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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Toxicology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Dec 2001
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Oct 2001
Volume 17 - Jul 2001
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Jun 2001
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Mar 2001
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Case Report of Asbestosis
Lee, Yong-Hwan ; Chang, Hee-Kyung ; Kiyoshi Sakai ; Naomi Hisanaga ; Chung, Yong-Hyun ; Han, Jeong-Hee ; Yu, Il-Je ;
Toxicological Research, volume 17, issue 3, 2001, Pages 163~165
A patient,58 years of age, with suspected 0/l pneumoconiosis since 1993, complained of a dry cough and exertioning dyspnea for 6 months. He had worked in an asbestos company for more than 20 years from 1974. He was subsequently diagnosed with an interstitial lung disease during an annual special health check-up for asbestos workers. h chest X-ray showed an interstitial lung disease and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) showed a round opaque asbestosis with chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis. A pulmonary function test indicated that the patient had a mild restrictive lung disease with FEV1 1.67 litters and 82% FEVl/FVC. The bronchoalveloar larvage fluid included many asbestos bodies, indicating previous exposure to asbestos. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDX) revealed many asbestos bodies consisting of mainly crocidolite fibers (6,071
fibers/g of dry lung). The patient had an unusually high asbestos content of 6,112
asbestos fibers/9 of dry lung.
Evaluation of Irritating Potential of Newly Developed Toothpaste in the Hamster Oral Mucous Membrane
Kim, Bae-Hwan ; Kim, Jin-Woo ; Chang, Ih-Seop ; Sim, Young-Chul ; Lee, Yong-Soon ;
Toxicological Research, volume 17, issue 3, 2001, Pages 167~171
Oral mucous membrane test using Syrian hamsters was performed to evaluate the reliability as a model system for the assessment of the potentially irritating substances intended for the mucous membranes, and to determine the irritating potential of a new emulsion-type formulated toothpaste. After test substances were implanted into the cheek pouches of hamsters with diluents (20 mg/kg) under pento-barbital sodium anesthesia, we made the comparison in irritation between emulsion-type and dispersion-type of triclosan (TCS) formulations in the range of 0.2% to 0.3%. The emulsion-type formulations using non-ionic surfactant showed less mucosal lesion than other commercial toothpastes with 0.3% TCS, or dispersion-type ones. However, no significant difference in irritation was detected between 0.2% and 0.3% TCS. We report that this hamster cheek pouch method could be a reliable approach for the evaluation slight difference in the irritating potentials of cosmetics and hygiene products intended for the lips or other mucous membranes, and this method showed that the new emulsion-type formulation significantly lowered the TCS-induced toxicity, compared with other commercial toothpastes.
Evaluation of Irritating Potential of Newly Developed Toothphaste in the Hamster Oral Mucous Membrane
Kim, Bae Hwan ; Kim, Jin U ; Jang, Lee Seop ; Sim, Yeong Cheol ; Lee, Yong Sun ;
Toxicological Research, volume 17, issue 3, 2001, Pages 167~167
The Protective Effects of the Extract of Saururus chinesis against Cadmium Induced Cytotoxicity(II)
Toxicological Research, volume 17, issue 3, 2001, Pages 173~180
This study was conducted to investigate the antitoxic component in ethanol extract of Saururus chinesis (S. chinesis). The results were as follows: Generally, detoxication effects by s. chinesis extract increased in proportion to the extract concentration. non 8
/g dosage of S. chinesis extract was administered, it showed the highest antitoxic effects in metallothionein induction. After the extract treatment, body weights generally increased In proportion to the extract concentrations. from the above results, S. chinesis extract Increased Metallothionein concentration and decreased the toxicity of cadmium In rats. In vitro the antitoxic activity of ethanol extract of S. chinesis on NIH3T3 fibroblasts was evaluated by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) and SRB (sulforhodamine B protein) assays. The light microscopic study was carried out to observe morphological changes of the treeated cells.
mg/ml Concentrations of S. chinesis extract was shown significant antitoxic activity. The number of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts were increased and tend to regenerate. These result suggest that S. chinesis extract retains a potential antitoxic activity.
Vitellogenin mRNA Induction in Male Carp Treated with Bisphenol A
Toxicological Research, volume 17, issue 3, 2001, Pages 181~186
The estrogenic potency of bisphenol A using reverse trancriptase-PCR response of liver vitellogenin mRNA in male carp was studied. For this, six combination of primers which were synthesized on the basis of cDNA consensus region of various species, were evaluated and one pair of primers was selected as the best to show 286 bp size-transcript. By using the selected primers, vitellogenin mRNA induction in carp treated with bisphenol A was measured and the chemical showed dose-and time-dependent Induction response. From this result, it was concluded that RT-PCR technique wing the selected primers in this study can be wed to monitor the estrogenic effects exerted In carp living in Korean freshwater.
