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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Toxicology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Dec 2001
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Oct 2001
Volume 17 - Jul 2001
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Jun 2001
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Mar 2001
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Induction of Apoptosis in the Testes of SD Rats After Exposure to 2-Bromopropane
Kim, Young-Hee ; Cho, Sung-Whan ; Ha, Chang-Su ; Kang, Boo-Hyon ;
Toxicological Research, volume 17, issue 4, 2001, Pages 241~248
Exposure to 2-Bromopropane has been known to cause degeneration of male germ cells. However the mechanism underlying this process is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not the exposure of male Sprague-Dawley rats to 2-BP induces apoptosis in male germ cells. Male rats(N=3 or 4 in each group) were orally administered either with the corn oil vehicle (10 ml/kg body weight) or with 2-BP (3,500 mg/kg) once a day for 3 days. The presence of apoptosis was determined by TUNEL detection in situ and by an increase in DNA fragmentation. A low spontaneous incidence of apoptosis was observed in vehicle control animals, especially in pre-meiotic germ cells of stages I-VI and stages XII-XIV the seminiferous tubules. In 2-BP exposure rats, the incidence of apoptosis markedly increased at 4 h, reached a peak at 8 h (about 7-fold over control), and then decreased rapidly to control level by 48 h after the last administration. Although apoptosis induced by 2-BP occurred in all stages of germ cells, it was most pronounced in spermatogonia and early spermatocytes in stages I-VI and stages XII-XIV. Taken together, our results suggest that apoptosis is involved in the toxicity of testicular germ cells resulting in oligospermia or azoospermia after exposure to 2-BP.
Free Radical Involvement in the DNA Damaging Activity of Fumonisin Bl
Lee, Wan-Hee ; Lee, Kil-Soo ;
Toxicological Research, volume 17, issue 4, 2001, Pages 249~253
Fumonisin B1, a mycotoxin, is thought to induce esophageal cancer in humans and apoptosis in animal cells by inhibiting ceramide synthase. Dumonisin Bl may also generate reactive oxygen species directly or indirectly, leading to DNA damage and lipid peroxidation. In this study, a DNA fragmentation assay, dichlorofluorescein (DCF) analysis, and single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) were used to investigate the involvement of cellular free radicals, specifically hydrogen peroxide, in the DNA damaging activity of fumonisin B1. From an in vitro DNA fragmentation assay, E. coli DNA, damage by fumonisin Bl was increased by the addition of superxide dismutase (SOD) and decreased by catalase. SCGE and DCF analysis in vivo showed that the nuclear DNA damage and intracellular free radicals in cultured rat hepatocytes treated with fumonisin B1 were increased with the concentration of fumonisin Bl . DNA damage and free radical generation were inhibited by the addition of catalase. Fumonisin Bl , in the presence of SOD, produces hydrogen peroxide causing oxidative DNA damage and protein malfunction, leading to genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of the toxin.
Metal Effects of Urban Air Particulates on Cytokine Production and DNA Damage
Lee, Kwan-Hee ; Hong, Yun-Chul ;
Toxicological Research, volume 17, issue 4, 2001, Pages 255~265
Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an association between short-term exposure to particulate air pollutants and increased mortality. However the biological mechanism underlying these associations have not been fully established and also the chemical and physical characteristics of the pollutant particles are not well understood. The metal constituents of air pollutant particles and their bioavailability are considered to Play an important role as possible mediators of Particle-induced airway injury and inflammation. Sprague-Dawley rat alveolar macrophage cells (NR8383) were exposed to airborne and acid-leached particulate matter (PM). Titanium oxide and nickel subsulfide were used as negative and positive controls. Particle-induced reactive oxygen species formation in cells was detected using the fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate. Expression of TNF-
and IL-6 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and PM-induced DNA double-strand breaks were determined with
DNA/Hind III marker. Metals associated with air pollutant particles mediated intracellular oxidant production in alveolar macrophages, and the cytotoxicity and proinflammatory cytokine production induced by PM were associated with oxidative stress. The oxidants produced by air pollutant particles also are likely to induce DNA double-strand breaks. Our findings in alveolar macrophage cells exposed to PM and acid-leached PM support the hypothesis that metal components in urban air pollutants and their bioavailabilities might play an Important role in the induction of the adverse health effects.
