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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Korean Society of Toxicology
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Volume 20, Issue 4 - Sep 2004
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Sep 2004
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Jun 2004
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Mar 2004
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Exploitation of the Dose/Time-Response Relationship for a New Measure of DNA Repari in the Single-Cell Gel Electrophoresis (Comet) Assay
Kim, Byung-Soo ; Lutz Edler ; Park, Jin-Joo ; Dietrich von Fournier ; Wulf Haase ; Marie-Luise Sautter-Bihl ; Egbert Hagmuller ; Florian Gotzes ; Heinz Walter Thielmann ;
Toxicological Research, volume 20, issue 2, 2004, Pages 89~100
The comet assay (also called the single-cell gel electrophoresis assay) has been widely used for detecting DNA damage and repair in individual cells. Since the conventional methods of evaluating comet assay data using frequency statistics are unsatisfactory we developed a new quantitative measure of DNA damage/repair that is based on all information residing in the dose/time-response curves of a comet experiment. Blood samples were taken from 25 breast cancer patients before undergoing radiotherapy. The comet assay was performed under alkaline conditions using isolated lymphocytes. Tail DNA, tail length, tail moment and tail inertia of the comet were measured for each patient at four doses of
-rays (0, 2, 4 and 8 Gy) and at four time points after irradiation (0, 10, 20 and 30 min) using 100 cells each. The resulting three-dimensional dose-time response surface was modeled by multiple regression, and the second derivative, termed 2D, on dose and time was determined. A software module was programmed in SAS/AF to compute 2D values. We applied the new method successfully to data obtained from cancer patients to be assessed for their radiation sensitivity. We computed the 2D values for the four damage measures, i.e., tail moment, tail length, tail DNA and tail inertia, and examined the pairwise correlation coefficients of 2D both on the log scale and the unlogged scale. 2D values based on tail moment and tail DNA showed a high correlation and, therefore, these two damage measures can be used interchangeably as far as DNA repair is concerned. 2D values based on tail inertia have a correlation profile different from the other 2D values which may reflect different facets of DNA damage/repair. Using the dose-time response surface, other statistical models, e.g., the proportional hazards model, become applicable for data analysis. The 2D approach can be applied to all DNA repair measures, Le., tail moment, tail length, tail DNA and tail inertia, and appears to be superior to conventional evaluation methods as it integrates all data of the dose/time-response curves of a comet assay.
Performance Evaluation of PCR Kits for Detecting Genetically Modified Crop Ingredients
Toxicological Research, volume 20, issue 2, 2004, Pages 101~108
The different social reflections about the benefits and the potential risks of genetically modified (GM) crops have evolved with .different reactions in different countries. Many countries including Korea are working toward setting down new guidelines. Korea requires companies to label all food that contains more than 3% GM ingredients. One of the rapid and convenient detection methods of GM ingredients is amplification of the introduced DNAs by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Many PCR kits for this purpose are commercially available. The objective of this study was to evaluate performance of commercialized GM crop detection kits. The results showed that 6 out of 15 kits tested did not meet the requirements even purposed by the manufacturers themselves in terms of stability, reproducibility, and detection limits, suggesting a potential quality control problem in their design stage or production line. The evaluation also suggests that, although the duplex and triplex detection kits allowed unambiguous detection in a single PCR reaction, the monoplex detection kits were the most sensitive to the detection of GM ingredients. The detection limits also differ between soybean and corn. Results from this study will be useful in the development of sound qualitative tracking systems of GM ingredients for monitoring throughout the cultivation of GM crops, their trans-boundary movement, and food production using GM grains as well as for complying with government guidelines associated with GM crops.
Differential Gene Expression after Adenovirus-Mediated p16 Gene Transfer in Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells
Toxicological Research, volume 20, issue 2, 2004, Pages 109~116
For the safety evaluation of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer, we investigated differential gene expressions after transfecting adenoviral vector containing p16 tumor suppressor gene (Ad5CMV-p16) into human non-small cell lung cancer cells. In the previous study, we showed adenovirus-mediated
gene transfer resulted in significant inhibition of cancer cell growth. We investigated gene expression changes after transfecting Ad5CMV-p16, Ad5CMV (null type, a mock vector) into A549 cells by using cDNA chip and oligonucleotide microarray chip (1200 genes) which carries genes related with signal transduction pathways, cell cycle regulations, oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. We found that
gene transfer down regulated 5 genes (cdc2, cyclin D3, cyclin B, cyclin E, cdk2) among 26 genes involved in cell cycle regulations. Compared with serum-free medium treated cells, Ad5CMV-p16 changed 27 gene expressions, two fold or more on oligonucleotide chip. In addition, Ad5CMV-p16 did not seem to increase the tumorigenicity-related gene expression in A549 cells. Further studies will be needed to investigate the effect of Ad5CMV-p16 on normal human cells and tissues for safety evaluation.
