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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Korean Society of Toxicology
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Volume 16, Issue 4 - Dec 2000
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Sep 2000
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Jun 2000
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Mar 2000
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Zinc-induced Apoptosis in C6 glial Cells via Generation of Hydrogen Peroxide(
Toxicological Research, volume 16, issue 3, 2000, Pages 179~185
Zinc is known to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) including superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide (
), which eventually contribute to cytotoxicity in a variety of cell types. Here in, we demonstrated that zinc decreased the viability of C6 glial cells in a time and dose-dependent manner, which was revealed as apoptosis characterized by ladder-pattern fragmentation of genomic DNA. chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation in Hoechst dye staining. Zinc-induced apoptosis of C6 glial cells was prevented by the addition of catalase and antioxidants including reduced glutathione (GSH), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC). Wefurther confirmed that zinc decreased intrac-ellular levels of GSH and generated
in C6 glial cells. Moreover, antioxidants also decreased the generation of zinc-induced
in C6 glial cells. These data indicated that zinc-induced the apoptotic death of C6 glial cells via generation of reactive oxygen species such as
Prophylactic Detoxification by Physostigmine and Procyclidine of Diisopropylfluorophosphate Poisoning
Kim, Yun-Bae ; Hur, Gyeung-Haeng ; Sungho Shin ; Yeon, Gyu-Baek ; Park, Seung-Ju ; Kang, Jong-Koo ;
Toxicological Research, volume 16, issue 3, 2000, Pages 187~193
The antidotal, anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of physostigmine and procyclidine. the combinational prophylactics for organophosphate poisoning, were evaluated in rats. In comparison with a low protective effect (1.6 fold) of atropine (15 mg/kg) and 2-pralidoxime (30 mg/kg), the traditional antidotes regimen, a marked protection ratio of 7.3 fold was achieved by combinational pretreatment with physostigmine (0.05 mg/kg) and procyclidine (10 mg/kg), which was superior to that (3.5 fold) with pyri-dostigmine (0.1 mg/kg) and atropine (15 mg/kg). Rats exposed to a high dose (10 mg/kg. 2 X
) of diisopropylfluorophosphate showed severe epileptiform seizures on electroencephalography, resulting in necrotic and apoptotic brain injuries in discrete brain regions under histopathological and TUNEL immuno-histochemical examinations in 24 hr. Such seizures and excitotoxic brain injuries were fully prevented by pretreatment with physostigmine (0.05 mg/kg) and procyclidine (10 mg/kg). in contrast to a negligible effect of pyridostigmine (0.1 mg/kg) and atropine (15 mg/kg). Taken together, it is proposed that the prophylactics composed of physostigmine and procyclidine could be a promising regimen for the prevention of lethality, seizures and brain injuries induced by organophosphate poisoning.
Protective Effect of Combinational Antidotes Composed of Physostigmine and Procyclidine Against Nerve-agent Poisoning
Kim, Yun-Bae ; Cheon, Ki-Cheol ; Hur, Gyeung-Haeng ; Phi, Taek-San ; Kim, Jee-Cheon ; Deasik Hang ;
Toxicological Research, volume 16, issue 3, 2000, Pages 195~200
Antidotal efficacy of physostigmine plus procyclidine, the combinational prophylactics for organophosphate poisoning, was evaluated in rats and guinea pigs. To assess the dose-response relation-ship in rats, various doses (0.3-6.0mg/kg) of procyclidine in combination with a fixed dose (0.1mg/kg) of physostigmine were pretreated subcutaneously 30 min prior to subcutaneous exposure to nerve-agents. Physostigmine alone exerted protection ratios of 2.44, 1.20, 1.50, 1.50 and 2.20 folds for tabun, sarin, soman, cyclosarin and V-agent, respectively. Interestingly, coadmnistration of procyclidine with physostigmine exhibited remarkable synergistic effects in a dose-dependent manner, leading to 4.00~8.00 folds for tabun, 2.15-8.50 folds for sarin, 1.92~507 folds for so man, 2.15~2.90 folds for cyclosarin, and 2.71~10.50 folds for V-agent. On the contrary, a low effect (l.65 fold) was achieved with the traditional antidotes atropine (17.4 mg/kg) plus 2-pralidoxime (30 mg/kg) treated immediately after soman poisoning. Noteworthy, the combinational prophylactics markedly potentiated the effect of atropine plus 2-pralidoxime to 6.13 and 12.27 folds with 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg of procyclidine, respectively, against soman poisoning. In guinea pigs, the physostigmine plus procyclidine prophylactics exerted protective effects of 3.00~4.70 folds against soman intoxcation, which were much higher at low doses (0.3~1.0 mg/kg) of procyclidine than those in rats. Taken together, it is proposed that the combinational prophylactics composed oj physostigmine and procyclidine could be a promising antidote regimen for the poisoning with organophosphates possessing diverse properties.
