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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Toxicology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Dec 2006
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Sep 2006
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Jun 2006
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Mar 2006
Selecting the target year
Assessment of In Vitro Assay System for Thyroid Hormone Disruptors Using Rat Pituitary GH
Kim, Hee-Jin ; Park, Hae-Young ; Kim, Jeong-A ; Kang, Il-Hyun ; Kim, Tae-Sung ; Han, Soon-Young ; Kang, Tae-Seok ; Park, Kui-Lea ; Kim, Hyung-Sik ;
Toxicological Research, volume 22, issue 4, 2006, Pages 307~313
The development of in vitro assays has been recommended to screening and testing the potential endocrine disruptors (EDs). These assay systems focus only on identifying the estrogenic or antiestrogenic activity of EDs, whereas a few studies have been carried out to screen the thyroid hormone (TH) disruptors. The aim of this study was to evaluate a test system to detect TH disruptors using rat pituitary tumor
cells. The test system is based on the TH-dependent increase in growth rate. As expected, L-3,5,3-triiodothyronine (
markedly induced a morphological change in
cells from flattened fibroblastic types to rounded or spindle-shaped types.
cell growth in a dose-dependent manner with the maximum growth-stimulating effect being observed at a concentration
. In addition,
increased the release of growth hormone and prolactin into the medium of the
cells culture. Using this assay system, the TH-disrupting activities of bisphenol A (BPA) and its related compounds were examined. BPA, dimethy/bisphenol A (DMBPA), and TCI-EP significantly enhanced the growth of
cells in the range of
concentrations. In conclusion, this in vitro assay system might be useful for identifying potential TH disruptors. However, this method will require further evaluation and standardization before it can be used as a broad-based screening tool.
Cytocidal Effect of TALP-32 on Human Cervical Cancer Cell HeLa
Park, Ji-Hoon ; Kim, Jong-Seok ; Yun, Eun-Jin ; Song, Kyoung-Sub ; Seo, Kang-Sik ; Kim, Hoon ; Jung, Yeon-Joo ; Yun, Wan-Hee ; Lim, Kyu ; Hwang, Byoung-Doo ; Park, Jong-Il ;
Toxicological Research, volume 22, issue 4, 2006, Pages 315~322
TALP-32 is highly basic protein with a molecular weight of 32 kDa purified from human term placenta. Some basic proteins such as defensins and cecropins are known to induce cell death by increasing membrane permeability and some of them are under development as an anticancer drug especially targeting multi-drug resistant cancers. Therefore, we investigated cytotoxic effect and mechanism of TALP-32 When HeLa cell was incubated with TALP-32, cytotoxicity was increased in time and dose dependent manner. As time goes by, HeLa cells became round and plasma membrane was ruptured. Increase of plasma membrane permeability was determined with LDH release assay. Also in transmission electron microscopy, typical morphology of necrotic cell death, such as cell swelling and intracellular organelle disruption was observed, but DNA fragmentation and caspase activation was not. And necrotic cell death was determined with Annexin V/Pl staining. The cytotoxicity of TALP-32 was minimal and decreased or RBC and Hep3B respectively. These data suggests that TALP-32 induces necrosis on rapidly growing cells but not on slowly growing cells implicating the possibility of its development of anticancer peptide drug.
Gene Expression Analysis of Acetaminophen-induced Liver Toxicity in Rat
Chung, Hee-Kyoung ;
Toxicological Research, volume 22, issue 4, 2006, Pages 323~328
Global gene expression profile was analyzed by microarray analysis of rat liver RNA after acute acetaminophen (APAP) administration. A single dose of 1g/kg body weight of APAP was given orally, and the liver samples were obtained after 24, 48 h, and 2 weeks. Histopathologic and biochemical studies enabled the classification of the APAP effect into injury (24 and 48 h) and regeneration (2 weeks) stages. The expression levels of 4900 clones on a custom rat gene microarray were analyzed and 484 clones were differentially expressed with more than a 1.625-fold difference(which equals 0.7 in log2 scale) at one or more time points. Two hundred ninety seven clones were classified as injury-specific clones, while 149 clones as regeneration-specific ones. Characteristic gene expression profiles could be associated with APAP-induced gene expression changes in lipid metabolism, stress response, and protein metabolism. We established a global gene expression profile utilizing microarray analysis in rat liver upon acute APAP administration with a full chronological profile that not only covers injury stage but also later point of regeneration stage.
