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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Toxicology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 4 - Dec 2012
Volume 28, Issue 3 - Sep 2012
Volume 28, Issue 2 - Jun 2012
Volume 28, Issue 1 - Mar 2012
Selecting the target year
Risk Assessment Principle for Engineered Nanotechnology in Food and Drug
Hwang, Myung-Sil ; Lee, Eun-Ji ; Kweon, Se-Young ; Park, Mi-Sun ; Jeong, Ji-Yoon ; Um, Jun-Ho ; Kim, Sun-Ah ; Han, Bum-Suk ; Lee, Kwang-Ho ; Yoon, Hae-Jung ;
Toxicological Research, volume 28, issue 2, 2012, Pages 73~79
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2012.28.2.073
While the ability to develop nanomaterials and incorporate them into products is advancing rapidly worldwide, understanding of the potential health safety effects of nanomaterials has proceeded at a much slower pace. Since 2008, Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) started an investigation to prepare "Strategic Action Plan" to evaluate safety and nano risk management associated with foods, drugs, medical devices and cosmetics using nano-scale materials. Although there are some studies related to potential risk of nanomaterials, physical-chemical characterization of nanomaterials is not clear yet and these do not offer enough information due to their limitations. Their uncertainties make it impossible to determine whether nanomaterials are actually hazardous to human. According to the above mention, we have some problems to conduct the human exposure risk assessment currently. On the other hand, uncertainty about safety may lead to polarized public debate and to businesses unwillingness for further nanotechnology investigation. Therefore, the criteria and methods to assess possible adverse effects of nanomaterials have been vigorously taken into consideration by many international organizations: the World Health Organization, the Organization for Economic and Commercial Development and the European Commission. The object of this study was to develop risk assessment principles for safety management of future nanoproducts and also to identify areas of research to strengthen risk assessment for nanomaterials. The research roadmaps which were proposed in this study will be helpful to fill up the current gaps in knowledge relevant nano risk assessment.
Exploring Chemotherapy-Induced Toxicities through Multivariate Projection of Risk Factors: Prediction of Nausea and Vomiting
Yap, Kevin Yi-Lwern ; Low, Xiu Hui ; Chan, Alexandre ;
Toxicological Research, volume 28, issue 2, 2012, Pages 81~91
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2012.28.2.081
Many risk factors exist for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). This study utilized a multivariate projection technique to identify which risk factors were predictive of CINV in clinical practice. A single-centre, prospective, observational study was conducted from January 2007~July 2010 in Singapore. Patients were on highly (HECs) and moderately emetogenic chemotherapies with/without radiotherapy. Patient demographics and CINV risk factors were documented. Daily recording of CINV events was done using a standardized diary. Principal component (PC) analysis was performed to identify which risk factors could differentiate patients with and without CINV. A total of 710 patients were recruited. Majority were females (67%) and Chinese (84%). Five risk factors were potential CINV predictors: histories of alcohol drinking, chemotherapy-induced nausea, chemotherapy-induced vomiting, fatigue and gender. Period (ex-/current drinkers) and frequency of drinking (social/chronic drinkers) differentiated the CINV endpoints in patients on HECs and anthracycline-based, and XELOX regimens, respectively. Fatigue interference and severity were predictive of CINV in anthracycline-based populations, while the former was predictive in HEC and XELOX populations. PC analysis is a potential technique in analyzing clinical population data, and can provide clinicians with an insight as to what predictors to look out for in the clinical assessment of CINV. We hope that our results will increase the awareness among clinician-scientists regarding the usefulness of this technique in the analysis of clinical data, so that appropriate preventive measures can be taken to improve patients` quality of life.