Uterotrophic Activity of Ethinyl Estradiol by Gavage and Subcutaneous Administration in Immature Female Rats
Toxicological Research, volume 16, issue 3, 2000, Pages 201~209
In association with the international validation program to establish a rodent uterotrophic assay, we conducted preliminary uterotrophic assay proposed by GECD using immature female rats. In the present study, oral and subcutaneous routes were chosen to compare the effects of estrogenic com-pounds in the two dosing regimens. The reference compound ethinyl estradiol (EE) and the antagonist ZM189154(ZM) were administered by gavage or subcutaneously (s.c.) to immature female SD rats from 20 to 22 days of age. For each study, sixty-six female rats were randomly assigned to eleven groups: Untreated control, EE 0,0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0,3.0 and 10.0
/kg, EE 3.0
/kg(s.c) & ZM 0.1 mg/kg, and EE 3.0
/kg (s.c) & ZM 1.0 mg/kg. There were no treatment-related changes in clinical signs, body weights, food consumption, and necropsy findings in any groups of two studies. The wet and blotted uterus weights increased dose-dependently. Histopathological examination revealed that diameter of uterine duct, height of uterine luminal epithelium. and height oj vaginal epithelium increased dose-dependently. The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunoreactive cells were increased in number dose-dependently. The estrogenic effects observed in the present studies occurred at
/kg of oral dose and
/kg of s.c. dose. An antagonistic effect of ZM against EE was found in both uterus weight and histopathological parameters. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that dose-dependence of the uterotrophic assay using EE and ZM was well demonstrated by gavage and subcutaneous administration and that the estrogenic effects of EE by s.c. dose were higher than those by gavage administration. In addition, blotted uterus weight was more sensitive than wet uterus weight and vaginal epithelial height was found to be the most sensitive parameter among the parameters examined.
General Pharmacology of AS2-006A, A New Wound Healing Agent
Toxicological Research, volume 16, issue 3, 2000, Pages 211~219
The therapeutic effect of AS2-006A, a derivative of asiaticoside, has been studied and is being developed as a new wound-healing agent. In the present study, the general pharmacological effects on 1) central nervous system, 2) autonomic nervous system, 3) respiratory system, 4) gastrointestinal system. 5) cardiovascular system. and 6) urinary system were assessed in experimental animals and in in vitro models. 1. In vivo animal study: External applications of the 1 % gel ointment of AS2-006A to rats at the doses of 200. 600 or 2000 mg/kg body weight showed no observable pharmacological effects. The effects on the central nervous system were assessed by observation of behavior, hexobarbital-induced sleeping time, pentetrazole-induced convulsion assay, body temperature measurements, and observations on spontaneous activity and catalepsy. The gel ointment exhibited no effects on the cardiovascular system (i.e. blood pressure and heart rate), renal physiology (i.e. urine volume and electrolytes excretion) and gas-trointestinal physiology (i.e. intestinal charcoal propulsion and gastric mucosal irritation). 2. In vitro experiments: The effects of AS2-006A on the physiology of smooth and cardiac muscles were assessed. Muscle contractions were isotonically and isometrically measured in organ chambers using a physiograph. Cumulative additions of AS2-006A (10
M) induced no changes in the tension of isolated guinea pig ileum and tracheal muscles. AS2-006A only slightly increased contractility of rat atrial and papillary muscles at 10
M, which was not statistically different from control. These data showed that the gel ointment of AS2-006A could be externally applied as a wound-healing agent with no potential side effects.
