ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 55, issue 5, 2013, Pages 451~460
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2013.55.5.451
The feed value of sesame meal, a main agricultural by-product from the northern area of Gyeongsangbuk-do province, was assessed in Hanwoo steers. A total of twelve Hanwoo steers (average BW = 412.08 kg) were allocated into a Control (fed no sesame meal) or Treatment (fed sesame meal from 14.6 months of age) group, considering BW and ages, and the animals were fed for a total of 480 days. The final BW, total gain and ADG for the Control and Treatment groups were 741.17 kg and 762.67 kg, 331.84 kg and 347.84 kg, and 0.69 kg and 0.72 kg, respectively, showing better performances in sesame meal-fed animals. Feed requirements during the whole experimental period improved by feeding sesame meal (15.31 and 14.87 for Control and Treatment group, respectively). Hanwoo steers fed sesame meal also showed a 22.83 kg heavier cold carcass weight (424.17 kg and 447.00 kg in the Control and Treatment group, respectively), and 2.41% improved dressing percentages (58.60% and 57.22% for the Control and Treatment group, respectively). The area of the M. longissimus dorsi was
in the Control and Treatment group, respectively. The final yield of A and B grade meat were 50 : 50% and 33.3 : 66.7% from the Control and Treatment group, respectively. The average marbling score was 4.83 and 5.50, and the numeric values for quality grade was 2.17 and 2.67 for the Control and Treatment group, respectively, showing better beef quality in sesame meal-fed Hanwoo steers. In fact, there were two animals with beef quality
in the sesame meal-fed group. The melting point of lipid extracted from the M. longissimus dorsi of Hanwoo steers was significantly (p<0.05) lower in the Treatment group (
) compared to the Control group (
). The composition of saturated fatty acids,
(myristic acid) and
(palmitic acid), were significantly lower in sesame meal-fed animals, 4.70% and 2.20% for myristic acid, and 30.55% and 27.12% for palmitic acid, in the Control and Treatment group, respectively. In contrast, there were no significant differences in C18:0 (stearic acid) composition between the groups. The composition of a representative unsaturated fatty acid,
(oleic acid), was significantly higher in Treatment animals (49.89%) than Control animals (44.29%) (p<0.05). The ratio of total monounsaturated fatty acids / saturated fatty acids; M/S) was 1.10 and 1.36 for the Control and Treatment groups, respectively, showing remarkably higher ratios in sesame meal-fed group. The content of glutamic acid, related to beef flavor, was significantly higher in the Treatment group (3.35 mg/100 g) compared to the Control group (1.88 mg/100g) (p<0.05). The tenderness score, evaluated by an eight-point scale in the panel test, and overall palatability (based on juiciness, flavor, oiliness, and umami) were significantly higher in the Treatment group (5.67 and 5.23, respectively) than the Control group (3.83 and 4.60, respectively) (p<0.05). In conclusion, the current results imply that sesame meal could serve as a good supplement for Hanwoo steers for producing high quality beef.
Comparison of Quality Characteristics Between Meat Ball Products in Korean Domestic Market
Lee, Ju-Ho ; Choi, Jung-Soek ; Park, Ki-Soo ; Jeong, Jun-Young ; Choi, Yang-Il ; Lee, Jae-Joon ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 55, issue 5, 2013, Pages 461~466
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2013.55.5.461
This study compared the quality characteristics between meat ball products in domestic market. Five types of meat ball products(T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5) were purchased in domestic market. In terms of the chemical composition, meat ball products ranged 53.92~63.45% in moisture contents. In terms of quality characteristics, T2 showed a significantly higher pH value and cooking loss than the others (p<0.05). In terms of deformation rate, T2 showed a significantly higher contraction of height than the others (p<0.05). In the panel test, T1 showed a significantly higher score in saltiness, flavor, color, appearance and total acceptability (p<0.05). Overall, meat ball products showed considerable differences in chemical composition, cooking loss, Hunter color values, and texture profile due to differences in raw materials, recipes, and weights.
