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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Toxicology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Dec 2013
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Sep 2013
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Jun 2013
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Mar 2013
Selecting the target year
MicroSPECT and MicroPET Imaging of Small Animals for Drug Development
Jang, Beom-Su ;
Toxicological Research, volume 29, issue 1, 2013, Pages 1~6
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2013.29.1.001
The process of drug discovery and development requires substantial resources and time. The drug industry has tried to reduce costs by conducting appropriate animal studies together with molecular biological and genetic analyses. Basic science research has been limited to in vitro studies of cellular processes and ex vivo tissue examination using suitable animal models of disease. However, in the past two decades new technologies have been developed that permit the imaging of live animals using radiotracer emission, X-rays, magnetic resonance signals, fluorescence, and bioluminescence. The main objective of this review is to provide an overview of small animal molecular imaging, with a focus on nuclear imaging (single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography). These technologies permit visualization of toxicodynamics as well as toxicity to specific organs by directly monitoring drug accumulation and assessing physiological and/or molecular alterations. Nuclear imaging technology has great potential for improving the efficiency of the drug development process.
Betaine Alleviates Hypertriglycemia and Tau Hyperphosphorylation in db/db Mice
Jung, Ga-Young ; Won, Sae-Bom ; Kim, Juhae ; Jeon, Sookyoung ; Han, Anna ; Kwon, Young Hye ;
Toxicological Research, volume 29, issue 1, 2013, Pages 7~14
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2013.29.1.007
Betaine supplementation has been shown to alleviate altered glucose and lipid metabolism in mice fed a high-fat diet or a high-sucrose diet. We investigated the beneficial effects of betaine in diabetic db/db mice. Alleviation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stress was also examined in the livers and brains of db/db mice fed a betaine-supplemented diet. Male C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice were fed with or without 1% betaine for 5 wk (referred to as the db/db-betaine group and the db/db group, respectively). Lean non-diabetic db/+ mice were used as the control group. Betaine supplementation significantly alleviated hyperinsulinemia in db/db mice. Betaine reduced hepatic expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha, a major transcription factor involved in gluconeogenesis. Lower serum triglyceride concentrations were also observed in the db/db-betaine group compared to the db/db group. Betaine supplementation induced hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a mRNA levels, and reduced acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity. Mice fed a betaine-supplemented diet had increased total glutathione concentrations and catalase activity, and reduced lipid peroxidation levels in the liver. Furthermore, betaine also reduced ER stress in liver and brain. c-Jun N-terminal kinase activity and tau hyperphosphorylation levels were lower in db/db mice fed a betaine-supplemented diet, compared to db/db mice. Our findings suggest that betaine improves hyperlipidemia and tau hyperphosphorylation in db/db mice with insulin resistance by alleviating ER and oxidative stress.
Antihyperglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Fermented Rhynchosia nulubilis in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats
Kim, Min Jeong ; Ha, Bae Jin ;
Toxicological Research, volume 29, issue 1, 2013, Pages 15~19
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2013.29.1.015
Alloxan administration in rats is used as a model for non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). NIDDM is a multifactorial disease, characterized by hyperglycemia and lipoprotein abnormalities. In this study, we evaluated the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of fermented Rhynchosia nulubilis (FRN) through the regulation of glucose uptake in alloxan-induced rats. Fermented R. nulubilis was administered orally for 28 d at 500 mg/kg of body weight. Body weight and food intake were monitored every day. Biochemical parameters were quantified after 4 week. In the diabetic + FRN group, body weight increased significantly and blood glucose concentrations decreased when compared to those of the diabetic group. After 2 hr of administration, the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) indicated a significant reduction in the diabetic + FRN group compared to diabetic group. The diabetic + FRN group experienced a significant reduction in total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein, coronary risk factors, and malondialdehyde concentrations, with significantly increased high density lipoprotein compared to those of diabetic group. These results demonstrate that fermented R. nulubilis possesses potent antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.