Establishment of Short-Term Teratogenicity Study for Detecting Developmental Toxicity Induced by Gamma Radiation
Toxicological Research, volume 20, issue 2, 2004, Pages 117~122
The present study was carried out to establish a short-term teratogenicity study for detecting developmental toxic potential induced by gamma radiation in ICR mice. Pregnant mice were exposed at dose levels of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 Gy on gestational day 8.5. All dams were subjected to caesarean section on gestational day 10.5 and their embryos were examined for growth, differentiation, and morphological abnormalities. An increase in the number of resorption was found at 4 Gy in a dose-dependent manner. Dose-dependent decreases in the developmental score of yolk sac circulation and olfactory system at above 1 Gy, in the number of somite pairs and developmental score of allantois, optic system, and maxillary process at above 2 Gy, and in the all growth and developmental parameters examined at 4 Gy were found. Various types of morphological abnormalities were seen at dose levels of 0.5 Gy or greater. Characteristic malformations induced by gamma radiation were abnormal axial rotation, hematoma, craniofacial hypoplasia, open neuropore, shortened prosencephalon, kinked somites, irregular somites, swelling, hydropericardium, absent branchial bar, and absent limb bud. Morphological alterations such as hematoma, craniofacial hypoplasia, open neuropore, and kinked somites were noted even in the lowest dose (0.5 Gy). These results indicated that the short-term teratogenicity study established in this study can be a useful tool for not only detecting the developmental toxic potential induced by gamma radiation, but also screening radio-protective agents in ICR mice.
Single and Two-Week Repeated] Oral Dose Toxicity Study of DHP2, a Hydrophobic Drug Delivery Vehicle in Mice
Han, Jung-Hee ; Chung, He-Sson ; Lee, Jong-Hwa ; Suh, Jeong-Eun ; Lee, Gab-Soo ; Kim, Jong-Choon ; Kang, Boo-Hyon ;
Toxicological Research, volume 20, issue 2, 2004, Pages 123~129
The present study was conducted to investigate the single and 2-week repeated dose toxicity of DHP2, a hydrophobic drug delivery vehicle, in ICR mice. The test article was administered orally to mice at the dose levels of 2.5, 12.5 and 37.5 g/kg for single dose toxicity study and at the dose levels of 0, 2.5, 5, and 10 g/kg for repeated dose toxicity study. In both studies, there were no treatment-related effects on mortality, clinical signs, food and water consumption, ophthalmoscopy, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, necropsy findings and organ weights of all animals treated DHP2. Based on these results, it was concluded that the 2-week repeated oral dose of DHP2 may have no toxic effect in mice at a dose level of 10 g/kg. In the condition of this study, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was considered to be 10 g/kg/day for both sexes.
Study on the Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of 3-MCPD
Toxicological Research, volume 20, issue 2, 2004, Pages 131~136
3-Monochloro-1,2-propanediol(3-MCPD) is a toxic compound, often present in different foods containing acid hydrolyzed(AH) protein, like seasonings and savory food products. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of 3-MCPD on male fertility, sperm and testosterone secretion. In vivo male fertility test was performed for observing the adverse effects of 3-MCPD on the function of male reproductive system and pregnancy outcome. 0.01, 0.05, 0.25, 1 and 5 mg/kg b.w. of 3-MCPD was given daily by gavage to groups of 15 adult male SD rats for 4 weeks. At the end of pre-treatment period, males were mated overnight with normal females. Following morning, males demonstrating successful induction of pregnancy were sacrificed on that day to assess sperm parameters and histopathology of reproductive organs. The resulting pregnant females were sacrificed on day 20 of gestation to evaluate pregnancy outcome. As a result, four-week paternal administration with 3-MCPD resulted in adverse effects on male fertility and pregnancy outcome without remarkable histopathological changes in testes and epididymides; sperm motility, copulation index and fertility index were markedly decreased in the treated group and numbers of live fetuses showed steep dose-response curves. Also, spermatogenesis was investigated in this experiment. However, no effect was observed on production of sperm in testes treated with 3-MCPD for 4 weeks. Hormone assay was performed for observing the effects of 3-MCPD on testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) in blood and testes of male SD rats and cultured primary Leydig cell. In result, significant changes of related hormones did not observed by treatment of 3-MCPD. These results indicated that paternal treatment with 3-MCPD induced spermatotoxic effect, which caused an antifertility on male.
