Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Toxicology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Dec 2002
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Sep 2002
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Jun 2002
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Mar 2002
Selecting the target year
Alteration in Response to Chemicals Induced by Physical Exercise
Toxicological Research, volume 18, issue 3, 2002, Pages 215~226
Acute or repeated physical exercise affects a large number of physiological parameters including hemodynamics, respiration, pH, temperature, gastrointestinal function and biotransformation, which determine the pharmacokinetics of drugs and chemicals. The rate and the amount of a chemical reaching the active site are altered by physical exercise, which results in significant changes in pharmacolosical/toxicological activity of the chemical. This aspect of physical exercise has vast implication in therapeutics and in safety evaluation, particularly for chemicals that have a low margin of safety. However there appears to be a wide inter- and intraindividual variation in the effects of physical exercise depend-ing on the duration, intensity and type of exercise, and also on the properties of each chemical. It is suggested that more studies need to be done to determine which factor(s) plays a major role in the disposition of chemicals in human/animals performing physical exercise. Certain chemicals induce severe toxicity due to metabolic conversion to reactive intermediate metabolites. it is suggested that repeated exercise may enhance the free radical scavenging system by increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes. This area of research remain to be explored to elucidate the interaction of exercise and chemical on the antioxidant system.
Comparison of Sensitivity Between Balb/c 3T3 Cell and HaCaT Cell by NRU Assay to Predict Skin Phototoxicity Potential
Lee, Jong-Kwon ; Lee, Eun-Hee ; Lee, Sun-Hee ;
Toxicological Research, volume 18, issue 3, 2002, Pages 227~232
In order to find out the appropriate in vitro method for high correlation with in vivo, we com-pared the sensitivities of phototoxicity (PT) in vitro method between in human keratinocytes, HaCaT cells and in 3T3 fibroblast cells derived from Balb/c mice. Both cells were exposed to six known phototoxic chemicals : promethazine, neutral red, chlortetracycline, amiodarone, bithionol, 8-methoxypsoralen, or non-phototoxic chemical, ALS (ammonium laureth sulfate) and then irradiated with 5 J/
of UVA. Cell viability (
) was measured by neutral red uptake (NRU) assay. The ratio of
value of chemicals in the presence and absence of UVA was determined by the cut-off value. The phototoxic potential of test chemicals in NRU assay was determined by measuring the photoirriation factor (PIF) with a cut-off value of 5. In both 3T3 and HaCaT cells, all known phototoxic chemicals were positive (over 5 of PIF value), except that bithionol was found to be non-phototoxic to HaCaT cells, and ALS, non-phototoxic chemical was negative. These results suggest that Balb/c 3T3 cell was more sensitive than HaCaT cell to predict phototoxicity potential.
Haplotype Distribution of the β
-Adrenergic Receptor Gene in Korean Essential Hypertensives
Bae, Joon-Seol ; Kang, Byung-Yong ; Lee, Kang-Oh ; Yoon, Tae-Joong ; Kim, Jae-Hyoun ; Kim, Ki-Tae ;
Toxicological Research, volume 18, issue 3, 2002, Pages 233~240
In view of the effect of
-Adrenergic receptors (
-AR) as a risk factor for essential hypertension, we investigated the Fnu4HI and MnlI RFLPs of
-AR gene in the Korean patients with essential hypertension and normal controls. There were no significant differences in the allele and genotype of these polymorphisms between normotensive and essential hypertensive subjects. In ethnic comparison, the allele frequencies of these three sites contained Nde I RFLP reported the association with essential hypertension in Korean population previously, were very different from those of other ethnic populations studied. The significant linkage disequilibrium was detected only in hypertensive group between Nde I and Fnu4HI sites. The Fnu4HI RFLP was also significantly associated with plasma triglyceride (TG) level. Therefore, our results suggest that the significant association between Fnu4HI variation in the human
-AR gene and plasma TG level may reflect the potential role of human
-AR gene as one of the genetic components for cardiovascular risk.