The Association of Heavy Metal of Blood and Serum in the Alzheimer`s Diseases
Lee, Ji-Yeon ; Kim, Jae-Hoon ; Choi, Dal-Woong ; Lee, Dong-Woo ; Park, Jun-Hyun ; Yoon, Hye-Jung ; Pyo, Hee-Soo ; Kwon, Ho-Jang ; Park, Kyung-Su ;
Toxicological Research, volume 28, issue 2, 2012, Pages 93~98
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2012.28.2.093
This study has attempted to establish an analysis method through validation against heavy metals in the body (Pb, Cd and Hg) using ICP-MS and Gold amalgamation and find out the relevance between heavy metal and Alzheimer`s disease after analyzing the distribution of heavy metal concentration (Pb, Cd and Hg) and correlations between a control group and Alzheimer`s disease group. In this study, Pb and Cd levels in the blood and serum were validation using ICP-MS. For analysis of Hg levels in the blood and serum, the gold amalgamation-based `Direct Mercury Analyzer` has been used. According to an analysis on the heavy metal concentration (Pb, Cd and Hg concentration) in the blood, Cd concentration was high in the Alzheimer`s disease group. In the serum, on the contrary, Pb and Hg were high in the Alzheimer`s disease group. For analysis of correlations between heavy metal levels in the blood and serum and Alzheimer`s disease, t-test has been performed. Even though correlations were observed between the blood lead levels and Alzheimer`s disease, they were statistically insignificant because the concentration was higher in a control group. No significance was found in Cd and Hg. In the serum, on the other hand, no statistical significance was found between the heavy metal (Pb, Cd and Hg) and Alzheimer`s disease. In this study, no statistical significance was observed between heavy metal and decrease in cognitive intelligence. However, it appears that a further study needs to be performed because the results of the conventional studies were inconsistent.
Acute Dermal Toxicity Study of Bee Venom (Apis mellifera L.) in Rats
Han, Sang-Mi ; Lee, Gwang-Gill ; Park, Kwan-Kyu ;
Toxicological Research, volume 28, issue 2, 2012, Pages 99~102
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2012.28.2.099
Bee venom (Apis mellifera L. BV) has been used as a cosmetic ingredient for anti-ageing, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute toxicity after a single dermal administration of BV, BV was administered to 2 groups of Sprague-Dawley (SD) male and female rats (5 animals/group) at doses of 0 and 1,500 mg/kg body weight (BW). Mortality, clinical signs, body weight changes and gross findings were continually monitored for 15 days following the single dose. There were no unscheduled deaths in any groups during the study period. No BV related clinical signs and body weight changes were observed in any groups during the study period. There were no abnormal gross findings at necropsy on day 15 after the treatment. On the basis of the above results, it was concluded that there were no treatment-related effect on mortality, clinical signs, body weight changes and gross findings in SD rats treated with a single dermal dose of BV at dose of 1,500 mg/kg BW. Therefore, the approximate lethal dose of BV was considered to be over 1,500 mg/kg/day for both sexes of rats. BV may provide a developmental basis for a cosmetic ingredient or external application for topical uses.
Outbreak of Bioaerosols with Continuous Use of Humidifier in Apartment Room
Lee, Ji-Hyun ; Ahn, Kang-Ho ; Yu, Il-Je ;
Toxicological Research, volume 28, issue 2, 2012, Pages 103~106
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2012.28.2.103
The effect of continuous humidifier use on the bioaerosol concentration in an indoor environment was investigated. An ultrasonic humidifier was operated for 10 hr per day for 15 days in an apartment room. During this time period, viable bioaerosol samples were taken using a single-stage Andersen sampler containing culture media plates for bacteria and fungi. The culture plates were then incubated at room temperature for 2~7 days depending on the media. The counts for the air sample plates were corrected for multiple impactions using the positive hole conversion method and are reported as the colony forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU/
). While the bacterial concentration measured using the tryptic soy agar (TSA) did not show any significant change during the first 3 days, the concentration increased from the
day (6979 CFU/
) and reached a maximum on the
day (46431 CFU/
). The concentration then decreased to 2470 CFU/
day, at which point the fungal concentration increased rapidly to 14424~16038 CFU/
. Also, while the fungal concentration showed a significant change until the
day of humidifier use, fungal growth was observed on the wallpaper and increased rapidly from the
day. However, the bacterial concentration increased rapidly after the fungi were removed by remediation. The major fungal species identified in the samples were Penicillium representing 34%, Aspergillus representing 31%, Cladosporium representing 24%, and Alternaria representing 1%. The results also indicated that a relative humidity over 80% was easily achieved with continuous humidifier use. Yet, maintaining a high humidity in a room can cause a rapid outbreak of microbial growth.
