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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Toxicology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Dec 2001
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Oct 2001
Volume 17 - Jul 2001
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Jun 2001
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Mar 2001
Selecting the target year
Genotoxicity in B6C3F1 Mice Following 0.5 ppm Ozone Inhalation
Kim, Min-Young ; Son, Jang-Won ; Cho, Myung-Haing ;
Toxicological Research, volume 17, issue 1, 2001, Pages 1~6
To determine whether ozone is genotoxic at environmentally relevant exposure level, B6C3F1 mice were exposed to 0.5 ppm ozone for 12 weeks, 6 hr/day. Chromosomal aberration, supravital micronucleus and hprt mutation assays were performed. The percentage of abnormal cells was significantly increased at 0.5 ppm ozone when compared to unexposed control in chromosome aberration assay. Significant increase in the frequencies of micro nucleated reticulocytes and 6-thioguanine-resistant (
) lymphocytes was also observed in supravital micronucleus assay using peripheral blood and lymphocyte hprt mutation assay, respectively. The results indicate, that under our experimental conditions, 0.5 ppm ozone are genotoxic in exposed B6C3F1 mice.
Non-polar Solvents (Toluene and Styrene) Enhance Methanol Skin Absorption
Lim, Cheol-Hong ; Yu, Il-Je ;
Toxicological Research, volume 17, issue 1, 2001, Pages 7~9
The quantitative assessment of the penetration of organic solvents through skin is necessary for the evaluation of health hazards in occupational environments. We investigated the rate of dermal penetration when mixed or single forms of organic solvents were placed into a diffusion cell in vitro or into an experimental animal in vivo. The diffusion rates of methanol. toluene, and styrene were 6.07, 0.129, and 0.046 mg/
/h, respectively. When skin was exposed to the mixed solvent of methanol and toluene, the penetration rate of toluene did not change significantly (0.110 mg/
/h). However, the rate of methanol penetration increased to 43.90 mg/
/h. The penetration rate of methanol also increased significantly to 54.69 mg/
/h by mixing it with styrene. The concentration of methanol in the blood was monitored during the epicutaneous exposure in rats. The blood concentration of methanol was increased by mixing methanol with toluene as seen in the in vitro experiments. These results showed that the penetration rate of organic solvents would be enhanced by mixing them with other solvents.
The Effect of Repeated Application of A Mouthwash to the Mucosa of the Hamster Cheek Pouch
Toxicological Research, volume 17, issue 1, 2001, Pages 11~15
This study was carried out to evaluate the irritant potential of A mouthwash in hamster cheek pouch. The test substances were applied twice daily to right pouches of hamsters for 14 consecutive days. Animals were administered with A mouthwash, Listerine, saline and control solution, respectively. In order to evaluate the irritant potential in mucosa of hamster cheek pouch, we observed clinical signs, mortality, body weight changes and gross and histopathological findings for 14 days. In all groups, there were neither dead animals nor significant changes of body weights. In addition, there were no differences between saline and A mouthwash treated group in gross and histopathological findings. Therefore, these results suggest that there was no irritant potential of A mouthwash in hamster cheek pouch.
Evaluation of Peri- and Postnatal Toxicity of Gamma-Irradiated Korean Ginseng in Rats
Toxicological Research, volume 17, issue 1, 2001, Pages 17~25
Korean ginseng products have been fumigated with ethylene oxide (EO) for sterilization and prolongation of storage periods. However, there had been controversies indicating that consumption of EO treated foods might cause harmful effects in human. In Korea, the use EO gas for sterilization of food was banned in 1991. Since then, irradiation technique has been developed as an alternative. This study was carried out to evaluate the safety of irradiated ginseng on peri- and postnatal developmental toxicity in rats. Either EO gas fumigated or gamma-irradiated ginseng was administered to pregnant Wistar rats by oral gavage from gestational day 16 to postnatal day 21. The amount of irradiation used in this study was 5, 10 and 30 kGy, respectively. There were no treatment related changes of dams in deaths, clinical signs, and parturition. No treatment related changes in food consumption, body/organ weight and lactation of dams were observed. Also, no F1 fetuses in external abnormality, physical development, reflex/sensory junctions and behavioral development were found. The results of this study showed that gamma-irradiated ginseng, up to 30 kGy, has no adverse effects on the peri- and postnatal development of rats.
Embryo and Fetal Developmental Toxicity Study on Gamma-Irradiated Korean Ginseng in Rats
Toxicological Research, volume 17, issue 1, 2001, Pages 27~32
Korean ginseng products have been fumigated with ethylene oxide (EO) for sterilization and prolongation of storage periods. However, there had been controversies indicating that consumption of EO treated foods might cause harmful effects in human. In Korea, the use EO gas for food treatment was banned in 1991. Since then, irradiation technique has been developed as an alternative. This study was carried out to evaluate the safety of irradiated ginseng on embryo and fetal developmental toxicity effects in rats. Either EO gas fumigated or
-irradiated ginseng was administered to pregnant Wistar rats by oral gavage from gestational day 7 to 17. The amount of irradiation used in this study was 5, 10 and 30 kGy, respectively. There were no treatment related changes of dams in deaths, clinical signs, food consumption and body/organ weight. No treatment related changes in implantation ratio, litter size, sex ratio and body/organ weight of fetuses were observed. Also, no F1fetuses with external, visceral, head and skeletal mal-formation were observed. The results of this study showed that
-irradiated ginseng, up to 30 kGy, has no adverse effects on fetal development of rats.
