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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Toxicology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Dec 2014
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Sep 2014
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Jun 2014
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Mar 2014
Selecting the target year
The Role of Air Pollutants in Initiating Liver Disease
Kim, Jong Won ; Park, Surim ; Lim, Chae Woong ; Lee, Kyuhong ; Kim, Bumseok ;
Toxicological Research, volume 30, issue 2, 2014, Pages 65~70
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2014.30.2.065
Recent episodes of severe air pollution in eastern Asia have been reported in the scientific literature and news media. Therefore, there is growing concern about the systemic effects of air pollution on human health. Along with the other well-known harmful effects of air pollution, recently, several animal models have provided strong evidence that air pollutants can induce liver toxicity and act to accelerate liver inflammation and steatosis. This review briefly describes examples where exposure to air pollutants was involved in liver toxicity, focusing on how particulate matter (PM) or carbon black (CB) may be translocated from lung to liver and what liver diseases are closely associated with these air pollutants.
Air Pollution Exposure and Cardiovascular Disease
Lee, Byeong-Jae ; Kim, Bumseok ; Lee, Kyuhong ;
Toxicological Research, volume 30, issue 2, 2014, Pages 71~75
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2014.30.2.071
Ambient air pollution (AAP) and particulate matters (PM) have been closely associated with adverse health effects such as respiratory disease and cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies have examined the adverse health effects associated with short- and long-term exposure to AAP and outdoor PM on respiratory disease. However, the effect of PM size (
) on cardiovascular disease has not been well studied. Thus, it remains unclear how the size of the inhalable particles (coarse, fine, or ultrafine) affects mortality and morbidity. Airborne PM concentrations are commonly used for ambient air quality management worldwide, owing to the known effects on cardiorespiratory health. In this article, we assess the relationship between cardiovascular diseases and PM, with a particular focus on PM size. We discuss the association of
, nitrogen dioxide (
), and elemental carbon with mortality and morbidity due to cardiovascular diseases, stroke, and altered blood pressure, based on epidemiological studies. In addition, we provide evidence that the adverse health effects of AAP and PM are more pronounced among the elderly, children, and people with preexisting cardiovascular and respiratory conditions. Finally, we critically summarize the literature pertaining to cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis and stroke, and introduce potential studies to better understand the health significance of AAP and PM on cardiovascular disease.
Plant Exocytic Secretion of Toxic Compounds for Defense
Kwon, Chian ; Yun, Hye Sup ;
Toxicological Research, volume 30, issue 2, 2014, Pages 77~81
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2014.30.2.077
In contrast to animals, plants do not have a circulatory system as well as mobile immune cells that allow them to protect themselves against pathogens. Instead, plants exclusively depend on the innate immune system to defend against pathogens. As typically observed in the animal innate immunity, plant immune responses are composed of pathogen detection, defense signaling which includes transcriptional reprogramming, and secretion of antimicrobial compounds. Although knowledge on recognition and subsequent signaling of pathogen-derived molecules called elicitors is now expanding, the mechanisms of how these immune molecules are excreted are yet poorly understood. Therefore, current understandings of how plants secrete defense products especially via exocytosis will be discussed in this review.
Inhalation of Carbon Black Nanoparticles Aggravates Pulmonary Inflammation in Mice
Saputra, Devina ; Yoon, Jin-Ha ; Park, Hyunju ; Heo, Yongju ; Yang, Hyoseon ; Lee, Eun Ji ; Lee, Sangjin ; Song, Chang-Woo ; Lee, Kyuhong ;
Toxicological Research, volume 30, issue 2, 2014, Pages 83~90
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2014.30.2.083
An increasing number of recent studies have focused on the impact of particulate matter on human health. As a model for atmospheric particulate inhalation, we investigated the effects of inhaled carbon black nanoparticles (CBNP) on mice with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. The CNBPs were generated by a novel aerosolization process, and the mice were exposed to the aerosol for 4 hours. We found that CBNP inhalation exacerbated lung inflammation, as evidenced by histopathology analysis and by the expression levels of interleukin-6 protein, fibronectin, and interferon-
mRNAs in lung tissues. Notably, fibronectin mRNA expression showed a statistically significant increase in expression after CBNP exposure. These data suggest that the concentration of CBNPs delivered (calculated to be
) can aggravate lung inflammation in mice. Our results also suggest that the inhalation of ultrafine particles like PM 2.5 is an impactful environmental risk factor for humans, particularly in susceptible populations with predisposing lung conditions.
