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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Toxicology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Dec 2010
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Sep 2010
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Jun 2010
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Mar 2010
Selecting the target year
Modulation of MnSOD in Cancer: Epidemiological and Experimental Evidences
Kim, Ae-Kyong ;
Toxicological Research, volume 26, issue 2, 2010, Pages 83~93
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2010.26.2.083
Since it was first observed in late 1970s that human cancers often had decreased manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) protein expression and activity, extensive studies have been conducted to verify the association between MnSOD and cancer. Significance of MnSOD as a primary mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme is unquestionable; results from in vitro, in vivo and epidemiological studies are in harmony. On the contrary, studies regarding roles of MnSOD in cancer often report conflicting results. Although putative mechanisms have been proposed to explain how MnSOD regulates cellular proliferation, these mechanisms are not capitulated in epidemiological studies. This review discusses most recent epidemiological and experimental studies that examined the association between MnSOD and cancer, and describes emerging hypotheses of MnSOD as a mitochondrial redox regulatory enzyme and of how altered mitochondrial redox may affect physiology of normal as well as cancer cells.
Challenges and Perspectives of Nanoparticle Exposure Assessment
Lee, Ji-Hyun ; Moon, Min-Chaul ; Lee, Joon-Yeob ; Yu, Il-Je ;
Toxicological Research, volume 26, issue 2, 2010, Pages 95~100
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2010.26.2.095
Nanoparticle exposure assessment presents a unique challenge in the field of occupational and environmental health. With the commercialization of nanotechnology, exposure usually starts from the workplace and then spreads to environment and consumer exposure. This report discusses the current trends of nanoparticle exposure assessment, including the definition of nanotechnology relevant terms, essential physicochemical properties for nanomaterial characterization, current international activities related nanomaterial safety, and exposure assessment standard development for nanotechnology. Further this report describes challenges of nanoparticle exposure assessment such as background measurement, metrics of nanoparticle exposure assessment and personal sampling.
Role of Glutathione Conjugation in 1-Bromobutane-induced Immunotoxicity in Mice
Lee, Sang-Kyu ; Lee, Dong-Ju ; Jeon, Tae-Won ; Ko, Gyu-Sub ; Yoo, Se-Hyun ; Ha, Hyun-Woo ; Kang, Mi-Jeong ; Kang, Won-Ku ; Kim, Sang-Kyum ; Jeong, Tae-Cheon ;
Toxicological Research, volume 26, issue 2, 2010, Pages 101~108
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2010.26.2.101
Halogenated organic compounds, such as 1-bromobutane (1-BB), have been used as cleaning agents, agents for chemical syntheses or extraction solvents in workplace. In the present study, immunotoxic effects of 1-BB and its conjugation with glutathione (GSH) were investigated in female BALB/c mice. Animals were treated orally with 1-BB at 375, 750 and 1500 mg/kg in corn oil once for dose response or treated orally with 1-BB at 1500 mg/kg for 6, 12, 24 and 48 hr for time course. S-Butyl GSH was identified in spleen by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Splenic GSH levels were significantly reduced by single treatment with 1-BB. S-Butyl GSH conjugates were detected in spleen from 6 hr after treatment. Oral 1-BB significantly suppressed the antibody response to a T-dependent antigen and the production of splenic intracellular interlukin-2 in response to Con A. Our present results suggest that 1-BB could cause immunotoxicity as well as reduction of splenic GSH content, due to the formation of GSH conjugates in mice. The present results would be useful to understand molecular toxic mechanism of low molecular weight haloalkanes and to develop biological markers for exposure to haloalkanes.
Berberine Inhibited Radioresistant Effects and Enhanced Anti-Tumor Effects in the Irradiated-Human Prostate Cancer Cells
Hur, Jung-Mu ; Kim, Dong-Ho ;
Toxicological Research, volume 26, issue 2, 2010, Pages 109~115
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2010.26.2.109
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying enhanced radiosensitivity to
-irradiation in human prostate PC-3 cells pretreated with berberine. The cytotoxic effect of the combination of berberine and irradiation was superior to that of berberine or irradiation alone. Cell death and Apoptosis increased significantly with the combination of berberine and irradiation. Additionally, ROS generation was elevated by berberine with or without irradiation. The antioxidant NAC inhibited berberine and radiation-induced cell death. Bax, caspase-3, p53, p38, and JNK activation increased, but activation of Bcl-2, ERK, and HO-1 decreased with berberine treatment with or without irradiation. Berberine inhibited the anti-apoptotic signal pathway involving the activation of the HO-1/NF-
-mediated survival pathway, which prevents radiation-induced cell death. Our data demonstrate that berberine inhibited the radioresistant effects and enhanced the radiosensitivity effects in human prostate cancer cells via the MAPK/caspase-3 and ROS pathways.