Effect of Toluene Application to the Rat Skin on the Oxygen Free Radical Metabolizing System
Toxicological Research, volume 17, issue 1, 2001, Pages 33~39
To evaluate the skin toxicity oj topical toluene application, toluene (35 mg/
) was sequentially applied to the portion rat skin for five days. The topical toluene application resulted in increased xanthine oxidase activity and CYP content, and significantly decreased superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities at five days in rat skin. Especially catalase activity was remarkably decreased in toluene-applied rat skin. And benzylalcohol dehydrogenase activity showed also a significant decrease in toluene-applied skin. On the other hand, histopathological ultrastructural examination revealed disrupted epidermal basement membrane, rared intercellular adhensions and degenerated keratin layer due to topical toluene application. Increased deposit of cerrous perhydroxide resulted from reaction with
was abserved in toluene-treated animals. These results indicate that oxygen free radical may be responsible for ultrastructural changes in skin tissue by toluene application to rat skin.
Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen and
-Tocopherol on Skin Antioxidant Enzymes Defence in Rats
Kim, Jang-Shu ; Kim, Chung-Hui ; Kim, Gon-Sup ; Hah, Dae-Sik ; Park, Sun-Gun ; Kim, Yang-Mi ;
Toxicological Research, volume 17, issue 1, 2001, Pages 41~47
In order to test the effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) and
-tocopherol on full-thickness skin grafts in rats, we peeformed full-thickness skin grafts bilaterally on rats. After surgery, we analyzed the tissue-concentrations of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase(GPx)/reductase(GPr) on days 0, 2, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28. The four groups had similar patterns of change in SOD, catalase, GPx and GPr values. SOD increased initially, and was significantly increased at day 7, returning to the preoperative activity level on day 14 (control, HBO, and
-tocopherol treated alone) and 28 (HBO plus
-tocopherol). Catalase had a similar pattern of change as the SOD enzyme activity, except for the surgical control on day 2. Glutathione peroxidase/reductase activity in the four groups had a similar pat-tern of enzyme activity, with a significant increase from preoperative level on day 4, peaking during days 7 to 10, and returning to preoperative level on day 21(surgical control, HBO, and
-tocopherol-treated alone) and 28 (HBO plus
-tocopherol treated group). Hence, the clinical use of HBO and
-tocopherol mixture can be recommended as an adjunctive treatment for free skin grafts in rats. But, the antioxidant used, its dose, and the timing of its administration, as well as, the exposure time and the pressure of HBO, should be the subject of further research.
Safety Evaluation of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) for a 90-day Exposure in Rats
Toxicological Research, volume 17, issue 1, 2001, Pages 49~57
We performed to evaluate the safety of GMOs for a long term exposure in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. In this study, groups often or fifteen SD rats were fed one of the following four diets for 90 days: (1) AIN-76A rodent diet only; (2) AIN-76A rodent diet containing 5% genetically modified soybean from USA; (3) AIN-76A rodent diet containing 5% genetically non-modified soybean from USA; (4) AIN-76A rodent diet containing 5% genetically non-modified soybean from Korea. The effects of AIN-76A rodent diet containing genetically modified soybean on body weights, food uptake, water consumption, hematology, serum bio-chemistry, urinalysis, organ weights, gross findings and histopathological findings were not significantly different, compared with others. Taken together, these results suggested that genetically modified soybean did not induce any toxic effects in rats treated for 90 days.
Comparison of Skin Response Between New Zealand White Rabbit and Hartley Guinea Pig to Glycolic Acid
Toxicological Research, volume 17, issue 1, 2001, Pages 59~63
In this study, we compared skin response between Hartley guinea pig and New Zealand white rabbit. New Zealand white rabbit was treated by a glycolic acid (0, 8, 24, 40, 56 mg/
) and UVB (0, 0.4, 3.0 J/
) for 14 days. Skin irritation by glycolic acid and UVB were increased in dose and time-dependent manners, and the combination treatment of UVB increased glycolic acid-induced skin irritation. Comparison the skin irritation index between guinea pig and rabbit showed that guinea pig was much more sensitive to glycolic acid and UVB. This study indicated that selection of reliable species of animal could be considered in chemical-induced skin irritation study.
Modification of Estrogenic Effect of Nonylphenol Combined with DEHP in Yeast-based Bioassay
Toxicological Research, volume 17, issue 1, 2001, Pages 65~71
The key targets of endocrine disruptors are nuclear hormone receptors, which bind to steroid hormones and regulate their gene transcription. A yeast-based steroid hormone receptor gene trascription assay was previously developed for the evaluation of chemicals with endocrine modulating activity. The yeast transformants used in this assay contain the human estrogen receptor along with the appropriate steroid response elements upstream of the
-galactosidase reporter gene. We tried to evaluate several natural and synthetic steroids of their potential to interact directly with the steroid receptor. Some putative endocrine disruptors, including nonylphenol, are weakly estrogenic. But the combined treatment oj these chemicals with di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) significantly increased the
-galactosidase activity in the yeast transformant. These results suggest that we also have to consider the synergistic effects of endocrine disruptors. In this study, we showed that yeast-based bioassay is a valuable tool for screening potential endocrine disruptors and quantitative determination of estrogenicity. And the possibility that the estrogen receptor binds multiple environmental chemicals adds another level of complexity to the interaction between the endocrine disruptors and the human hormone system.