Improvement of Haemostasis Mediated by Anti-Platelet Activities by Plant Vinegar
Toxicological Research, volume 20, issue 2, 2004, Pages 137~142
We investigated the effects of plant vinegar on platelets and blood coagulation system. Plant vinegar inhibited in vitro platelet aggregation in a concentration dependent manner, when platelets were activated by thrombin and collagen. In addition, plant vinegar showed inhibitory effects on the serotonin secretion induced by thrombin in a concentration dependent manner. However, treatment with plant vinegar to platelets did not induce any cytotoxicity, as determined by the release of lactate dehydrogenase. Plant vinegar did not change the coagulation parameters such as activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and prothrombin time (PT) using rat citrated plasma. In vivo study revealed that, treatment with plant vinegar prolonged the bleeding time from mouse tail. All these results suggest that plant vinegar might improve blood hemostasis mediated via anti platelet activities.
Single and Four-Week Repeated Oral Toxicity Study of CJ-11555 in Sprague-Dawely Rats
Toxicological Research, volume 20, issue 2, 2004, Pages 143~151
This study was to investigate single and repeated-dose toxicities of CJ-11555, an anticirrhotic agent, in Sprague-Dawley (SO) rats. In single-dose oral toxicity study, the test article were administered once by gavage to males and females at dose levels of 0 and 2,000 mg/kg. No dead animals and abnormal necropsy findings were found in control and CJ-11555 treated group. Therefore, the approximate lethal dose of CJ-11555 was considered to be higher than 2,000 mg/kg in rats. In the 4-week repeated oral toxicity study, the test article was administered once daily by gavage to male and female rats at dose levels of 0, 10, 50 and 200 mg/kg/day for 4-weeks. In clinical signs, yellow-colored urine and yellow hair coat were observed in the 50 and 200 mg/kg male and female groups. In hematology, erythrocyte count and hemoglobin were significantly decreased in the 200mg/kg male and female groups. In serum biochemistry, total cholesterol was significantly increased and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was significantly decreased in the 50 or 200 mg/kg male and female groups. In histopathological examinations, centrilobular hepatocellular hypertrophy in the liver, congestion and pigmentation in the spleen, hyaline droplets in the kidney were observed in the 50 and 200 mg/kg male and female groups. In toxicokinetic study, CJ-11555 was dose-dependent in systemic exposure and showed better absorption in female with minimum accumulation after multidosing. Based on these results, it was concluded that the 4-week repeated oral dose of CJ-11555 resulted in the suppression of AST activity and centrilobular hepatocellular hypertrophy in both sexes at a dose level of 50 or 200 mg/kg/day. The target organ was estimated to be liver, spleen and male's kidney. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for CJ-11555 in rats following gavage for at least 4-week is 10 mg/kg/day.
Genotoxicity Study of CJ-11555
Toxicological Research, volume 20, issue 2, 2004, Pages 153~158
To evaluate the genotoxicity of CJ-11555, an anti-cirrhotic agent, the reverse mutation test, chromosomal aberration test and in vivo micronucleus test in rats were performed. In the reverse mutation test, the treatment of CJ-11555 at doses of 33.3, 100, 333, 1000, 3330 and 5000
/plate with and without 89 did not induce mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537, and Escherichia coli (E. call) WP2uvrA. In chromosomal aberration test, CJ-11555 did not induce structural a chromosomal aberration in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with and without metabolic activation at all doses. In micronucleus test, CJ-11555 did not induce any statistically significant increases in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte (MNPCE) at doses of 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg. These results suggest that CJ-11555 might not have a mutagenic potential under the conditions in this study.
