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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Toxicology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Dec 2003
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Sep 2003
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Jun 2003
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Mar 2003
Selecting the target year
Four Weeks Repeated Toxicity Study of 2-o-Benzoylcinnamaldehyde(CB-PH) by Oral Administration in Sprague-Dawley Rats
Toxicological Research, volume 19, issue 4, 2003, Pages 259~266
Although 'Cinnamon' has been widely used for the food and biophamacy in the world, it's toxicity was not screened completely. Major component of 'cinnamon' is CB-OH and CB-PH. CB-PH has been reported to have antimutagenic effect. To investigate the toxicity of 2-o-Benzoylcinnama-Idehyde (CB-PH), repeated dose (4 weeks) oral toxicity test performed in SD rats. Results of repeated dose oral toxicity tests for 4 weeks (CB-PH; 500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg/day) suggested that the CB-PH treated group showed no significant toxicological findings with body weights, organ weights, hematological and histopathological findings. Therefore, these data indicated that the maximum tolerated dose of CB-PH was 2000 mg above/kg/day in the rats.
Study on the Developmental Toxicity of Thimerosal
Toxicological Research, volume 19, issue 4, 2003, Pages 267~275
The purpose of our study was to evaluate the toxicity of the thimerosal in embryos and neonates. Thimerosal (also known as mercurothiolate) is a mercury-containing compound used in trace amounts to prevent bacteria and other organisms from contaminating vaccines, especially in opened multi-dose vials. The toxicity of mercury is well known and those most at risk occurrs in unborn babies and newborn babies. Test methods included in vitro whole embryo culture (WEC) system and in vivo test of neonatal toxicity in Wistar rats. Ethylmercury and methylmercury were used as positive controls for the evaluating of toxic effects of mercury. In WEC assay, treated concentrations of thimerosal, ethylmercury and methylmercury were up to 0.01, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2.5 and 5
, respectively. All compounds didn't show any morphological abnormalities, but showed retardation of growth and development in dose dependent manner (> 0.5
). These data indicated that thimerosal showed developmental toxicity in vitro. In vivo neonatal toxicity, Wistar rats were administered subcutaneously with thimerosal, ethyl mercury, or methylmercury (5, 25, 50, 250, and 500
/kg) during from postnatal day (PND) 4 to 25. Significant effects of these compounds on relative organ weights and organ morphology were not observed in this experiment. However, accumulation of mercury was detected in the kidney and testis when treated with thimerosal, ethylmercury, or methylmercury. These results suggest that thimerosal may be a harmful compound to embryo and neonate, but used concentration of thimerosal in these experiments is much higher than that of clinical application. Further investigation is needed on the safety of vaccine components, i.e. a thimerosal using in vitro and in vivo tests in the future.
Immunotoxicity of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (Aroclor 1254) in Mouse Splenocytes
Toxicological Research, volume 19, issue 4, 2003, Pages 277~283
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been widely used as plasticizer, insulator, lubricant, paint and ink. The persistence of PCBs in the environment and their bioaccumulation in living organism make a raise concerns regarding their toxic effects in immune system and subsequent effects on human health. However little has been known about effect of PCB, an endocrine disrupter, on splenocytes. In this study, for identifying the effect on the organs and immune cell of mice by the concentration and time of commercial PCB mixture (Aroclor 1254), each 3 mice were tested at the concentration of 3, 30, 300, 1,000 mg/kg respectively, and their organ's weight were measured in 4, 7, 14 days, respectively. Also according to concentration and time, PCB was evaluated for the effects on splenocyte viability and lipopolysaccaride (LPS) and concanavaline A (Con A)-induced splenocyte proliferation on mice spleen. In liver and lung, there were significantly defferent by concentration and time of PCB (p < 0.0001). In respect of concentration of PCB, no significant effects on mice's liver by Aroclor 1254 concentration below than 300 mg/kg were observed except at the concentration of 1,000 mg/kg doses (p < 0.0001). But there was not significant different change in mice spleen by concentration and time of PCB (p=0.2206) and the mode of weight change of spleen was different to of liver and of lung. Viabilities of splenocytes were decreased following treatment with high concentration of PCB. Also, LPS and Con A-induced cell proliferations were decreased by Aroclor 1254 at 1,000 mg/kg. These data suggest that Aroclor 1254 is the immunotoxic compound that may have an effect on mouse immune system.