Induction of Apoptosis by Aloe Vera Extract in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells
Kim, Il-Rang ; Kwon, Hoon-Jeong ;
Toxicological Research, volume 22, issue 4, 2006, Pages 329~332
Ethanolic extract of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) was examined for the cellular toxicity on HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Treatment with Aloe vera extract resulted in DNA fragmentation but not LDH release, suggesting an apoptosis instead of necrosis. Aloe vera induced cytotoxicity was mediated by decrease in ATP levels, whereas GSH depletion, increase in intracellular
, or activation of caspase-3/7 could not be observed with statistical significance. No activation of caspase-3/7 suggests the possibility of caspase-independent apoptosis. Taken together, our results show that Aloe vera extract induce HepG2 apoptosis by ATP depletion-related impairment of mitochondria, which is caspase-independent.
Anti-Oxidative Effects of Ulva lactuca Extract Fractions Against CCl
Nam, Chun-Suk ; Kang, Kum-Suk ; Ha, Jong-Myung ; Lee, Sang-Hyeon ; Lee, Jae-Hwa ; Lee, Dong-Geun ; Jang, Jeong-Su ; Kang, Hwan-Yul ; Ha, Bae-Jin ;
Toxicological Research, volume 22, issue 4, 2006, Pages 333~338
This study was to investigate the preventive effects in anti-oxidation of Ulva lactuca extract fractions (ULEF) against
toxification in liver total homogenate and mitochondrial fraction of ULEF-pretreated and carbon tetrachloride
rats. ULEF was intraperitoneally administered into rats at dose of 1 ml/kg for14 days. On the day 15, 3.3 ml/kg of
dissolved in olive oil (1:1) was injected 12 hr before anesthetization. Activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD) in mitochondrial fraction were measured and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver total homogenate. SOD, CAI and GPx were higher in the ULEF-pretreated and
group than those in the
group, and the pretreatment of ULEF decreased MDA. These results showed that the pretreatment of ULEF had the preventive role in the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes, SOD, CAT and GPx
Anti-obesity Effects of Misaengtang in Rats Fed on a High-Fat Diet or Normal Diet
Ryu, Jae-Myun ; Lee, Tae-Hee ; Seo, Im-Kwon ; Lee, Seung-Ho ; Chang, Young-Hun ; Kim, Yun-Bae ; Hwang, Seock-Yeon ;
Toxicological Research, volume 22, issue 4, 2006, Pages 339~348
Misaengtang (MST), a formula of Korean herbal medicines, has been used as a weight-controlling recipe. We have investigated two experiment of body weight regulation by MST In rats. i) The anti-obesity effect of MTS on a high fat diet-induced obesity, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with a high-fat diet containing 30% in the absence or presence of MST (0.3, 1 or 3%) or a reference orlistat (0.05%) for 6 weeks. ii) weight-decrease effect of MST on normal diet, same animal were fed with a normal diet in the absence or presence of MST (3%) for 6 weeks. And the body weights, daily feed and water consumptions, organ weights, fat weights serum biochemistry were measured. In both experiments, MST and orlistat did not affect the body weight gain. But orlistat significantly increased the feed and water consumptions, leading to low-feed efficiency, and orlistat markedly reduced abdominal, paratesticular and perirenal fat weights, although increased the kidney weights. In MST, low dose (0.3%) of MST decreased the perirenal fat and increased the kidney weights in rats fed HFD, and MST 3% decreased the abdominal fat weights in rats fed normal diet. In addition, Orlistat caused changes in parameters of hepatotoxicity (AST and glucose), nephrotoxicity (BUN and B/C ratio) and lipid metabolism (HDL and triglycerides). In comparison, MST decreased AST, ALP and ALT, the hepatotoxicity markers, and somewhat improved the hepatic fatty degeneration. Taken together, it is suggested that MST does not exert anti-obesity activity as well as remarkably direct effects, but MST may be potentially benefit for dietary cure and exercise-cure of obesity.