A 4-week Repeated Oral Dose Toxicity Study of CJ-10882 in Dogs
Cha, Shin-Woo ; Kim, Jong-Choon ; Kim, Dal-Hyun ; Chung, Moon-Koo ; Junghee Han ;
Toxicological Research, volume 18, issue 3, 2002, Pages 241~248
The present study was conducted to investigate the potential subacute toxicity of CJ-10882 by a 4-week repeated oral dose in dogs. The test article was administered once dally by gavage to dogs at dose levels of 0, 2, 10, and 50 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. During the test period, clinical signs, mortality, body weights, food consumption, ophthalmoscopy, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross finding, organ weight, and histopathology were evaluated. Several clinical sign were observed in treated dogs at 50 mg/kg, including salivation and vomiting. Increase in the serum level of ALT and albumin observed in the female 50 mg/kg group was considered as a toxic effect related to the test article since the histopathological change in Liver was accompanied. There were no treatment-related effects on mortality, food and water consumption, ophthalmoscopy, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, necropsy findings and organ weights in any treatment group. Based on these results, target organ was not observed and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was 10 mg/kg/day and the absolute toxic dose was 50 mg/kg for both male and female dogs.
Molecular Cloning and Expression of Fusion Proteins Containing Human Cytochrome P450 3As and Rat NADPH-P450 Reductase in Escherichia coli
Chun, Young-Jin ; Guengerich, F-Peter ;
Toxicological Research, volume 18, issue 3, 2002, Pages 249~257
Cytochrome P450 3As such as 3A4 and 3A5 metabolize a wide range of pharmaceutical compounds. The vectors for the expression of fusion protein containing an N-terminal human P450 3A4 or P450 3A5 sequences and a C-terminal rat NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase moiety were constructed. These plasmids were used to express the fusion protein in Escherichia coli DH5
cells. High levels of expression were achieved (100~200 nmol/liter) and the expressed fusion protein in E. coli membranes were catalytically active for nifedipine oxidation, a typical enzymatic activity of P450 3A4. The NADPH-P450 reductase activities of these fusion protein were also determined by measuring reduction of cytochrome c. To fine a specific Inhibitor of P450 3A4 from naturally occurring chemicals, a series of isothiocyanate compounds were evaluated for the inhibitory activity of P450 using the fusion proteins in E. coli membranes. Of the five isothiocyanates (phenethyl isothiocyanate, phenyl isothiocyanate, benzol isothiocyanate, benzoyl isothiocyanate and cyclohexyl isothiocyanate) tested, benzoyl isothiocyanate showed a strong inhibition of P450 3A4 with an
value of 2.8
. Our results indicate that the self-sufficient fusion protein will be very useful tool to study the drug metabolism and benzyl isothiocyanate may be valuable for characterizing the enzymatic properties of P450 3A4.
Resveratrol Induces the Apoptosis of Osteosarcoma Saos-2 Cells
Toxicological Research, volume 18, issue 3, 2002, Pages 259~265
Resveratrol, a phytoalexin found in grapes, berries, and peanuts, is one of the most promising agents for cancer prevention. Recent studies show that the antitumor activity of resveratrol occurs through p53-mediated apoptosis. This study demonstrated the mechanism that resveratrol induced apoptosis in human osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells lacking p53. Treatment of osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells with resveratrol resulted in decrease of cell viability, which was revealed as apoptosis characterized by activation of caspase-3 protease as well as cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) with change of mitochondrial membrane potential transition. These results suggest that resveratrol may be potentially useful to treat osteosarcoma via activation of caspase protease and mitochondrial dysfunction.
The Safety Evaluation of a Potent Antioxidant, Fructose 1,6-diphosphate(FDP), for the Skin Application
Toxicological Research, volume 18, issue 3, 2002, Pages 267~273
Fructose 1,6-diphosphate(FDP), a glycolytic metabolite, is reported to ameliorate inflammation and inhibit the nitric oxide production in murine macrophages stimulated with endotoxin. It is also reported that FDP has cytoprotective effects against hypoxia or ischemia/reperfusion injury in brain and heart, and may play a protective role in ultraviolet B (UVB, 280~320 nm)-injured keratinocyte by attenuating prostaglandin (PG)-E
production and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression, which are possibly through blocking the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Therefore FDP is considered to act as a potent antioxidant especially in the skin. We conducted the several safety tests (single-dose toxicity, primary skin irritation test, eye irritation test, skin sensitization test, phototoxicity test, photosenitization test and human patch test) to see if FDP is safe in case used for the skin application. Our data obtained hitherto suggest that FDP is very safe if applied to the skin.