Tc Labeled Integrin Antagonist
Jang, Beom-Su ; Park, Seung-Hee ; Shin, In Soo ; Maeng, Jin-Soo ; Paik, Chang H. ;
Toxicological Research, volume 29, issue 1, 2013, Pages 21~25
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2013.29.1.021
The selective targeting of an integrin
receptor using radioligands may enable the assessment of angiogenesis and integrin
receptor status in tumors. The aim of this research was to label a peptidomimetic integrin
antagonist (PIA) with
and to test its receptor targeting properties in nude mice bearing receptor-positive tumors. PIA was reacted with tris-succinimidyl aminotriacetate (TSAT) (20 mM) as a PIA per TSAT. The product, PIA-aminodiacetic acid (ADA), was radiolabeled with
, and purified sequentially on a Sep-Pak C-18 cartridge followed by a Sep-Pak QMA anion exchange cartridge. Using gradient C-18 reverse-phase HPLC, the radiochemical purity of
-ADA-PIA (retention time, 10.5 min) was confirmed to be > 95%. Biodistribution analysis was performed in nude mice (n = 5 per time point) bearing receptor-positive M21 human melanoma xenografts. The mice were administered
-ADA-PIA intravenously. The animals were euthanized at 0.33, 1, and 2 hr after injection for the biodistribution study. A separate group of mice were also co-injected with 200
of PIA and euthanized at 1 hr to quantify tumor uptake.
-ADA-PIA was stable in phosphate buffer for 21 hr, but at 3 and 6 hr, 7.9 and 11.5% of the radioactivity was lost as histidine, respectively. In tumor bearing mice,
-ADA-PIA accumulated rapidly in a receptor-positive tumor with a peak uptake at 20 min, and rapid clearance from blood occurring primarily through the hepatobiliary system. At 20 min, the tumor-to-blood ratio was 1.8. At 1 hr, the tumor uptake was 0.47% injected dose (ID)/g, but decreased to 0.12% ID/g when co-injected with an excess amount of PIA, indicating that accumulation was receptor mediated. These results demonstrate successful
labeling of a peptidomimetic integrin antagonist that accumulated in a tumor via receptor-specific binding. However, tumor uptake was very low because of low blood concentrations that likely resulted from rapid uptake of the agent into the hepatobiliary system. This study suggests that for
-ADA-PIA to be useful as a tumor detection agent, it will be necessary to improve receptor binding affinity and increase the hydrophilicity of the product to minimize rapid hepatobiliary uptake.
Embryotoxicity and Toxicokinetics of the Antimalarial Artesunate in Rats
Chung, Moon-Koo ; Yu, Wook-Joon ; Lee, Jin-Soo ; Lee, Jong-Hwa ;
Toxicological Research, volume 29, issue 1, 2013, Pages 27~34
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2013.29.1.027
This study was conducted to investigate the potential embryo-fetal toxicity and toxicokinetics of the antimalarial agent artesunate (ARTS) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Pregnant rats were administered ARTS daily from gestational day 6~15 via oral gavage, at test doses of 0, 2, 4, or 8 mg/kg (22 females per group). The fetuses were examined for external, visceral, and skeletal abnormalities on gestational day 20. With regard to the dams, there were no deaths, treatment-related clinical signs, changes in body weight, or food intake in any of the treatment groups. There were no treatment-related gross findings at necropsy in any treatment group. In the 8 mg/kg group, there was a decrease in gravid uterine weight and in the weight of female fetuses. There was also an increase in fetal deaths (primarily late resorptions) and an increase in post-implantation losses (37%) at 8 mg/kg. An increase in the incidence of visceral and skeletal variations at 4 and 8 mg/kg was observed. These defects included minor changes in the appearance of the kidney and thymus, as well as absent ribs or thoracic vertebrae. Toxicokinetics were assessed in a parallel study, using 4 mated females per group. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis, the concentration of ARTS and its metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA) were quantified in plasma from rats on gestational days 5, 6, 10, and 15. Amniotic fluid was assayed for ARTS and DHA on gestational day 15. There was evidence of rapid conversion of ARTS to the metabolite DHA in maternal plasma, since ARTS could not be consistently detected in plasma at the three doses tested. ARTS and DHA were not detected in amniotic fluid at gestational day 15, indicating limited placental transfer of the two agents. The embryo-fetal no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of the test item was considered to be 8 mg/kg/day for dams, and 2 mg/kg/day for embryo-fetal development.