Evaluation of Skin Sensitization Potential of Skin Whitening Agents by Local Lymph Node Assay
Toxicological Research, volume 19, issue 4, 2003, Pages 285~291
The use of skin whitening agents has been recently increased in various kinds of cosmetic products, although there were some reports that whitening agents might cause allergic contact dermatitis. A murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) has been developed as an alternative to guinea pigs for contact sensitization potential. This study was carried out to investigate the skin sensitization potential of three whitening agents, arbutin, azelaic acid, and kojic acid, by LLNA using a non-radiois-topic endpoint. Female Balb/c mice were exposed topically to a weak allergen,
-hexylcinnamalde-hyde (HCA), and three whitening agents following LLNA protocol. Lymph node (LN) weight and cell proliferation in ears and auricular lymph node using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry were evaluated. LN weights were significantly increased at the HCA group compared to the vehicle control. A weak allergen, HCA elicited 3-fold or greater increase in cell proliferation of lymph nodes as well as increase in cell proliferation of ear as measured by BrdU immunohistochemistry. However, in the case of skin whitening agent groups, there were no significant changes in LN weight and cell proliferation in the ear and lymph node of mice treated with 5, 10 and 20% of three whitening agents compared to the vehicle control. These results show that these three skin whitening agents may not have contact sensitization potentials at tested concentrations in Balb/c mice by LLNA.
Cytotoxic Activity of the Extracts from Curcuma zedoaria
Kim, Myoun-Gae ; Kim, Jung-Sun ; Hong, Jon-Ki ; Ji, Ming-Jie ; Lee, Yong-Kyu ;
Toxicological Research, volume 19, issue 4, 2003, Pages 293~296
The effect of the hexane extract of Curcuma zedoaria roots and its solvent fractions were investigated on the proliferation of SiHa, SNU-1 and HepG2 cell lines. Among those fractions, final fraction H2-3-1 and H2-3-3 showed cytotoxic effect on SiHa and HepG2 cell lines. The hallmark of apoptosis, DNA fragmentation, also appeared in the final fractions H2-3-1 and H2-3-3 after 24h treatment in SiHa cell line. Furthermore, those fractions were shown to be able to induce cell death in
thymidine incorporation test. These two fractions, H2-3-1 and H2-3-3 were determined as (-)-
-tumerone respectively by NMR and mass spectrum. From these results, it is speculated that te hexane extract of Curcuma zedoaria is necessary for further studies as a potent inhibitor of the growth of cancer cells.
Biomarker-Based Exposure to Phthalates and Related Factors with Demographics
Toxicological Research, volume 19, issue 4, 2003, Pages 297~301
To investigate biomarker-based exposure to phthalates and related factors with demographics, 100 subjects who had participated in comprehensive health check-up were selected. We collected demographics through questionnaires and analyzed urine samples for 5 phthalates. Statistical likelihoods and regression methods were applied for data analysis using censored data. The highest levels of urine phthalates were 216
/ml in di-isodecyl phthalate, 29.0
/ml in di-butyl phthalate, 5.78
/ml in di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. The median values of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate were 0.2340
/ml for male smokers, 0.0399
/ml for male non-smokers and 0.0085
/ml for female non-smokers, respectively. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate and di-isodecyl phthalate were higher in males than in females. In addition, mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate was decreased with age. Our findings suggest that there might be significant demographic variations in exposure and/or metabolism of phthalates, and that health-risk assessment for phthalate exposure in humans should consider different potential risk groups.
Effect of APB-01 on the Ultraviolet-Induced Photoaging and Wrinkle Formation in the Hairless Mice
Toxicological Research, volume 19, issue 4, 2003, Pages 303~310
Ultraviolet (UV) is thought to induce erythema, sun-burn, photo-toxicity, photo-allergy, photo-aging and sometimes skin tumor. To investigate the photo-protective effects of APB-01 (Amore-Pacific Beauty-01, the mixture of Jaummi-dan and Fujiflavone P10) on UV-induced skin damage, forty of SKH hairless female mice were orally administered with APB-01 or saline fifth a week, and irradiated with UV third a week for up to ten weeks. We examined the relationship between visible changes and skin damage in the dermis and epidermis. In the APB-01 treated group, a better skin and less wrinkles formation were observed when compared to the UV control group. This results demonstrated that oral administration of APB-01 seems to have photo-protective effects on UV-induced skin damage of hairless mice due to an inhibitory effect on collagen breakdown, and the model using hairless mice is very useful to investigate the efficacy of functional beauty foods.