Chlorination of ortho-position on Polychlorinated Biphenyls Increases Protein Kinase C Activity in Neuronal Cells
Lee, Youn-Ju ; Yang, Jae-Ho ;
Toxicological Research, volume 28, issue 2, 2012, Pages 107~112
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2012.28.2.107
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent and bioaccumulative environmental pollutants. Recently, it is suggested that neurotoxic effects such as motor dysfunction and impairment in memory and learning have been associated with PCB exposure. However, structure relationship of PCB congeners with neurotoxic effects remains unknown. Since PKC signaling pathway is implicated in the modulation of motor behavior as well as learning and memory and the role of PKC are subspecies-specific, we attempted to study the effects of structurally distinct PCBs on the total PKC activity as well as subspecies of PKC in cerebellar granule cell culture model. Cells were exposed to 0, 25 and 50
of PCB-126, PCB-169, PCB-114, PCB-157, PCB-52 and PCB-4 for 15 min. Cells were subsequently analyzed by [
] phorbol ester binding assay or immunoblotted against PKC-
monoclonal antibodies. While non-dioxin-like-PCB (PCB-52 and PCB-4) induced a translocation of PKC-
from cytosol to membrane fraction, dioxin-like PCBs (PCB-126, -169, -114, -157) had no effects. [
] Phorbol ester binding assay also revealed structure-dependent increase similar to translocation of PKC isozymes. While PCB-4 induced translocation of PKC-
was inhibited by ROS inhibitor, the pattern of translocation was not affected in presence of AhR inhibitor. It is suggested that PCB-4-induced PKC activity may not be mediated via AhR-dependent pathway. Taken together, our findings suggest that chlorination of ortho-position in PCB may be a critical structural moiety associated with neurotoxic effects, which may be preferentially mediated via non-AhR-dependent pathway. Therefore, the present study may contribute to understanding the neurotoxic mechanism of PCBs as well as providing a basis for establishing a better neurotoxic assessment.
Human Skin Safety Test of Green Tea Cell Extracts in Condition of Allergic Contact Dermatitis
Kim, Hyun-Kyu ; Choi, Sun-Young ; Chang, Hui-Kyoung ; Baek, Seok-Yun ; Chung, Jin-Oh ; Rha, Chan-Su ; Kim, Beom-Joon ; Kim, Myeung-Nam ;
Toxicological Research, volume 28, issue 2, 2012, Pages 113~116
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2012.28.2.113
Various kinds of positive effects of green tea extracts had been studied for long time which included anti-inflammation, anti-aging, and cardiometabolic effects. Although topical steroid and non-steroidal calcineurin inhibitors may control clinical symptoms of allergic contact dermatitis, some of patients also present allergic reaction to these topical agents. Therefore, we have tried green tea extracts for managing this skin disorder with expectation of anti-inflammatory effect without potential side effects including skin irritation and toxic responses. The toxicity test of green tea extract also did not show any sign of irritation in the skin throughout the test period. Moderate severity of allergic contact dermatitis presented satisfactory clinical outcome at second week follow-up which was final visit of outpatient. This result mean that green tea extract has a positive effect for managing allergic contact dermatitis but its potency and efficacy seem to be so not strong enough to control moderate severity allergy skin lesion. In this pilot study, we were able to conclude that green tea cell extracts might be applied for potential anti-inflammatory soaking without skin toxicity.