Antifungal Effect of Brachyglottis repanda Ethanol Extract
Yook, Chan-Nam ; Na, Young-Soon ; Choi, Hwa-Jung ; You, Il-Soo ; Baek, Jong-Min ; Baek, Seung-Hwa ;
Toxicological Research, volume 26, issue 2, 2010, Pages 117~121
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2010.26.2.117
The crude ethanol extract of B. repanda showed the cytotoxic activity against Polio virus (25% activity at
/disk) and the minor cytotoxic activity against BSC cells (African green monkey kidney). However, the crude ethanol extract of B. repanda was non-toxic to murine leukaemia cells CCL 46 P388D1 (
, > 62,500 ng/ml). Cytotoxic and antifungal activities were strongly shown by Fr. 64-3 which was eluted with 90%
, and 50%
(SM 2 at
/disk). The fraction 64-3 also showed the most cytotoxic activity against murine leukaemia cells (128 mg,
10,051 ng/ml at
/disk). These results suggest that this fraction has a potent antifungal activity against the dermatophytic fungus Trichophyton mentagrophytes ATCC 28185.
Effect of DHU001, a Polyherbal Formula, on Dinitrofluorobenzene-induced Contact Dermatitis (Type I allergy)
Lee, Hyeung-Sik ; Lee, Byung-Chang ; Ku, Sae-Kwang ;
Toxicological Research, volume 26, issue 2, 2010, Pages 123~130
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2010.26.2.123
The effect of DHU001, a mixed herbal formula consisted of 7 types aqueous extracts for various respiratory disorders were evaluated on 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced contact dermatitis, type I allergic model. Contact dermatitis was induced by sensitization with dinitrophenyl-derivatized ovalbumin (DNP-OVA) and DNFB challenge as antigen. Two different dosages of DHU001 (300 and 150 mg/kg) were orally administered to DNP-OVA sensitization mice once a day for 7 days with reference material, dexamethasone (15 mg/kg, intraperitoneal treatment). End of 7 days oral administration of DHU001 extracts or intraperitoneal treatment of dexamethasone, the changes on the edematous changes and scratching behavior were measured. Immediate after DNFB challenge on ear or paw of DNP-OVA sensitized mice, increases of ear and paw thicknesses and weights were detected with anterior ear skin (dermis to epidermis) thickness and paw scratching behavior increases. However, these contact dermatitis signs induced by DNFB treatment were reduced by treatment of the both different dosages of DHU001 and dexamethasone, respectively. The results obtained in this study suggest that oral treatment of DHU001 extracts also has relatively favorable effects on contact dermatitis.
Time-dependent Changes of Cadmium and Metallothionein after Short-term Exposure to Cadmium in Rats
Cho, Mi-Ran ; Kang, Hwan-Goo ; Jeong, Sang-Hee ; Cho, Myung-Haing ;
Toxicological Research, volume 26, issue 2, 2010, Pages 131~136
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2010.26.2.131
The time-dependent changes in cadmium (Cd) concentration were studied in Female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats during and after Cd exposure via drinking water (10 and 50 ppm) for 30 days. The cadmium concentration in muscle, liver, kidney, blood plasma, and urine, and the metallothionein concentration in blood plasma were determined every 10 days during exposure and every 7 days after exposure for 3 weeks. The muscle Cd concentration did not change during, and neither after, exposure. The liver Cd concentration increased from 1.4 to 3.3 (at 10 ppm) and from 6.1 to 10.1 folds (at 50 ppm) during exposure and remained higher than those of controls in both groups even during post-exposure period. The kidney Cd concentrations were 2.3 to 5.1 (at 10 ppm) and 4.9-14.0 folds (at 50 ppm) higher than those of controls during exposure and also remained elevated during the post-exposure period. Plasma Cd concentrations were not significantly different from those of controls in both groups. Urine Cd concentrations were more than 2 folds (at 10 ppm) and 6.5 to 12.6 folds (at 50 ppm) higher than those of controls but rapidly decreased over the 7 days of withdrawal. Blood plasma metallothionein concentrations were more than 2.4 folds (at 10 ppm) and 3.1 to 7.4 folds (at 50 ppm), and they remained elevated till 7 days (10 ppm) and 14 days (at 50 ppm) after exposure. Our data support that Cd in urine could be a useful biomarker during Cd exposure period and metallothionein in blood plasma could be as a supportive biological marker for during and post Cd exposure.