Bile Duct Obstruction Stimulates Lipid Peroxidation and Liver Fibrosis (Cirrhosis) in Rat
Toxicological Research, volume 17, issue 3, 2001, Pages 187~194
The oxidative stress causes the cell damage and death and thereby, stimulates membrane lipid peroxidation. In this study, the correlation between the lipid peroxidation product and the parameter of liver fibrosis (cirrhosis) was investigated in cholestasis induced rats. The Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups (sham: sham operation, BDL/S-I and BDL/S-II : bile duct ligation/scission) and were observed for 2 or 4 weeks. After observation period, the organs were weighed and the ratio of organ weight/body weight was calculated. Sera and liver tissue were used for the measurement of malondealdehyde (MDA), parameter of clinical biochemistry, total collagen content and the staining. The ratio of organ weight/body weight in BDL/S-I and BDL/S-II was significantly increased compared to sham operated group. Serological parameters (Alanine transaminase, Aspartate transaminase, Alkaline phosphatase and Total bilirubin) in BDL/S-I and BDL/S-II group were significantly higher than those in sham operated group. Concentration of MDA in BDL/S-I (261%) and BDL/S-II(790%) was significantly increased compared to MDA in sham operated group. And the content of hydroxyproline (hyp) in BDL/S-I and BDL/S-II group was significantly increased 2~4 times than in sham operated group. The good correlations between hyp in liver tissue and MDA in sera of sham operated group and all operated group were found (r=0.825). The significantly higher value of MDA, hyp and serological parameters in BDL/S-I and BDL/S-II group suggests the stimulation of lipid peroxidation and chronic liver damage. Especially the activation of lipid peroxidation and the stimulation of liver fibrosis was stronger in BDL/S-II group than in BDL/S-I group. The stronger fibrosis, portal-portal septum formation, the more massive bile duct proliferation in portal triads and stroma, and hepatocytes swelling were observed in liver tissue of and BDL/S-II group compared to BDL/S-I group. Conclusively, a good correlation between MDA as a lipid peroxidation marker and hyp as a liver fibrotic parameter could be connected with the process of liver fibrosis. Moreover, cholestasis condition may cause jaundice, activation of lipid peroxidation, and collagen accumulation in liver. Additionally, optimal observation period of bile duct obstruction for the screening of antioxidant and antifibrotic effect in rats would be four weeks.
Review Newly Adopted OECD Acute Oral Toxicity Test Guideline 420
Toxicological Research, volume 17, issue 3, 2001, Pages 195~201
The OECD acute toxicity guideline has been revised recently to protect animal welfare. The GLP authority of the Ministry of Environment, the National Institute for Environmental Research, recommended GLP laboratories in Korea to ufo the revised acute toxicity guideline. This study was carried out to optimize newly adopted OECD test guideline 420 (TG 420). Bisphenol A was selected for test chemical. Following TG420, Bisphenol A was classified as class 5/unclassified group. The revised TG 420 was very effective test in minimizing animal number and classifying chemicals. The method, however had short-coming in evaluation of test results statistically because the test had no control group, and the test should be stopped when animals were dead at the lowest dose or alive at the highest dose. TG 420 required at Least 20 animals to complete the test, but it could result in producing unused animals that need to sacrifice.
Pre-validation of the OECD Enhanced Test Guideline 407 Protocol on Screening and Testing for Endocrine Disrupters
Toxicological Research, volume 17, issue 3, 2001, Pages 203~213
We investigated the toxic effects of propylthiouracil (PTU) In Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to develop and validate an enhanced Protocol for Test Guideline 407 as OECD Project. Twenty male and female SD rats,7 weeks old, were treated with PTU in corn oil at levels of 0, 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks orally. Clinical observation, body weight changes, food uptake, water consumption, urinalysis, estrus cycle and sperm analysis, serum chemist교, autopsy findings and histopathological findings were evaluated in this study. No clinical signs and mortality were observed in the study. The body weights and food uptakes in the group treated with 10 mg/kg/day were reduced from 3 weeks after the initiation of the treatment. The levels of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4, 3,5,3',5'-tetraiodothyrosine) were also significantly decreased in the group treated with 10 mg/kg/day. Also, the relative and absolute organ weights of thymuses were decreased. Thyroid glands of rats in the group treated with PTU 10 mg/kg/day were bigger than those of rats in the control group. In the histopathological examination, diffuse hyperplasia and hypertrophy of thyroid follicular cells were observed in all treatment groups, leading to the reduction of lumen size and papillary enfolding of lining epithelium. The degree of lesion was increased in a dose-dependent manner. The results suggested that PTU would cause toxicity in thyroid gland and decrease the levels of T3 and T4 in SD rats. However there were no effects on the other organ including testis and uterus especially in spermatogenesis and estrus cycle. On the basis of the results, enhanced protocol for Test Guideline (TG) 407 may be sensitive and reliable to detect endocrine-active substances like PTU.