Increased Flavonoid Compounds from Fermented Houttuynia cordata using Isolated Six of Bacillus from Traditionally Fermented Houttuynia cordata
Kwon, Ryun-Hee ; Ha, Bae-Jin ;
Toxicological Research, volume 28, issue 2, 2012, Pages 117~122
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2012.28.2.117
Flavonoids, which form a major component in Houttuynia cordata Thunb., display a wide range of pharmacological activities. The expression of plant flavonoids is partly regulated by fermentation. Therefore, we studied the effects of fermentation on H. cordata in order to identify the strains present during the fermentation process, and to determine whether fermented H. cordata could be used as a probiotic. Our results showed that all 6 of the bacterial strains isolated from fermented H. cordata (FHC) belonged to the genus Bacillus. As expected, fermenting H cordata also increased the flavonoid content as increases were observed in the levels of rutin, quercitrin, and quercetin. To test the effects of fermentation, we treated LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells with non-fermented H. cordata extracts (HCE) or FHC extracts (FHCE). Compared to the HCE-treated cells, the FHCE-treated cells showed increased viability. No cytotoxic effects were detected in the FHCE-treated groups in the 2 cell lines used in the study, namely, RAW264.7 and RBL-2H3. FHCE-treated HepG2 cells showed decreased growth, compared to HCE-treated HepG2 cells. These results indicate that the fermented H. cordata predominantly contained Bacillus strains. Furthermore, FHCE are able to prevent LPS-induced inflammatory effects and inhibit the growth of HepG2 cells.
Diagnostic Assay of Toxic Zinc in an Ex Vivo Cell Using Voltammetry
Ly, Suw-Young ; Yoo, Hai-Soo ;
Toxicological Research, volume 28, issue 2, 2012, Pages 123~127
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2012.28.2.123
Voltammetric detection of the toxic Zn ion was investigated using a fluorine-doped graphite pencil electrode (FPE). It is notable from the study that pencils were used as reference and working electrodes. In all the experiments, a clean seawater electrolyte solution was used to yield good results. The analytical working range was attained to 10
. The optimized voltammetric condition was examined to maximize the effect of the detection of trace Zn. The developed sensor was applied to an earthworm`s tissue cell. It was found that the methods can be applicable to in vivo fluid or agriculture soil and plant science.
Derivation of Ecological Protective Concentration using the Probabilistic Ecological Risk Assessment applicable for Korean Water Environment: (I) Cadmium
Nam, Sun-Hwa ; Lee, Woo-Mi ; An, Youn-Joo ;
Toxicological Research, volume 28, issue 2, 2012, Pages 129~137
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2012.28.2.129
Probabilistic ecological risk assessment (PERA) for deriving ecological protective concentration (EPC) was previously suggested in USA, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and Netherland. This study suggested the EPC of cadmium (Cd) based on the PERA to be suitable to Korean aquatic ecosystem. First, we collected reliable ecotoxicity data from reliable data without restriction and reliable data with restrictions. Next, we sorted the ecotoxicity data based on the site-specific locations, exposure duration, and water hardness. To correct toxicity by the water hardness, EU`s hardness corrected algorithm was used with slope factor 0.89 and a benchmark of water hardness 100. EPC was calculated according to statistical extrapolation method (SEM), statistical extrapolation
), and assessment factor method (AFM). As a result, aquatic toxicity data of Cd were collected from 43 acute toxicity data (4 Actinopterygill, 29 Branchiopoda, 1 Polychaeta, 2 Bryozoa, 6 Chlorophyceae, 1 Chanophyceae) and 40 chronic toxicity data (2 Actinopterygill, 23 Branchiopoda, 9 Chlorophyceae, 6 Macrophytes). Because toxicity data of Cd belongs to 4 classes in taxonomical classification, acute and chronic EPC (11.07
, respectively) was calculated according to SEM technique. These values were included in the range of international EPCs. This study would be useful to establish the ecological standard for the protection of aquatic ecosystem in Korea.