The Effects of Diallyl Disulfide on Antimetastatic Potential of B16-F10 Murine Melanoma Cells
Kang, Mi-Kyung ; Jun, Hye-Seung ; Yum, Yung-Na ; Hwang, Myung-Sil ; Park, Mi-Sun ; Kim, Ok-Hee ;
Toxicological Research, volume 22, issue 4, 2006, Pages 349~356
Diallyl disulfide (DADS), an oil-soluble organosulfur compound in garlic has been reported to suppress tumor growth and to induce apoptosis in cancer. In the present study, we investigated the effects of DADS on pulmonary metastasis of B16-F10 murine melanoma cells. DADS (i.p. 40 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.05) reduced the number of pulmonary metastatic nodules (48%) in experimental pulmonary metastasis assay. We also found that DADS inhibited adhesion, invasion and migration of B16-F10 melanoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. To study the antimetastatic potential of DADS, we performed the effects of DADS on matrix metalloproteinase activity. DADS significantly inhibited the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity in B16-F10 cells by gelatin zymography. These results suggest that DADS prevent metastasis in part through suppression of migration of B16-F10 melanoma cells by Inhibiting matrix metalloproteirase-2 responsible for degradation of extracellar matrix.
2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene-induced Atopic Dermatitis Like Immune Alteration in Mice
Lee, Seung-Hye ; Baek, Seong-Jin ; Kim, Hyoung-Ah ; Heo, Yong ;
Toxicological Research, volume 22, issue 4, 2006, Pages 357~364
This study was undertaken to develop a reliable mice model demonstrating similar immunologic phenomena as human atopic dermatitis characterized with predominance of type-2 immune response. BALB/C mice and NC/Nga mice were sensitized twice with
of 1% 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) or vehicle (acetone : olive oil=4:1 mixture) in a week and challenged twice with
of 0.2% DNCB or the vehicle at the following week. Mice were sacrificed at 19 days following the second DNCB or vehicle challenge for NC/Nga mice and at 28 days following the second DNCB or vehicle challenge for BALB/c mice. Upregulation of plasma 1gE, a hallmark of atopic dermatitis occurrence, was evident in the plasma obtained 4 day after the second DNCB challenge from BALB/c mice (approximately 4-fold) and NC/Nga mice (approximately 6-fold) treated with DNCB in comparison with that of the vehicle treated-control mice, and remain higher
week after the second challenge. Ratio of plasma IgG1 versus IgG2a concentration was significantly higher in the mice treated with DNCB than the control mice, which also implies the skewed type-2 reactivity in vivo. Ratio of interleukin-4 versus interferon gamma produced in the splenic T cell culture supernatants was approximately 3-fold higher in the both strains of mice treated with DNCB than their control mice, respectively. The DNCB-treated mice demonstrated atopic dermatitis-like skin legions characterized with erythma, scaling, and hemorrhage, which was not observed with the control mice. Scratching on face or dorsal area was significantly more frequent (approximately 25-fold) in the DNCB-treated mice than the control at next day of the second DNCB challenge, and scratching frequency remains higher (approximately 4-fold) in the mice treated with DNCB than the control at 14 day following the second DNCB challenge. Overall, the mice model developed through sensitization and challenge with DNCB may be useful for research on atopic dermatitis and development of treatment materials for atopic dermatitis.
Effects of Propyl Pyrazole Triol on the Blood Vessel-Dilation and Cellular Morphology of Liver and Kidney in Adult Male Mouse
Lee, Eun-Jung ; Lee, Yu-Mi ; Choe, Eun-Sang ; Seong, Chi-Nam ; Cho, Hyun-Wook ;
Toxicological Research, volume 22, issue 4, 2006, Pages 365~373
The present study was designed to characterize the effects of estrogen receptor agonist (4,4',4'-(4-Propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl) trisphenol, PPT) on liver and kidney in male mouse using a light microscopic analysis. PPT was subcutaneously given to adult male mice at a weekly dosage of 178.6mg/kg in a volume 0.08 ml of vehicle for 3, 5 and 8 weeks. There were differences in body and organ weights between control and the treated groups. Body and kidney weights were decreased in treated group whereas, liver weight was increased. In microscopic observations, sinusoidal diameter in liver of treated group was increased 156%, 216% and 255% on week 3, 5 and 8 respectively. Compared to the control, diameter of proximal convoluted tubules in kidney was increased 37% and 43% or week 5 and 8 in treated group. Whereas, height of epithelial cells in the proximal tubules was reduced at all time points. These results suggest that microstructure of liver and kidney was changed by treatment of estrogen receptor agonist PPT in the male mice.