Apoptotic Signaling Pathway by Cadmium in Hepalclc7 cells
Toxicological Research, volume 17, issue 3, 2001, Pages 215~223
Cadmium is an ubiquitous toxic metal and chronic exposure to cadmium results in the accumulation of cadmium in the liver and kidneys. In contrast, acute exposure leads to damage mainly in the liver. Apoptosis induced by cadmium has been shown in many tissues in vivo and in cultured cells in vitro. However, the molecular mechanism of cadmium-induced apoptosis is not clear in hepatocyte. To investigate the induction of apoptosis in the hepatocyte, we used mouse hepatoma cell line, Hepalclc7 cells, and analysed the molecules that involved in cadmium-induced apoptosis. Cadmium induced the genomic DNA fragmentation, PARP cleavage, and activation of caspase-3 like protease. Caspase-9 cysteine protease was activated in a time-dependent manner but caspase-8 cysteine protease was not significantly activated in cadmium-treated Hepalclc7 cells. Cadmium also induced mitochondrial dysfunction including cytochrome c release from mitochondria, change oj mitochondrial membrane potential tranition, and tranlocation of Bax Protein into mitochondria. These results strong1y indicated that the signal Pathway of apoptotic death in cadmium-treated Hepalclc7 cells is modulated by caspase cascade via mitochondria.
Effects of Korean Red Ginseng Water Extract on Bisphenol A-induced Developmental Toxicity in Rats
Toxicological Research, volume 17, issue 3, 2001, Pages 225~234
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of Korean red ginseng water extract (KRGWE) on developmental toxicity caused by the environmental estrogen bisphenol A (BPA) in Sprague-Dawley rats. fifty males successfully mated were randomly assigned to five experimental groups, 1.e., group I (vehicle control), group II (BPA 1000mg/kg), group III (KRGWE 400mg/kg), group IV (BPA 1000mg/kg & KRGWE 200mg/kg), and group V (BPA 1000mg/kg & KRGWE 400mg/kg). The test articles were administered by gavage to mated females from gestational days (GD) 1 through 20 (sperm vaginal lavage=day O). All females were subjected to caesarean section on GD 21 and their fetuses were examined for external, visceral, and skeletal abnormalities. In the group II, significant maternal toxic effects including suppressed body weight, decreased body weight gain during pregnancy, and reduced food consumption were observed in pregnant rats. The minimal developmental toxicity including fetal ossification delay was also found in fetuses. In addition, a tendency for increased pregnancy failure, increased pre-and postimplantation loss, and decreased fetal body weight was observed. However, no fetal morpho-logical abnormalities were seen in surviving fetuses at a dose level of 1000mg BPA/kg. On the other hand, the maternal toxicity and developmental toxicity found in the groups IV and V were comparable to those of the group II. There were no adverse signs of either maternal toxicity or developmental toxicity in the group III. These results showed that administration of BPA at a dose level of 1000mg/kg to pregnant rats resulted in significant maternal toxicity and minimal developmental toxicity, and that no protective effects on BPA-induced maternal toxicity and developmental toxicity were found by concomitant gavage dosing of KRGWE.
Mutagenicity Tests on CJ-50005 (Hepatitis A Vaccine)
Toxicological Research, volume 17, issue 3, 2001, Pages 235~239
CJ-50005 is an inactivated whole virus vaccine derived from hepatitis A virus (HM175) grown in human MRC-5 diploid fibroblasts cell culture. In order to evaluate the mutagenic potential of CJ-50005, : 3 sets of mutagenicity tests were performed. In the reverse mutation test wing Salmonella typhimurium TA1535, TA1 537, TA98, TA100 and TA102, CJ-50005 did not increase the number of revertants at any concentration tested in this study (2.8, 1.4, 0.7, 0.35 and 0.175
/plate). CJ-50005, at concentration of 2.8, 1.4 and 0.7
/ml, did not increase the number of cells having structural or numerical chromosome aberration in cytogenic test using Chinese Hamster Lung cells. In mouse micronucleus test, no significant increase in the occurrence of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes was observed in ICR male and female mice intraperitoneally administered with CJ-50005 at the doses of 25, 12.5 and 6.25
/kg. These results indicate that CJ-50005 has no mutagenic potential in these in vitro and in vivo system.