Gliotoxin-Induced Oxidative Stress Mediates the Apoptotic Death in Human Leukemic HL-60 cells
Toxicological Research, volume 18, issue 3, 2002, Pages 275~283
Fungal metabolite, gliotoxin is an epipolythiodioxopiperazin (ETP) class and has various roles including immunomodulatory and apoptotic effects. This study was designed to evaluate the mechanism by which gliotoxin exerts the apoptosis on human promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells. Herein, we demonstrated that the gliotoxin decreased the cell viability in a time-dependent manner Gliotoxin-induced cell death was confirmed us apoptosis characterized by chromatin condensation and ladder-pattern fragmentation of genomic DNA. Gliotoxin increased the catalytic activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Activation of caspase-3 was further confirmed by degradation of procaspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) by gliotoxin in HL-60 cells. Furthermore, gliotoxin induced the changes of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP). Antioxidants, including GSH and NAC, markedly inhibited apoptosis with conistent suppression of enzymatic activity of caspase-3, caspase-9, and MTP loss in gliotoxin-treated cells. Taken together, we suggest that gliotoxin function as an oxidant and ploys proapoptotic roles in HL-60 cells via activation of intrinsic caspase cascades as well as mitochondrial dysfunction.
Oral Toxicity Studies for 2 weeks of Gleditschia-saponin in Sprague-Dawley Rats
Toxicological Research, volume 18, issue 3, 2002, Pages 285~292
The repeated toxicity of Gleditschia-saponin produced and provided by S.S. Bio-Tech Bench Co. was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats. Gleditschia-saponin was administered to rats by oral route at dose levels of high (180 mg/kg/day), medium (90 mg/kg/day) and low (45 mg/kg/day) once a day for 14 days. Saline was administered to another group of rats as control. Each group was consisted of 5 male and female rats. There were no dose-related changes in clinical findings, food and water consumption, organ weights, urine analysis, biochemical examination and hematological findings in all groups of animals treated with Gleditschia.- saponin, except body weights. Body weighs in male and female rats were increased significantly (p < 0.05) from day 4 to 14 in low, middle and high dose groups than control group. Body weight in high dose group was increased higher than control or low, middle dose groups on day 14. Gross and histopathological findings revealed no evidence of specific toxicity to Gleditschia.-saponin. Therefore, it was concluded that Gleditschia-saponin had no toxic or side effects in Sprague-Dawley rats in an repeated oral toxicity tests.
Effects of Chemical Carcinogens on the Aldehyde Metabolic Enzymes and Antioxidant Enzymes in Clone 9 Cell
Toxicological Research, volume 18, issue 3, 2002, Pages 293~300
Chemical carcinogen-induced alteration of aldehyde metabolic enzymes were examined in clone 9 cell. Diethylnitrosamine (DENA), N-nitrosoethylurea (NEU) and N-nitrosomorpholine (NNM) were wed as model carcinogens. Changes in enzyme activities by repetitive treatment of DENA, NEU or NNM were analyzed in terms of specific activities and activity stainings of the enzymes on the gel. Upon treatment of DENA, lipid peroxide level increased upto 10 fold, indicating strong oxidative stress state of the cell. Notable enhancement of ADH and ALDH activity occurred after DENA treatment, while glutathione-S-transferase activity was slightly increased. Furthermore, about 2.5 fold higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was detected during deactivation of catalase (CAT) activity by repetitive treatment of DENA. However in NEU-treated cell, about 2.3 fold higher ALDH activity was found while ADH activity was slightly increased. Notable increase CAT and SOD could also be found. In contrast, maximum 3.5 fold higher CAT activity occurred during SOD deactivation in NNM-treated cell. These results suggest that there might be different enzymatic responses in relation to cell protection against DENA, NEU or NNM.
Pharmalogical Effects and Toxicity of Licorice
Toxicological Research, volume 18, issue 3, 2002, Pages 301~309
Licorice has been wed in clinical medicine for thousands of years. However it is only in recent times that we have been able to employ scientific methods to prove its efficacy and to give us a better understanding of its mechanism of action. One of important mechanisms for its efficacy is related to mineralocorticoid activity increased by glycyrrhizic acid, the active ingredient in licorice. Also the main undesirable side-effects of Licorice relate to is mineralocorticoid activity resulting in a state of apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME). These therapeutic and undesirable effects are explained by the inhibition of 11-
-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11-
-HSD) activity. Recently, the reduction of serum testosterone in men by licorice was reported which would have important health implications in the context of fertility and sexual dysfunction. Here, health implication of licorice were reviewed In term of its pharmacodynamic and toxicodynamic mechanism.