Smoking Habits and Neuropeptides: Adiponectin, Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor, and Leptin Levels
Kim, Ki-Woong ; Won, Yong Lim ; Ko, Kyung Sun ; Roh, Ji Won ;
Toxicological Research, volume 30, issue 2, 2014, Pages 91~97
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2014.30.2.091
This study aimed to identify changes in the level of neuropeptides among current smokers, former smokers, and individuals who had never smoked, and how smoking habits affect obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Neuropeptide levels, anthropometric parameters, and metabolic syndrome diagnostic indices were determined among male workers; 117 of these had never smoked, whereas 58 and 198 were former and current smokers, respectively. The total sample comprised 373 male workers. The results obtained from anthropometric measurements showed that current smokers attained significantly lower body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and abdominal fat thickness values than former smokers and those who had never smoked. Current smokers' eating habits proved worse than those of non-smokers and individuals who had never smoked. The level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the neuropeptides in the case of former smokers was
, higher than that of current smokers (
) and individuals who had never smoked (
) (F = 6.520, p = 0.002). The level of adiponectin among former smokers was somewhat lower than that of current smokers, whereas leptin levels were higher among former smokers than current smokers; these results were not statistically significant. A relationship was found between adiponectin and triglyceride among non-smokers (odds ratio = 0.660,
value=-0.416, p < 0.01) and smokers (odds ratio = 0.827,
value=-0.190, p < 0.05). Further, waist circumference among non-smokers (odds ratio = 1.622,
value=0.483, p < 0.001) and smokers (odds ratio = 1.895,
value=0.639, p < 0.001) was associated with leptin. It was concluded that cigarette smoking leads to an imbalance of energy expenditure and appetite by changing the concentration of neuropeptides such as adiponectin, BDNF, leptin, and hsCRP, and influences food intake, body weight, the body mass index, blood pressure, and abdominal fat, which are risk factors for MetS and cardiovascular disease.
Evaluation of Renal Toxicity by Combination Exposure to Melamine and Cyanuric Acid in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats
Son, Ji Yeon ; Kang, Yoon Jong ; Kim, Kyeong Seok ; Kim, Tae Hyung ; Lim, Sung Kwang ; Lim, Hyun Jung ; Jeong, Tae Cheon ; Choi, Dal Woong ; Chung, Kyu Hyuck ; Lee, Byung Mu ; Kim, Hyung Sik ;
Toxicological Research, volume 30, issue 2, 2014, Pages 99~107
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2014.30.2.099
Melamine-induced nephrotoxicity is closely associated with crystal formation in the kidney caused by combined exposure to melamine (Mel) and cyanuric acid (CA). However, there are few dosage-finding studies for toxicological evaluation of chronic co-exposure to Mel and CA. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible mechanism by which a Mel and CA mixture lead to renal toxicity in rats. Mel and CA were co-administered to rats via oral gavage for 50 days. Nephrotoxicity was determined by measuring blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (sCr) levels. Relative kidney weights were significantly increased in rats after co-exposure to Mel+CA (63/6.3 or 630/6.3 mg/kg) mixtures. BUN and sCr levels were significantly increased after Mel and CA co-exposure. Taken together, significant increase in KIM-1, NGAL, and calbindin levels were observed in the urine of rats exposed to Mel+CA (63/6.3 or 630/6.3 mg/kg) compared with the corresponding control group. Histological analysis revealed epithelial degeneration and necrotic cell death in the proximal tubules of the kidney after co-exposure to Mel+CA (63/6.3 or 630/6.3 mg/kg). Our data suggest that Mel-mediated renal toxicity may be influenced by CA concentrations in Mel-contaminated milk or foods.
Determination of Goitrogenic Metabolites in the Serum of Male Wistar Rat Fed Structurally Different Glucosinolates
Choi, Eun-Ji ; Zhang, Ping ; Kwon, Hoonjeong ;
Toxicological Research, volume 30, issue 2, 2014, Pages 109~116
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2014.30.2.109
Glucosinolates (GLSs) are abundant in cruciferous vegetables and reported to have anti thyroidal effects. Four GLSs (sinigrin, progoitrin, glucoerucin, and glucotropaeolin) were administered orally to rats, and the breakdown products of GLSs (GLS-BPs: thiocyanate ions, cyanide ions, organic isothiocyanates, organic nitriles, and organic thiocyanates) were measured in serum. Thiocyanate ions were measured by colorimetric method, and cyanide ions were measured with CI-GC-MS. Organic isothiocyanates and their metabolites were measured with the cyclocondensation assay. Organic nitriles and organic thiocyanates were measured with EI-GC-MS. In all treatment groups except for progoitrin, thiocyanate ions were the highest among the five GLS-BPs. In the progoitrin treated group, a high concentration of organic isothiocyanates (goitrin) was detected. In the glucoerucin treated group, a relatively low amount of goitrogenic substances was observed. The metabolism to thiocyanate ions happened within five hours of the administration, and the distribution of GLSs varied with the side chain. GLSs with side chains that can form stable carbocation seemed to facilitate the degradation reaction and produce a large amount of goitrogenic thiocyanate ions. Because goitrogenic metabolites can be formed without myrosinase, the inactivation of myrosinase during cooking would have no effect on the anti-nutritional effect of GLSs in cruciferous vegetables.