Selective Effects of Curcumin on CdSe/ZnS Quantum-dot-induced Phototoxicity Using UVA Irradiation in Normal Human Lymphocytes and Leukemia Cells
Goo, Soomin ; Choi, Young Joo ; Lee, Younghyun ; Lee, Sunyeong ; Chung, Hai Won ;
Toxicological Research, volume 29, issue 1, 2013, Pages 35~42
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2013.29.1.035
Quantum dots (QDs) have received considerable attention due to their potential role in photosensitization during photodynamic therapy. Although QDS are attractive nanomaterials due to their novel and unique physicochemical properties, concerns about their toxicity remain. We suggest a combination strategy, CdSe/ZnS QDs together with curcumin, a natural yellow pigment from turmeric, to reduce QD-induced cytotoxicity. The aim of this study was to explore a potentially effective cancer treatment: co-exposure of HL-60 cells and human normal lymphocytes to CdSe/ZnS QDs and curcumin. Cell viability, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and DNA damage induced by QDs and/or curcumin with or without ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation were evaluated in both HL-60 cells and normal lymphocytes. In HL-60 cells, cell death, apoptosis, ROS generation, and single/double DNA strand breaks induced by QDs were enhanced by treatment with curcumin and UVA irradiation. The protective effects of curcumin on cell viability, apoptosis, and ROS generation were observed in normal lymphocytes, but not leukemia cells. These results demonstrated that treatment with QD combined with curcumin increased cell death in HL-60 cells, which was mediated by ROS generation. However, curcumin acted as an antioxidant in cultured human normal lymphocytes.
Evaluation of Oxidative DNA Damage Using an Alkaline Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE) Comet Assay, and the Protective Effects of N-Acetylcysteine Amide on Zearalenone-induced Cytotoxicity in Chang Liver Cells
Kang, Changgeun ; Lee, Hyungkyoung ; Yoo, Yong-San ; Hah, Do-Yun ; Kim, Chung Hui ; Kim, Euikyung ; Kim, Jong Shu ;
Toxicological Research, volume 29, issue 1, 2013, Pages 43~52
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2013.29.1.043
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroidal estrogenic mycotoxin produced by several species of Fusarium that are found in cereals and agricultural products. ZEN has been implicated in mycotoxicosis in farm animals and in humans. The toxic effects of ZEN are well known, but the ability of an alkaline Comet assay to assess ZEN-induced oxidative DNA damage in Chang liver cells has not been established. The first aim of this study was to evaluate the Comet assay for the determination of cytotoxicity and extent of DNA damage induced by ZEN toxin, and the second aim was to investigate the ability of N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) to protect cells from ZEN-induced toxicity. In the Comet assay, DNA damage was assessed by quantifying the tail extent moment (TEM; arbitrary unit) and tail length (TL; arbitrary unit), which are used as indicators of DNA strand breaks in SCGE. The cytotoxic effects of ZEN in Chang liver cells were mediated by inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of oxidative DNA damage. Increasing the concentration of ZEN increased the extent of DNA damage. The extent of DNA migration, and percentage of cells with tails were significantly increased in a concentration-dependent manner following treatment with ZEN toxin (p < 0.05). Treatment with a low concentration of ZEN toxin (25
) induced a relatively low level of DNA damage, compared to treatment of cells with a high concentration of ZEN toxin (250
). Oxidative DNA damage appeared to be a key determinant of ZEN-induced toxicity in Chang liver cells. Significant reductions in cytolethality and oxidative DNA damage were observed when cells were pretreated with NACA prior to exposure to any concentration of ZEN. Our data suggest that ZEN induces DNA damage in Chang liver cells, and that the antioxidant activity of NACA may contribute to the reduction of ZEN-induced DNA damage and cytotoxicity via elimination of oxidative stress.
Milk Transfer and Toxicokinetics of Valproic Acid in Lactating Cynomolgus Monkeys
Lee, Jong-Hwa ; Yu, Wook-Joon ; Jeong, Eun Ju ; Chung, Moon-Koo ;
Toxicological Research, volume 29, issue 1, 2013, Pages 53~60
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2013.29.1.053
Studies on milk transfer of drugs in non-human primates (NHPs) are among the crucial components in the assessment of peri- and postnatal toxicity because of the similarity between NHPs and humans. To evaluate the milk transfer of valproic acid (VPA) in NHPs, the toxicokinetics of VPA, an antiepileptic drug, were studied in pregnant cynomolgus monkeys. VPA was administered once daily to pregnant cynomolgus monkeys at doses of 0, 30, 90, and 270 mg/kg by oral gavage from Day 100 of gestation (GD 100) to Day 31 of lactation (LD 31). Concentrations of VPA and its metabolite, 4-ene-VPA, in the maternal plasma on GD 100, GD 140, and LD 30, and concentrations of VPA and 4-ene-VPA in the offspring plasma and milk on LDs 30 and 31, respectively, were quantified using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). After administration of a single oral dose of VPA to pregnant monkeys on GD 100, the concentrations of VPA and 4-ene-VPA were generally quantifiable in the plasma of all treatment groups up to 24 hr after administration, which showed that VPA was absorbed and that the monkeys were systemically exposed to VPA and 4-ene-VPA. After administration of multiple doses of VPA to the monkeys, VPA was detected in the pup's plasma and in milk taken on LD 30 and LD 31, respectively, which showed that VPA was transferred via milk, and the pup was exposed to VPA. Further, the concentration of VPA in the milk increased with an increase in the dose. Extremely low concentrations of 4-ene VPA were detected in the milk and in the pup plasma. In conclusion, pregnant monkeys were exposed to VPA and 4-ene-VPA after oral administration of VPA at doses of 30, 90, and 270 mg/kg/day from GD 100 to LD 31. VPA was transferred via milk, and the VPA exposure to the pup increased with an increase in the dose of VPA. The metabolite, 4-ene VPA, was present in extremely low concentrations (< 0.5
) in the milk and in the pup plasma. In this study, we established methods to confirm milk transfer in NHPs, such as mating and diagnosis of pregnancy by examining gestational sac with ultrasonography, collection of milk and pup plasma and determination of toxicokinetics, using cynomolgus monkeys.