Hepatotoxicity Induced by Microcystin-LR in Rat
Kim, Bum-Seok ; Cho, Jae-Woo ; Kwon, Hyuk-Nyun ; Blank, Ivar ; Borisova, Irina ; Ejaz, Sohail ; Chekarova, Irina ; Kwon, Jung-Kee ; Lim, Chae-Woong ;
Toxicological Research, volume 22, issue 4, 2006, Pages 375~380
Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is a cyanobacterial hepatotoxin mainly produced by Microcystis aeruginosa. The current study examined the effects of a single intraperitoneal dose of MC-LR in rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with MC-LR (
body weight) and they were sacrificed at 0, 20, 40, 80, 160 min, or 12 h after injection. Clinically, animals showed lethargy and had ruffled hair beginning at 40 min post injection. In the gross findings, liver was enlarged and its color was changed into dark red beginning at 40 min post injection. Microscopically, dissociation of centrilobular hepatocytes and hemorrhage was observed in the hepatic central legions and such pathological changes were then extended to the portal regions of liver by time course manner. Interestingly at 80 min after MC-LR injection, the entrapped eosinophilic materials that may be necrotic fragments of dissociated hepatocytes were found in the capillaries of lung and renal glomerulus. Ultrastructurally, microvilli of the hepatocytes were disrupted or lost at all time points. Furthermore, the Disse space and gap junctions were widened beginning at 40 min post injection. These results suggest that liver is the major target organ of MC-LR and isolated hepatocytes by the effects of such hepatotoxin may secondarily reduce the physiological function of lung and kidney.
Genotoxicity and Anti-Oxidative Effectiveness Study of Functional Food Additive Containing Astaxanthin
Kim, Jun-Sung ; Park, Jin-Hong ; Jin, Hua ; Cho, Hyun-Sun ; Hwang, Soon-Kyung ; Nah, Woon-Seong ; Kang, Hwan-Goo ; An, Gil-Hwan ; Cho, Myung-Haing ;
Toxicological Research, volume 22, issue 4, 2006, Pages 381~390
Astaxanthine is a pigment that belongs to the family of the xanthophylls, the oxygenated derivatives of carotenoids whose synthesis in plants derives from lycopene. Astaxanthine is also a carotenoid widely used in salmonid and crustacean aquaculture to provide the pink color characteristic of that. Recent study reported that astaxanthine has the role as a detoxicant against the free radicals. On our study, we estimated the genotoxicity in ICR mice and possibility as antioxidant reagents of mutant Phaffia rhodozyma strain over expressing the astaxanthine by gamma-lay and carophyll pink including astaxanthine in apoE knock out mice, respectively. In our study, we administered Phaffia rhodozyma (2 mg and 3 mg) and carophyll pink for 4 and 8 week. The clinical sign and mortality were not detected compared with control groups. In the mutant frequency of hprt gene and chromosome aberration in splenic cells, there was not detected abnormality. There was not critical change in hematological and serum biochemical test compared to control. In expression level of repair enzyme, increase of catalase were detected and increase of expression level of Nrf-2 was detected in Phaffia rhodozyma (3 mg) and carophyll pink in 8 week treated group. In GSH level, the group of treated with Phaffia rhodozyma (3 mg) showed the increase of the GSH. In conclusion, mutant Phaffia rhodozyma and caphyll pink may be applied to the effective food additives to reduce the free radical.
Antioxidant and Cytotoxicity Effects of Luteolin
Park Jin-Ny ; Kang Kyoung-Ah ; Zhang Rui ; Piao Mei Jing ; Park So-Yoon ; Kim Ju-Sun ; Kang Sam-Sik ; Hyun Jin-Won ;
Toxicological Research, volume 22, issue 4, 2006, Pages 391~395
Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that are ubiquitous in plants. They have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities, such as antioxidant and anticancer. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) lead to damages of cellular molecules and it is the one of various factors to induce cancer. The one of flavonoids, Luteolin, was found to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-piculhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover luteolin showed protection on hamster lung fibroblast cells (V79-4 cell) damage induced by
. And then it was investigated whether it may show cytotoxicity effect against various cancer cells by MTT, Luteolin at
showed the cell viability of 63.2%, 34.7%, 18.4% and 71.4% against NCl-H460, HeLa, U937 and MCF-7, respectively. As a result, luteolin shows more sensitive to U937 cells among the tested cancer cell lines. In summary, luteolin has antioxidant and cytotoxicity effect or various cancer cell lines.