Diagnosis of Trace Toxic Uranium Ions in Organic Liver Cell
Ly, Suw Young ; Pack, Eun Chul ; Choi, Dal Woong ;
Toxicological Research, volume 30, issue 2, 2014, Pages 117~120
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2014.30.2.117
Uranium is toxic and radioactive traces of it can be found in natural water and soils. High concentrations of it in biological systems cause genetic disorders and diseases. For the in vivo diagnosis, micro and nano range detection limits are required. Here, an electrochemical assay for trace toxic uranium was searched using stripping voltammetry. Renewable and simplified graphite pencils electrode (PE) was used in a three-electrode cell system. Seawater was used instead of an electrolyte solution. This setup can yield good results and the detection limit was attained to be at
. The developed skill can be applied to organic liver cell.
Evaluation of Genotoxicity and 28-day Oral Dose Toxicity on Freeze-dried Powder of Tenebrio molitor Larvae (Yellow Mealworm)
Han, So-Ri ; Yun, Eun-Young ; Kim, Ji-Young ; Hwang, Jae Sam ; Jeong, Eun Ju ; Moon, Kyoung-Sik ;
Toxicological Research, volume 30, issue 2, 2014, Pages 121~130
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2014.30.2.121
The larval form of Tenebrio molitor (T. molitor) has been eaten in many countries and provides benefits as a new food source of protein for humans. However, no information exists regarding its safety for humans. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxicity and repeated dose oral toxicity of the freeze-dried powder of T. molitor larvae. The genotoxic potential was evaluated by a standard battery testing: bacterial reverse mutation test, in vitro chromosome aberration test, and in vivo micronucleus test. To assess the repeated dose toxicity, the powder was administered once daily by oral gavage to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats at dose levels of 0, 300, 1000 and 3000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. The parameters which were applied to the study were mortality, clinical signs, body and organ weights, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, serum chemistry, gross findings and histopathologic examination. The freezedried powder of T. molitor larvae was not mutagenic or clastogenic based on results of in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity assays. Furthermore, no treatment-related changes or findings were observed in any parameters in rats after 28 days oral administration. In conclusion, the freeze-dried powder of T. molitor larvae was considered to be non-genotoxic and the NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level) was determined to be 3000 mg/kg/day in both sexes of SD rats under our experimental conditions.
Genotoxicity Study of Polysaccharide Fraction from Astragalus membranaceus's Aerial Parts
Park, Yeong-Chul ; Kim, Min Hee ; Kim, Jung Woo ; Kim, Jong-Bong ; Lee, Jae Geun ; Yu, Chang Yeon ; Kim, Seung-Hyun ; Chung, Ill Min ; Kim, Jae Kwang ; Choi, Ri Na ; Lim, Jung Dae ;
Toxicological Research, volume 30, issue 2, 2014, Pages 131~138
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2014.30.2.131
Radix Astragali, the root of Astragalus (A.) membranaceus, has been applied in a variety of diseases for a long time in Asian countries such as Korea and China. In addition, the aerial parts such as leaves and stems of A. membranaceus have received a great deal of attention. Recently, the polysaccharide fraction showing a potent immunomoduating activity was isolated from the aerial parts of A. membranaceus. Thus, the aerial parts of A. membranaceus would be worthy enough for a food material and a dietary supplement. However, they should be safe even though valuable. In our previous study, it was estimated that NOAEL for female rats are 5000 mg/kg/day of the crude polysaccharide fraction from A. membranaceus-aboveground parts. As a series of safety evaluation, genotoxicity test for the crude polysaccharide fraction was carried out in this study. In conclusion, the three genotoxicity assays provided strong overall support that the crude polysaccharide fraction lacks mutagenic and/or clastogenic potential under the GLP-based test conditions. This indicates the aerial parts of A. membranaceus would be safe enough for a food material and a dietary supplement.
ERRATUM: A Probiotic Preparation Duolac-Gold Ameliorates Dextran Sulphate Sodium-induced Mouse Colitis by Downregulating the Expression of IL-6
Yoon, Hyunho ; Yoon, Yeo-Sang ; Kim, Min-Soo ; Chung, Myung-Jun ; Yum, Do-Young ;
Toxicological Research, volume 30, issue 2, 2014, Pages 139~139
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2014.30.2.139