Effects of Glycine on the Development of Analgesic Tolerance to and Physical Dependence on Morphine in Mice
Baik, Jong-Won ; Hong, Jin-Tae ; Yun, Young-Won ; Oh, Ki-Wan ;
Toxicological Research, volume 19, issue 4, 2003, Pages 311~314
This study was performed to investigate the effects of glycine on the development of tolerance to and physical dependence on morphine. Repeated administration of morphine (10 mg/kg) developed tolerance and physical dependence. Glycine (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) to mice for 7 days prior to the morphine injection. Analgesic effects were estimated by the tail flick methods. The inhibitory degree of the development of morphine-induced analgsic tolerance by i.p. administration of glycine was evidenced by the increase in analgesic response to morphine. Glycine inhibited the development of tolerance to morphine. In addition, we separately measured jumping response as the naloxone-precipitated withdrawal sign in mice that had received the same morphine. Glycine reduced the number of jumping behaviors in morphine dependent mice. These results suggest that glycine might be useful the prevention or treatment of morphine tolerance and physical dependence.
Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Chitosan on the Metabolism of Lead in Rats
Toxicological Research, volume 19, issue 4, 2003, Pages 315~320
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of chitosan on lead metabolism in SD rats. Ten male rats were divided into a experimental group and a control group. Each experimental and control rats were administered by water contaminated with 100 mg/l of lead for 4 weeks, respectively. Experimental group received diets supplemented artificially with 5% of chitosan for 4 weeks. Body weight change, food and water consumption, fecal and urinary excretion, and fecal and urinary lead excretion were measured. There were no significant differences in body weight gain, food and water consumption, and fecal and urinary excretion between the two groups. However, fecal lead excretion of rats fed the diet containing 5% of chitosan were higher than the control group. Whereas urinary lead excretion of rats fed the diet containing 5% of chitosan were lower than the control group. The results suggested that the oral administration of chitosan prevents the gastrointestinal lead absorption in rats.
Antigenicity Study on IDC7181, a Quaternary Ammoniopropenyl Cephalosporin Possessing Two Vinyl Groups
Toxicological Research, volume 19, issue 4, 2003, Pages 321~324
Antigenic potential of a novel cephalosporin, IDC7181 was examined a active systemic anaphylaxis (ASA) and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) test, in guinea pig and mouse-rat models, respectively. In ASA test, IDC7181 induced the signs of restlessness in a few animals immunized with a high dose (100 mg/kg) of IDC7181 alone or in combination with Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA). In PCA test, only one of ten sera from the animals immunized with a high dose (100 mg/kg) of IDC7181 in the absence or presence of FCA showed positive reaction. The positive reaction, induced by IDC7181, which may be due to
-lactam ring, in ASA and PCA tests were negligible in comparison with those of traditional cephalosporins. Taken together, it is suggested that IDC7181 do not cause immunological problems in clinical dosage.
Estrogen Inhibits Bcl-2 Expression and Stimulates Apoptosis Mediated by 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlrodibenzo-p-dioxirn
Hwang, Sohyun ; Such, Jaehong ; Byun, Boo-Hyeong ; Joe, Cheol O. ;
Toxicological Research, volume 19, issue 4, 2003, Pages 325~330
The effects of estrogen on apoptosis induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-doxin (TCDD) were examined in cultured MCF-7 cells. TCDD stimulated apoptosis and inhibited the expression of bcl-2 gene in MCF-7 cells grown in the media supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. However, TCDD failed to induce apoptosis if cells were grown in the media deprived of all estrogen-like compounds. Removal of estrogen-like compounds from the growth media also led to the activation of bcl-2 gene expression in cells treated with TCDD. Combined treatment of estrogen with TCDD abrogated the binding of Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR)-TCDD complex to Dioxin response element (DRE) of bcl-2 gene leading to the inhibition of bcl-2 gene expression as well as stimulation of apoptosis. The present study suggests that the binding of estrogen receptor (ER)-estrogen complex to the estrogen responsive element (E) interferes with the binding of AhR- TCDD complex to the DRE and inhibits the bcl-2 expression.