Safety Pharmacology of CJ-11555
Toxicological Research, volume 20, issue 2, 2004, Pages 159~166
Safety pharmacological properties of CJ-11555, an anti-cirrhotic agent, were investigated in experimental animals and in vitro test system. CJ-11555 had no effects on normal body temperature in rats, motor coordination, chemoshock induced by pentetrazol, electric shock induced by electric shocker and writhing syndromes in mice at dose levels of 100, 300 and 1,000 mg/kg. CJ-11555 inhibited intestinal activity and prolonged hexobarbital-induced sleeping time in mice at the dose level of 1,000 mg/kg. CJ-11555 affected on general activity and behaviour tests in SD rats, such as lacrimation, ptosis, piloerection, decreased body tone, abnormal dispersion within the cage, diarrhoea, red colored faeces, slight hypothermia and decreased grooming, at the dose level of 1,000 mg/kg in rats. CJ-11555 was effected on cardiovascular and respiratory system in anesthetized beagle dogs, such as tachycardia, increase of mean blood pressure and decrease of PR interval, decrease of respiratory rate and minute volume, at dose levels of 10 and 30 mg/kg. However, these effects were also observed in vehicle treated anesthetized beagle dogs. In in vitro experiments, CJ-11555 inhibited agonists (histamine, acetyl-choline or
) induced contraction of isolated guinea-pig at the concentration of 30
M. CJ-11555 was weekly inhibited hERG channel current at concentrations of 10 and 30
was estimated to be higher than 30
M. Based on these results, it was concluded that CJ-11555 affected on cardiovascular and respiratory system, general activity and behaviour and hexobarbital-induced sleeping time at the dose level of 1,000 mg/kg and contraction of the smooth muscle and hERG channel current at the concentration of 30
Effect of Decreasing Body Weight with Plant Extracts Containing Rubi Fructus
Toxicological Research, volume 20, issue 2, 2004, Pages 167~172
Obesity is one of causes of the all adult diseases. We investigated the body weight decrease effect of the selected plants by digestive enzyme activity inhibition test. In a preliminary test, Inonotus obliquus and Rubus coreanus Miq. were found to be effective. Based on this result & previous result, we manufactured the mixture of plant extracts named as Misol
. Misol is applied anti-obesity beverage and rice. When we administered Miso/ sub TM/ to rats, it was found to be effective in body weight decrease. Result that is experimented during 20 weeks, is effective body weight and total cholesterol, triglyceride decrease. In case of human, anti-obesity beverage administered group showed 5.65% body weight decrease, 4% waist length decrease and 6% abdomen length decrease respectively. And anti-obesity rice administered group showed 2.3 kg body weight decrease, 2.9 cm waist length decrease and 3.74 cm abdomen length decrease respectively. This body control effect was supported by plant extracts in the Misol, anti-obesity beverage and rice - administered group. From these results, we suggest that this functional food could be helpful for body weight controlling obesity.
Pathogenicity and Single Dose Toxicity of a Potential Probiotic Lactobacillus spp. PSC101 in Mice
Hwang, Mi-Hyun ; Kim, Young-Hwon ; Kim, Eun-Young ; Song, Jae-Chan ; Lee, Keun-Woo ; Jeong, Kyu-Shik ; Kim, Kil-Soo ; Rhee, Man-hee ; Kwon, Oh-Deok ;
Toxicological Research, volume 20, issue 2, 2004, Pages 173~177
This study was conducted to investigate the pathogenicity and acute single toxicity of Lactobacillus spp. PSC101 (PSC101) isolated from pigs and L. acidophilus (LA) at 2.5
CFU or 2.5
colony forming units (CFU) in mice for 14 days. After oral administration of the bacteria into mice, we could not find their any specific pathogenicity from the standpoints of clinical signs, and changes in body weight and body temperature, as compared with the control group during 14 days. We further investigated the toxicity of concentrated culture broth (
10) after fermentation of them for safe industrial process. As the results, we could not find any clinical signs, changes in body weight and body temperature, as compared with the control group (MRS broth) for 14 days. The results obtained in this study suggest that the potentially probiotic, PSC101, is non-toxic in mice and is therefore likely to be safe for pig use.