Microvesicle Generation by Lipid Mediator in Erythrocytes
Chung, Seung-Min ; Bae, Ok-Nam ; Noh, Ji-Yoon ; Kim, Su-Jin ; Lim, Kyung-Min ; Chung, Jin-Ho ;
Toxicological Research, volume 22, issue 4, 2006, Pages 397~402
Lipid mediator such as lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) plays an important role in inflammation and wound heating, has been recently reported to induce influx of extracellular calcium into erythrocytes. This elevation in intracellular calcium level may cause destruction of membrane asymmetry and procoagulant microvesicle formation. Thus, we investigated if the lipid mediator could induce microvesicle formation as a result of extracellular calcium influx in human erythrocytes. Treatment with lipid mediator to erythrocytes resulted in microvesicle generation In a concentration-, time-dependent manner. Microvesicles formed expressed procoagulant phosphatidylserine (PS) on their surface membrane significantly as well. LPA did not affect the band 3 phosphorylation which is involved in morphological change in erythrocytes. Pretreatment with suramin did not inhibit LPA-induced microvesicle generation, suggesting microvesicle generation was not receptor-dependent pathway. Depletion of intracellular ATP levels in erythrocytes was suggested to be one of the mechanism for these events.
Neurotropism and Expression Pattern of lacZ Inserted PRV-Bartha in Geniculohypothalamic Tract Tracing
Kim, Jin-Sang ; Park, Eun-Se ; Cheon, Song-Hee ; Kim, Min-Hee ; Bang, Hyun-Soo ; Kwon, Young-Shil ; Lee, Bong-Hee ; Kim, Young-Chul ;
Toxicological Research, volume 22, issue 4, 2006, Pages 403~409
To localize the connection between intergeniculate nucleus and suprachisasmatic nucleus through geniculohypothalamic tract in postnatal mongolian gerbil, we injected lacZ inserted PRV-Bartha strain into suprachiasrnatic nucleus and tried to immunostain against it with Rb134 and mouse
. The numbers of immunoreactive neurons in intergeniculate leaflet were
in P1 Period,
in P3 Period and
in P7 Period, and was statistically significant (p<0.05) and had tendency to increase with time consuming. The results showed that intergeniculate leaflet had projected some axons into suprachiasrnatic nucleus through geniculohyptothalamic tract in postnatal mongolian gerbil. But we could not exclude the possibility of direct projections from dorsal and ventral geniculate nuclei into suprachisamatic nucleus completely.
Spaciotemporal Plasticity of Intergeniculate Leaflet Using Genetically Modified Pseudorabies Virus Recombinant
Kim, Jin-Sang ; Park, Eun-Se ; Cheon, Song-Hee ; Kim, Min-Hee ; Bang, Hyun-Soo ; Kwon, Young-Shil ; Lee, Bong-Hee ; Kim, Young-Chul ;
Toxicological Research, volume 22, issue 4, 2006, Pages 411~416
This study was carried out to investigate the spaciotemporal plasticity of intergeniculate leaflet in postnatal mongolian gerbil using genetically modified pseudorabies virus recombinant, which was a kind of excellent neurotracer with the ability to transpass the neuronal synaptic cleft. In addition, we tried to evaluate the special role of intergeniculate leaflet as a signal controler of circardian rhythm by expression of various nourotransmitters in suprachiasrnatic nucleus. The PRV-BaBlu, a genetically modified strain of PRV-Bartha with lac-Z gene, was injected into vitreous body of postnatal mongolian gerbil, and immunostained. The PRV-Bablu infected the neurons in intergeniculate leaflet of postnatal mongolian gerbil, and the degree of viral infection in postnatal period of experimental animals had tendency to increase with time consuming. This results showed that the mutant PRV-Bar-tha strain with lac-Z gene, PRV-BaBlu, was a very excellent neurotracer to localize the retinogeniculate tract with infection of neurons in intergeniculate leaflet specially.