Inhibitory Effects of Bovine Serum Albumin on Cytotoxicity and Mutagenicity of 6-Sulfooxymethylbenzo[a]pyrene
Cho, Young-Sik ; Cho, Kyung-Joo ; Chung, An-Sik ;
Toxicological Research, volume 16, issue 3, 2000, Pages 221~227
A 6-sulfooxymethylbenzo[a]pyrene (SMBP), the ultimate metabolite of methyl-substituted benzo[a]pyrene (BP), has been found to be carcinogenic in mice. These properties may be attributable to its strong reactivity with cellular macromolecules such as DNA. However, serum and its major constituent albumin attenuated significantly the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of 5MBP in bacterial and mammalian cell systems. This inhibitory activity of serum against 5MBP-induced cytotoxicity and mutagenicity in Chinese hamster V79 cells appears to be caused by the reduced macromolecular adducts such as DNA and proteins, but serum failed to reduce 5MBP binding to naked calf thymus DNA. A number of proteins in the serum could act as nucleophiles that are able to intercept reactive chemicals through covalent binding. Albumin present in the plasma seems to be one of major components responsible for direct binding with 5MBp, thereby reducing its reactivity to genetic materials. We here determined which fraction is preferential for 5MBP binding through fractionation of 5MBP-treated serum with ammonium sulfate. The albumin-containing fraction had slightly more affinity for 5MBP than the immunoglobulin-containing fraction. Our results indicate that the covalent modification of plasma proteins may reduce 5MBP-induced damage.
Principles and Methods for the Reproductive-toxicological Evaluation of New Drug Candidates
Toxicological Research, volume 16, issue 3, 2000, Pages 229~238
The purpose of reproductive toxicity studies is to evaluate all effects resulting from paternal or maternal exposure that interfere with conception, development, birth, and maturation of offspring. In 1966, the US Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) published guidelines for a three-segment study for drug testing to examine adverse effects on fertility and pregnancy. Three segments were proposed: Segment I, Study of Fertility and General Reproductive Performance, to provide information on breeding, fertility, nidation, parturition, neonatal effects and lactation: Segment II, Teratological study, to provide information on embryo toxicity and teratogenicity: and Segment III. perinatal and Postnatal Study, to provide information on late fetal development, labour and delivery, neonatal viability, and growth and lactation. The classic guideline is still used to this day with only monor modification throughout the world. In the present review, the principles and methods of reproductive toxicity studies are discussed with special attention given to scientific issues.
Study for Three-months Subacute Toxicity of Water-soluble DDB Derivative in Beagle Dogs
Toxicological Research, volume 16, issue 3, 2000, Pages 239~253
This study was carried out to evaluate the three months subacute intravenous toxicity of water soluble dimethyl dimethoxy biphenylate derivative (DDB-S), a newly formulated therapeutic agent for hepatitis, in Beagle dogs. Groups of 12 male and 12 female dogs were given different dosage of DDB-S, 10 mg/kg/day (high dose group), 5 mg/kg/day (middle dose group), 2.5 mg/kg/day (low dose group) and 0 mg/kg/day (control group) for three months by intravenous route. 1n the three months intravenous toxicity study, there were neither dead animals nor significant changes of body weights during the experimental period. 1n addition to, no significant DDB-S related changes were found in clinical signs, urinalysis and other findings. Statistical changes were observed in hematological. biochemical, partial thromboplastin time (PIT) and organ weight parameters of treated groups. However, these alteration had no relationship with dosage. No histopathological lesions were observed in both control and treated animals. Above data suggest that no observed adverse effect level of test materials in Beagle dogs might be over 10 mg/kg/day in this study.