Comparison of Pork Quality and Muscle Fiber Characteristics between Jeju Black Pig and Domesticated Pig Breeds
Ko, Kyong Bo ; Kim, Gap-Don ; Kang, Dong-Geun ; Kim, Yeong-Hwa ; Yang, Ik-Dong ; Ryu, Youn-Chul ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 55, issue 5, 2013, Pages 467~473
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2013.55.5.467
This study compared the pork quality and muscle fiber characteristics between the Jeju black pig (JBP) and domesticated pig breeds, including three-way crossbred (Landrace
Duroc, LYD), Berkshire (B), Duroc (D), Landrace (L), Meishan (M), and Yorkshire (Y) pigs. JBP had the lowest carcass weight among the pig breeds (p<0.05) and its NPPC marbling score was lower than the other domesticated pig breeds (p<0.05), except for M. M had the highest value for backfat thickness among the pig breeds (p<0.05), whereas its NPPC marbling score was the lowest (p<0.05). The pH values were higher in JBP and B at 45 min and 24 h postmortem, respectively, but LYD and M had the lowest pH values at 45 min and 24 h postmortem, respectively (p<0.05). M had a higher lightness and lower redness than the other breeds (p<0.05). Moreover, M had the highest drip loss among the pig breeds (p<0.05), whereas D had the lowest drip loss and the highest redness (p<0.05). In terms of muscle fiber characteristics, JBP and LYD had the largest type IIB fibers (p<0.05). The fiber number and area composition of type I fibers were higher in JBP than the others (p<0.05) however type IIA fibers were lowest in JBP among the pig breeds (p<0.05). Overall, our results indicate that JBP provided better pork quality compared with M, but the carcass trait and pork quality of JBP were not better than LYD and D, respectively.
Effect of Red Ginseng Extracted with Water and Ethanol on the Qualities of Cooked Pork Patties During Storage
Kim, Il Suk ; Yang, Mira ; Jin, Sang-Keun ; Park, Jae Hong ; Chu, Gyo Moon ; Kim, Jae-Young ; Kang, Suk Nam ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 55, issue 5, 2013, Pages 475~481
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2013.55.5.475
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of red ginseng extracted with water extract (WE) and 50% ethanol extract (EE) from white ginseng on cooked meat patties during storage. Different concentrations of extracts were examined (0.25%, 0.5%, and 1.%, respectively, dry base w/w). A significantly higher water holding capacity (WHC) was observed in samples supplemented with
0.5% WE (p < 0.01); however, EE had no significant effect on the WHC of meat patties. Samples supplemented with
0.5% WE or EE showed a significantly higher redness (
-value) compared to the control (p < 0.01). The total plate counts (TPC) and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) of all treated samples were lower than those of the control. However, there were no significant differences in volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) values and sensory evaluation scores between the samples. These results suggest that red ginseng extract improves color and inhibits lipid oxidation and bacterial population at doses > 0.25%, prolonging the shelf-life of meat products and acting as a natural colorant.
Influences of Bulking Materials on Sustainable Livestock Mortality Composting
Won, Seung Gun ; Park, Ji Young ; Cho, Won Sil ; Kwag, Jung Hoon ; Choi, Dong Yoon ; Ahn, Hee Kwon ; Ra, Chang Six ;
Journal of Animal Science and Technology, volume 55, issue 5, 2013, Pages 483~488
DOI : 10.5187/JAST.2013.55.5.483
To develop a sustainable composting method for livestock mortality, a natural aeration-composting process was designed and the influences of bulking materials on the mortality composting process were studied. Bulking materials (e.g., compost, swine manure, sawdust, and rice husks), easily supplied at the scene of an animal mortality outbreak, were tested in this research. A lab-scale composting system (W34
H26 cm) was made using 100 mm styrofoam, and natural aeration was achieved through pipes installed on the bottom of the system. Four treatments were designed (compost, compost + swine feces, sawdust, and rice husks treatment groups) and all experiments were done in triplicates. During composting for 40 days, no leachate was observed in compost and sawdust treatment groups, whereas 18 and 8.2 ml leachate/kg-mortality was emitted from the compost + feces and rice husks treatment groups, respectively. Dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) emission during the composting was very low in all treatment groups, possibly due to the bio-filtering function of the compost cover layer on the pile. The mortality degradability in compost, compost + feces, sawdust, and rice husks groups was 25.3, 25.8, 13.5, and 14.5%, respectively, showing significantly higher levels in compost and compost + feces groups (p<0.05). Also, only the compost + feces group produced enough heat (over
) and lasted for 7 days, indicating that bio-security cannot be guaranteed without feces supplementation.