Incidence of Micronuclei in Lymphocytes of Cattle in the High Background Radiation Area
Lee, Hae-June ; Kang, Chang-Mo ; Kim, Se-Ra ; Moon, Chang-Jong ; Kim, Jong-Choon ; Kim, Ill-Hwa ; Jo, Sung-Kee ; Jang, Jong-Sik ; Kim, Sung-Ho ;
Toxicological Research, volume 22, issue 4, 2006, Pages 417~422
Cytogenetic and hematological analysis was performed in peripheral blood obtained from cattle bred in the high background radiation areas (HBRA, Goesan-gun, Cheongwon-gun, Boeun-gun) and a control area. The frequencies of gamma-ray induced micronuclei (MN) in the cytokinesis-blocked (CB) lymphocytes at several doses were measured in 3 cattle. An estimated dose of radiation was calculated by a best fitting linear-quadratic model based on the radiation-induced MN formation from the bovine lymphocytes exposed in vitro to radiation over the range from 0 mGy to 1,969 mGy. The measurements performed after irradiation showed dose-related increases in the MN frequency in each donors. The results were analyzed using a linear-quadratic model with a line of best fit of
(y=number of MN/CB cells and D=irradiation dose in Gy). MN rates per 1,000 CB lymphocytes of cattle from the Goesan-gun, Cheongwon-gun, Boeun-gun and the control area were
, respectively. The MN frequencies of CB lymphocytes from cattle bred in 4 areas mean that the values are within the background variation in this experiment. The MN frequencies and hematological values were similar regardless of whether the cattle were bred in the HBRA or the control area.
Validation of Photo-comet Assay as a Model for the Prediction of Photocarcinogenicity
Kim, Ji-Young ; Koh, Woo-Suk ; Lee, Mi-Chael ;
Toxicological Research, volume 22, issue 4, 2006, Pages 423~429
Recent reports on the photocarcinogenicity and photogerotoxicity of many compounds led to an increasing awareness for the need of a standard approach to test for photogenotoxicity. The comet assay has been recently validated as a sensitive and specific test system for the quantification of DNA damage. Thus, the objectives of this study are to investigate the utility of photo-comet assay for detecting photo-mutagens, and to evaluate its ability to predict rodent photo-carcinogenicity. Photo-comet assays were performed using L5178Y
mouse lymphoma cells on five test substances (8-methoxypsoralen, chlorpromazine, lomefloxacin, anthracene and retinoic acid) that demonstrated positive results in photocarcinogenicity tests. For the best discrimination between the test substance-mediated DNA damage and the undesirable DNA damage caused by direct UV absorption, a UV dose-response of the cells in the absence of the test substances was firstly fnalized. Out of 5 test substances, positive comet results were obtained for chlorpromazine, lomefloxacin, anthracene and retinoic acid while 8-methoxypsoralen found negative. An investigation into the predictive value of this photo-comet assay for determining the photocarcinogenicity showed that photo-comet assay has relatively high sensitivity. Therefore, the photo-comet assay with mammalian cells seems to be a good and sensitive predictor of the photocarcinogenic potential of new substances.
Single Oral Dose Toxicity Test of Water Extracts of Puerariae Radix in ICR Mice
Seong, Seung-Kyoo ; Kim, Dae-Yong ; Rhee, Jung-Woo ; Leem, Moon-Jeong ; Rho, Yang-Kook ; Lee, Hyun-Yong ; Ryu, Jei-Man ; Ku, Sae-Kwang ;
Toxicological Research, volume 22, issue 4, 2006, Pages 431~438
The object of this study was to obtain acute toxicity information (single oral dose toxicity) of lyophilized water extract of Puerariae Radix (PR) in both male and female mice. In order to investigate the 50% lethal dose
, approximate lethal dosage (ALD), test substances were once orally administered to female and male ICR mice at dose levels of 2000 and 0 (control) mg/kg (body wt.) according to the recommendation of KFDA Guidelines [2005-60, 2005]. The mortality and body weight changes, clinical signs and gross observation were monitored during 14 days after dosing. Organ weight and histopathology of 12 principal organs were measured. As the results, we could not find any mortality, clinical signs, body weight changes and gross findings except for PR extracts unrelated sporadic findings. In addition, no abnormal changes related PR extracts treatment on the organ weight and histopathology of principal organs were detected except for some sporadic findings including hyperplasia of lymphoid follicles in the popliteal lymph nodes and spleen as pharmacological effects of PR extracts. The results obtained in this study suggest that the PR extracts does not cause any toxicological signs except for pharmacological effects of enhancement of Immune system. The
and ALD of PR extracts in both female and male mice were considered as over 2000 mg/kg because no mortalities were detected up to 2000mg/kg that was the highest dose recommended by KFDA and Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development.