Protective Effects of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. on Gentamicin-induced Oxidative Stress and Nephrotoxicity in Rats
Kang, Changgeun ; Lee, Hyungkyoung ; Hah, Do-Yun ; Heo, Jung Ho ; Kim, Chung Hui ; Kim, Euikyung ; Kim, Jong Shu ;
Toxicological Research, volume 29, issue 1, 2013, Pages 61~67
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2013.29.1.061
Development of a therapy providing protection from, or reversing gentamicin-sulfate (GS)-induced oxidative stress and nephrotoxicity would be of great clinical significance. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (HC) against gentamicin sulfate-induced renal damage in rats. Twenty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 equal groups as follows: group 1, control; group 2, GS 100 mg/kg/d, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection; group 3, GS 100 mg/kg/d, i.p. + HC 500 mg/kg/d, oral; and group 4, GS 100 mg/kg/d i.p. + HC 1000 mg/kg/d, oral administration). Treatments were administered once daily for 12 d. After 12 d, biochemical and histopathological analyses were conducted to evaluate oxidative stress and renal nephrotoxicity. Serum levels of creatinine, malondialdehyde (MDA), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), together with renal levels of MDA, glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were quantified to evaluate antioxidant activity. Animals treated with GS alone showed a significant increase in serum levels of creatinine, BUN, and MDA, with decreased renal levels of GSH, SOD, and CAT. Treatment of rats with HC showed significant improvement in renal function, presumably as a result of decreased biochemical indices and oxidative stress parameters associated with GS-induced nephrotoxicity. Histopathological examination of the rat kidneys confirmed these observations. Therefore, the novel natural antioxidant HC may protect against GSinduced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats.
Health Risks to Children and Adults Residing in Riverine Environments where Surficial Sediments Contain Metals Generated by Active Gold Mining in Ghana
Armah, Frederick Ato ; Gyeabour, Elvis Kyere ;
Toxicological Research, volume 29, issue 1, 2013, Pages 69~79
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2013.29.1.069
The purpose of this study was to investigate the current status of metal pollution in the sediment from rivers, lakes, and streams in active gold mining districts in Ghana. Two hundred and fifty surface sediment samples from 99 locations were collected and analyzed for concentrations of As, Hg, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, and Mn using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Metal concentrations were then used to assess the human health risks to resident children and adults in central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) scenarios. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, and As were almost twice the threshold values established by the Hong Kong Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines (ISQG). Hg, Cu, and Cr concentrations in sediment were 14, 20, and 26 times higher than the Canadian Freshwater Sediment Guidelines for these elements. Also, the concentrations of Pb, Cu, Cr, and Hg were 3, 11, 12, and 16 times more than the Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) sediment guideline values. The results of the human health risk assessment indicate that for ingestion of sediment under the central tendency exposure (CTE) scenario, the cancer risks for child and adult residents from exposure to As were
, respectively. This suggests that up to 4 children out of one million equally exposed children would contract cancer if exposed continuously to As over 70 years (the assumed lifetime). The hazard index for child residents following exposure to Cr(VI) in the RME scenario was 4.2. This is greater than the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) threshold of 1, indicating that adverse health effects to children from exposure to Cr(VI) are possible. This study demonstrates the urgent need to control industrial emissions and the severe heavy metal pollution in gold mining environments.