Reproductive Toxicity Assessment on 2-Bromopropane using Spematogenesis Stage Classification and Sertoli Cell Indices
Toxicological Research, volume 17, issue 4, 2001, Pages 267~272
This study was carried out to assess the reproductive toxicity of 2-bromopropane (S-BP) using spermatogenesis stage classification and Sertoli cell indices (SCI).Vehicle control olive oil and 2-BP doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg of body weight were injected in the interaperitoneum of 12 weeks male Sprague-Dawley rats for 28 days respectively of SCI on germ cells including the spermatogonia of stages II-III, Ⅵ,Ⅹ, XII, ⅩIII, and spermatocytes of stages VIII (preleptotene), Ⅹ (leptotene), XII (leptotene), V and Ⅵ (pachytene), and the round spermatids of stage Ⅵ. Considering the process of maturation depletion in spermatonesis, spermatogonia may be the primary target cells of 2-BP toxicity.
Single Dose Toxicity Studies of the Bamboo Salt (Jukyum) in rats
Toxicological Research, volume 17, issue 4, 2001, Pages 273~277
Though the bamboo salt, called as "JUKYUM" has been widely used in Korea as panacea, it's toxicity were not screened completely. To investigate the toxicity of bamboo salt, we compared with the toxicity of crude salt and reagent-grade NaCl by performing single dose oral toxicity test in SD rats. Crude salt, natural sun-dried salt (crude salt) production, was purchased from the western seashore of Korean peninsular, and reagent-grade NaCl was purchased from Sigma company. Results of the single dose oral toxicity tests on bamboo salt, crude salt and reagent-grade NaCl to SD rats are as follows,
of bamboo salt was 4174mg/kg (male) and 4074mg/kg (female), that of crude salt was 4871mg/kg (male) and 4898mg/kg (female) and that of reagent-grade NaCl was 4247mg/kg (male) and 4025mg/kg (female), respectively. There were little differences in clinical signs and gross legions among groups. Finding of gross autopsy and necropsy of bamboo salt treated group were similar to other groups.er groups.
Effects of 00 Hz Horizontally Polarized Magnetic Fields on Embryo-fetal Development in SD Rats
Toxicological Research, volume 17, issue 4, 2001, Pages 279~286
Recently, there is an increasing nationwide concern in Korea that exposure to electric and magnetic fields in the home environment may not be safe in humans. To identify possible effects of horizontally polarized magnetic fields (MF) exposure on embryo-fetal development, timed-mated female Sprague-Dawley rats (24/group) received continuous exposure to 60 Hz MF at field strengths of 0 Gauss (sham control), 50mG,833 mG, or 5000 mG. Dams received MF of sham exposures for 22hr/day on gestation days 6 through 20. Experimentally generated MF were monitored continuously througout the study. There was no evidence of maternal toxicity of developmental toxicity in any MF-exposed groups. Mean maternal body weight, organ weights, and gross findings in groups exposed to MF did not differ from those in sham control. No significant differences in fetal deaths, fetal body weight, and placental weight were observed between MF-exposed groups and sham control. External, visceral, and skeletal examination of fetuses demonstrated no significant differences in the incidence of fetal malformations between MF-exposed and sham control groups. In conclusion, exposure of pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to 60 Hz at MF strengths up to 5000 mG during gestation day 6-20 did not produce any biologically significant effect in either dams of fetuses.
Acute Oral Toxicity Test in Japanese Quail
Toxicological Research, volume 17, issue 4, 2001, Pages 287~296
The acute oral LD5O toxicity values of isazofos, pyraclofos, diazinon and methomyl were determined for Japanese quail based on OECD guideline. The
of isazofos, pyraclofos and diazinon was 16.26 mg/kg, and 7.11mg/kg body weight In female respectively. And the
of each chemical in male was 21.44, 35.64, 8.28 mg/kg body weight respectively. Diazinon was the most susceptible compounds to Japanese quail in both sexes. The
of methomyl was 21.24 mg/kg body weights in female, and 28.28 mg/kg body weight in male respectively. Diazinon, isazofos and methomyl were more toxic In the female than male. The symptoms of poisoning were similar in quails administrated with each chemicals. The clinical sign in Japanese quail were ataxia, salivation, diarrhea, ruffled feather and convulsion at dead point. There were severe hemorrhage and catarrhal inflammation from duodenum to ileum In all compounds. In Japanese quail treated with organophosphorus and carbamate compounds, brain acetylcholinesterase was inhibited by 88-96. The recovery was not observed after 5 h in sublethal dose.