Genome-Wide Transcriptional Response During the Development of Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Sprague-Dawley Rats
Park, Han-Jin ; Yang, Mi-Jin ; Oh, Jung-Hwa ; Yang, Young-Su ; Kwon, Myung-Sang ; Song, Chang-Woo ; Yoon, Seok-Joo ;
Toxicological Research, volume 26, issue 2, 2010, Pages 137~147
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2010.26.2.137
Pulmonary fibrosis is a common consequence of many lung diseases and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. The molecular mechanisms underlying the development of pulmonary fibrosis remain poorly understood. One model used successfully to study pulmonary fibrosis over the past few decades is the bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis model. We aimed to identify the genes associated with fibrogenesis using an Affymetrix GeneChip system in a bleomycin-induced rat model for pulmonary fibrosis. To confirm fibrosis development, several analyses were performed, including cellular evaluations using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity, and histopathological examinations. Common aspects of pulmonary fibrosis such as prolonged inflammation, immune cell infiltration, emergence of fibroblasts, and deposition of extracellular matrix and connective tissue elements were observed. Global gene expression analysis revealed significantly altered expression of genes (
1.5-fold, p < 0.05.) in a time-dependent manner during the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Our results are consistent with previous results of well-documented gene expression. Interestingly, the expression of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (Trem2), secreted phosphoprotein 1 (Spp1), and several proteases such as Tpsab1, Mcpt1, and Cma1 was considerably induced in the lung after bleomycin treatment, despite little evidence that they are involved in pulmonary fibrogenesis. These data will aid in our understanding of fibrogenic mechanisms and contribute to the identification of candidate biomarkers of fibrotic disease development.
Determination of Trichlorfon Pesticide Residues in Milk via Gas Chromatography with μ-Electron Capture Detection and GC-MS
Hem, Lina ; Khay, Sathya ; Choi, Jeong-Heui ; Morgan, E.D. ; El-Aty, A.M. Abd ; Shim, Jae-Han ;
Toxicological Research, volume 26, issue 2, 2010, Pages 149~155
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2010.26.2.149
The pesticide trichlorfon is readily degraded under experimental conditions to dichlorvos. A method has therefore been developed by which residues of trichlorfon in milk are determined as dichlorvos, using gas chromatography with
-electron capture detection. The identification of dichlorvos was confirmed by mass spectrometry. Milk was extracted with acetonitrile followed by centrifugation, freezing lipid filtration, and partitioning into dichloromethane. The residue after partitioning of dichloromethane was dissolved in ethyl acetate for gas chromatography. Recovery concentration was determined at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 of times the maximum permitted residue limits (MRLs) for trichlorfon in milk. The average recoveries (n = 6) ranged from 92.4 to 103.6%. The repeatability of the measurements was expressed as relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 3.6%, to 6.7%. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 3.7 and
, respectively. The accuracy and precision (expressed as RSD) were estimated at concentrations from 25 to
. The intra- and inter-day accuracy (n = 6) ranged from 89.2% to 91% and 91.3% to 96.3%, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions were lower than 8%. The developed method was applied to determine trichlorfon in real samples collected from the seven major cities in the Republic of Korea. No residual trichlorfon was detected in any samples.
A Study on Characteristics of Atmospheric Heavy Metals in Subway Station
Kim, Chun-Huem ; Yoo, Dong-Chul ; Kwon, Young-Min ; Han, Woong-Soo ; Kim, Gi-Sun ; Park, Mi-Jung ; Kim, Young-Soon ; Choi, Dal-Woong ;
Toxicological Research, volume 26, issue 2, 2010, Pages 157~162
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2010.26.2.157
In this study, we investigated the atmospheric heavy metal concentrations in the particulate matter inside the subway stations of Seoul. In particular, we examined the correlation between the heavy metals and studied the effect of the heavy metals on cell proliferation. In six selected subway stations in Seoul, particulate matter was captured at the platforms and 11 types of heavy metals were analyzed. The results showed that the mean concentration of iron was the highest out of the heavy metals in particulate matter, followed by copper, potassium, calcium, zinc, nickel, sodium, manganese, magnesium, chromium and cadmium in that order. The correlation analysis showed that the correlations between the heavy metals was highest in the following order: (Cu vs Zn), (Ca vs Na), (Ca vs Mn), (Ni vs Cr), (Na vs Mn), (Cr vs Cd), (Zn vs Cd), (Cu vs Cd), (Ni vs Cd), (Cu vs Ni), (K vs Zn), (Cu vs K), (Cu vs Cr), (K vs Cd), (Zn vs Cr), (K vs Ni), (Zn vs Ni), (K vs Cr), and (Fe vs Cu). The correlation coefficient between zinc and copper was 0.937, indicating the highest correlation. Copper, zinc, nickel, chromium and cadmium, which are generated from artificial sources in general, showed correlations with many of the other metals and the correlation coefficients were also relatively high. The effect of the heavy metals on cell proliferation was also investigated in this study. Cultured cell was exposed to 10 mg/l or 100 mg/l of iron, copper, calcium, zinc, nickel, manganese, magnesium, chromium and cadmium for 24 hours. The cell proliferation in all the heavy metal-treated groups was not inhibited at 10 mg/l of the heavy metal concentration. The only exception to this was with the cadmium-treated group which showed a strong cell proliferation inhibition. This study provides the fundamental data for the understanding of simultaneous heavy metal exposure tendency at the time of particulate matter exposure in subway stations and the identification of heavy metal sources. Moreover, this study can be used as the fundamental data for the cell toxicity study of the subway-oriented heavy metal-containing particulate matter.