Single Oval Dose Toxicity Study of the Extract of Aralia elata in Mice
Yang, Hee-Kyoung ; Jin, Ju-Youn ; Kim, Ji-Min ; Ko, Mun-Su ; Hong, Hyun-Ju ; Kim, Sang-Chul ; Lee, Young-Jae ;
Toxicological Research, volume 22, issue 4, 2006, Pages 439~443
This study was conducted to investigate the potential acute toxicity of Aralia elata by a single oral dose in ICR mice. Thirty mice of each sex were randomly assigned to three groups of 10 mice each. The test articles were administered once by the gavage to mice at dose levels of 0, 2,500 and 5,000 mg/kg body weight. The mortality and changes on body weight and clinical signs of gross observation were monitored for 14 days after dosing. At the end of 14-day observation period, all animals were sacrificed and complete gross postmortem examinations were performed. There were no dead animal and adverse effects on clinical signs, the body weight and the gross finding. As the results, we could not find any toxic effect at the dose levels of 2,500 or 5,000 mg/kg in mice and the minimal lethal dose was considered to be over 5,000 mg/kg body weight in mice.
Four-week Repeated Oral Toxicity Study of the Extract of Aralia elata in Rats
Jin, Ju-Youn ; Yang, Hee-Kyoung ; Kim, Ji-Min ; Ko, Mun-Su ; Hong, Hyun-Ju ; Jin, Young-Gun ; Kim, Dong-Gun ; Kim, Sang-Chul ; Lee, Il ; Hyon, Min-Kyong ; Kang, Sang-Chul ; Kim, Jae-Hoon ; Lee, Young-Jae ;
Toxicological Research, volume 22, issue 4, 2006, Pages 445~452
Aralia elata, a common medicinal and culinary herb, has beer consumed for centuries without any reported adverse effects. However, due to its limited safety information, we decided to investigate the repeated-dose toxicity of ethanolic extract of Aralia elata. The test was administered once daily by the gavage to male and female rats at doses of 0, 250, 500 and 1,000 mg/kg/day for four weeks. Throughout the study, no treatment-related deaths or clinical signs were observed. Also, no apparent changes were detected in ophthalmoscopy, urinalysis, serum biochemistry, hematology and gross necropsy. The test result showed a significant decrease in body and heart weight of males treated with 250 mg/kg of extract of Aralia elata compared to normal control, a significant increase in relative brain weight and adrenal weight in females treated with 250 mg/kg of extract compared to normal control. However, all these changes were not considered toxicologically important due to irrelevant dose-response relationship to gross and microscopic findings. Histopathologically, abnormal changes were not observed in any target organs. On the basis of these results, the NOAEL of extract of Aralia elata was estimated to be more than 1,000 mg/kg/day under the tested conditions.
Acute Oral Toxicity of Surfactin C in Mice
Park, Byung-Kwon ; Lim, Jong-Hwan ; Hwang, Youn-Hwan ; Kim, Myung-Seok ; Song, In-Bae ; Lee, Hong-Gee ; Han, Sung-Jin ; Hwang, Mi-Hyun ; Kim, Jong-Woo ; Rhee, Man-Hee ; Park, Seong-Chung ; Yun, Hyo-In ;
Toxicological Research, volume 22, issue 4, 2006, Pages 453~458
This study was carried out to investigate the acute toxicity of surfactin C in mice. Surfactin C was administered orally at does of 0, 381, 610, 977, 1562 and 2500 mg/kg. Number of deaths, clinical signs, body weights, feed and water consumptions, and biochemical examinations were investigated for 14 days after single oral administration of surfactin C.
value was over 2500mg/kg in mice. In addition, no differences were found between control and treated groups in clinical signs, body weight gains, hematology, serum chemistry, feed and water consumptions. The results indicate that surfactin C did not show any toxic effects at 2500 mg/kg in mice.