Single Dose Toxicity Studies of C.1-50005 (Hepatitis A virus Vaccine) in Rats and Dogs
Toxicological Research, volume 17, issue 4, 2001, Pages 297~301
The acute toxicity of CJ-50005, an inactivated whole virus vaccine derived from hepatitis A virus (HM175) grown in human MRC-5 diploid fibroblast culture, was tested in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and beagle dogs. CJ-50005 was orally and intramuscularly administered up to the maximum dose of 81
/kg. as much as 3,000 times of the expected clinical dose, in SD rats and was intramuscularly administered up to 27
/kg, as much as 1,000 times of the expected clinical dose, in beagle dogs. In these experiments, there were no death and clinical changes which were related to CJ-50005 administration. In addition, there were no significant changes between control and treated groups in body weights and autopsy findings. In conclusion, the administration of CJ-50005 over 81
/kg in SD rats and over 27
/kg in beagle dogs was proved to be safe, and it is thought that CJ-50005 may not show any toxicity in its clinical use.
Difference of Age-Related Sensitivity to Organophosphates
Toxicological Research, volume 17, issue 4, 2001, Pages 303~308
The potential for a given anticholinesterase pesticide to exhibit age-related toxicity is essential information for an accurate and proper risk assessment of that compound. This investigation was designed to study the age-related toxicity of active metabolites of four organophosphates using in vitro detoxification measurement. The blood samples were collected from 1 month and 18 months old rats. The
values of mouse brain recombinant AChE of chlorpyrifos-oxon, diazoxon, malaoxon and paraoxon were 10.35, 112.84, 151.28 and 18.43 nM, respectively. When the plasma of young rats, and
were added, the
values of mouse brain recombinant AChE of chlorpyrfos-oxon, diazoxon, malaoxon and paraoxon were 31.89, 164.25, 139.94 and 16.36 nM, respectively. The
values of mouse brain recombinant AChE of chlorpyrifos-oxon, diazoxon, malaoxon and paraoxon were changed to 136.840, 1244.45, 654.54 and 52.66 nM by A-esterases In adult rats. These results suggest that four organophosphates have a potential toxicity to exhibit age-related sensitivity.
Effects of Repeated Exposure to Pb Acetate on Hematopoietic Function, Testis and Kidney in Male Rats
Toxicological Research, volume 17, issue 4, 2001, Pages 309~316
Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to 0, 0.04, 0.2, and 0.8% Pb acetate in drinking water for 13 weeks and fed a commercial diet. Dose-related adverse effects observed at the end of the Pb acetate exposure in the drinking water were as follows: decrease in body weight gain, decrease in hemoglobin, hematocrit(HCT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), increase in serum glucose, decrease in serum testosterone, increase in lead accumulation and
-ALA release in urine, and decrease in
-ALAD activities DNA content and histopathlogy (intranuclear inclusion body in kidney proximal tubule cell). Taken together, repeated exposure of lead acetate induced toxicities in hematopoietic system, especially testis and kidney.
Dermal Penetration Rate and Pharmacokinetics of the Insecticide Methidathion in Sprague-Dawley Rats
Sung, Ha-Jung ; Kim, Jeong-Han ;
Toxicological Research, volume 17, issue 4, 2001, Pages 317~323
The skin penetration rate of methidathion in vitro and pharmacokinetics of methidathion in vivo were studied with male Sprague-Dawley rats by dermal treatment. The in vitro skin penetration rates for Sprague-Dawley rats of methidathion technical (50 mg, 100
) and emulsifable concentrate (EC,40mg, 100
) were determined as 18.4
/h (RSD : 6.5) and 18.5
/h (RSD : 3.2), respectively. Dose-related systemic exposure (AUC) was observed in rats after dermal treatment. The corresponding AUC,
2/ of methidathion in plasma were 1.5
.hr/ml, 6 h, 0.10
/ml, and 16 h, for 116mg/kg doses, 3.2
. hr/ml, 8 h, 0.12
/ml, and 23 h, for 232 mg/kg doses and 10
. hr/ml, 12 h, 0.32
/ml, and 20 h, for 1,160 mg/kg doses respectively. The urinary excretion of methidathion, estimated wing an equation derived from the in vitro skin penetration study was 0.24~0.35% of the absorbed dose. The concentration of methidathion in kidney was higher than that in liver. Dose-dependent absorption and excretion of methidathion without saturation was observed under in vivo experimental condition.n.n.