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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Toxicology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 31, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 31, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 31, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 31, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
Selecting the target year
Influences of Environmental Chemicals on Atopic Dermatitis
Kim, Kwangmi ;
Toxicological Research, volume 31, issue 2, 2015, Pages 89~96
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2015.31.2.089
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition including severe pruritus, xerosis, visible eczematous skin lesions that mainly begin early in life. Atopic dermatitis exerts a profound impact on the quality of life of patients and their families. The estimated lifetime prevalence of atopic dermatitis has increased 2~3 fold during over the past 30 years, especially in urban areas in industrialized countries, emphasizing the importance of life-style and environment in the pathogenesis of atopic diseases. While the interplay of individual genetic predisposition and environmental factors contribute to the development of atopic dermatitis, the recent increase in the prevalence of atopic dermatitis might be attributed to increased exposure to various environmental factors rather than alterations in human genome. In recent decades, there has been an increasing exposure to chemicals from a variety of sources. In this study, the effects of various environmental chemicals we face in everyday life - air pollutants, contact allergens and skin irritants, ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products, and food additives - on the prevalence and severity of atopic dermatitis are reviewed.
Phototoxicity: Its Mechanism and Animal Alternative Test Methods
Kim, Kyuri ; Park, Hyeonji ; Lim, Kyung-Min ;
Toxicological Research, volume 31, issue 2, 2015, Pages 97~104
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2015.31.2.097
The skin exposure to solar irradiation and photoreactive xenobiotics may produce abnormal skin reaction, phototoxicity. Phototoxicity is an acute light-induced response, which occurs when photoreacive chemicals are activated by solar lights and transformed into products cytotoxic against the skin cells. Multifarious symptoms of phototoxicity are identified, skin irritation, erythema, pruritis, and edema that are similar to those of the exaggerated sunburn. Diverse organic chemicals, especially drugs, are known to induce phototoxicity, which is probably from the common possession of UV-absorbing benzene or heterocyclic rings in their molecular structures. Both UVB (290~320 nm) and UVA (320~400 nm) are responsible for the manifestation of phototoxicity. Absorption of photons and absorbed energy (hv) by photoactive chemicals results in molecular changes or generates reactive oxygen species and depending on the way how endogenous molecules are affected by phototoxicants, mechanisms of phototoxcity is categorized into two modes of action: Direct when unstable species from excited state directly react with the endogenous molecules, and indirect when endogeneous molecules react with secondary photoproducts. In order to identify phototoxic potential of a chemical, various test methods have been introduced. Focus is given to animal alternative test methods, i.e., in vitro, and in chemico assays as well as in vivo. 3T3 neutral red uptake assay, erythrocyte photohemolysis test, and phototoxicity test using human 3-dimensional (3D) epidermis model are examples of in vitro assays. In chemico methods evaluate the generation of reactive oxygen species or DNA strand break activity employing plasmid for chemicals, or drugs with phototoxic potential.
Safety Evaluation of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Compounds for Cosmetic Use
Jang, Hyun-Jun ; Shin, Chan Young ; Kim, Kyu-Bong ;
Toxicological Research, volume 31, issue 2, 2015, Pages 105~136
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2015.31.2.105
Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are products of condensed ethylene oxide and water that can have various derivatives and functions. Since many PEG types are hydrophilic, they are favorably used as penetration enhancers, especially in topical dermatological preparations. PEGs, together with their typically nonionic derivatives, are broadly utilized in cosmetic products as surfactants, emulsifiers, cleansing agents, humectants, and skin conditioners. The compounds studied in this review include PEG/PPG-17/6 copolymer, PEG-20 glyceryl triisostearate, PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil, and PEG-60 hydrogenated castor oil. Overall, much of the data available in this review are on PEGylated oils (PEG-40 and PEG-60 hydrogenated castor oils), which were recommended as safe for use in cosmetics up to 100% concentration. Currently, PEG-20 glyceryl triisostearate and PEGylated oils are considered safe for cosmetic use according to the results of relevant studies. Additionally, PEG/PPG-17/6 copolymer should be further studied to ensure its safety as a cosmetic ingredient.
Evaluation of Adverse Drug Properties with Cryopreserved Human Hepatocytes and the Integrated Discrete Multiple Organ Co-culture (IdMOC
Li, Albert P. ;
Toxicological Research, volume 31, issue 2, 2015, Pages 137~149
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2015.31.2.137
Human hepatocytes, with complete hepatic metabolizing enzymes, transporters and cofactors, represent the gold standard for in vitro evaluation of drug metabolism, drug-drug interactions, and hepatotoxicity. Successful cryopreservation of human hepatocytes enables this experimental system to be used routinely. The use of human hepatocytes to evaluate two major adverse drug properties: drug-drug interactions and hepatotoxicity, are summarized in this review. The application of human hepatocytes in metabolism-based drug-drug interaction includes metabolite profiling, pathway identification, P450 inhibition, P450 induction, and uptake and efflux transporter inhibition. The application of human hepatocytes in toxicity evaluation includes in vitro hepatotoxicity and metabolism-based drug toxicity determination. A novel system, the Integrated Discrete Multiple Organ Co-culture (IdMOC) which allows the evaluation of nonhepatic toxicity in the presence of hepatic metabolism, is described.
Epithelial-mesenchymal Transition is Associated with Acquired Resistance to 5-Fluorocuracil in HT-29 Colon Cancer Cells
Kim, A-Young ; Kwak, Jae-Hwan ; Je, Nam Kyung ; Lee, Yun-hee ; Jung, Young-Suk ;
Toxicological Research, volume 31, issue 2, 2015, Pages 151~156
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2015.31.2.151
5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is commonly used for the therapy of colon cancer; however, acquired resistance to 5-FU is a critical barrier to successful treatment and the primary cause of chemotherapy failure. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process whereby cells undergo alterations in morphology and molecular characteristics promoting tumor progression and metastasis. Accumulating evidence shows that transition from epithelial to mesenchymal phenotype in cancer cells is associated with their resistance to chemotherapy. However, it is still poorly understood whether EMT is involved in acquired resistance to 5-FU. In this study, we developed an in vitro cell model, 5-FU-resistant HT-29 colon cancer cells, and characterized the differences in cellular morphology and molecular alterations between parental and resistant cells. In accord with mesenchymal-like morphology of 5-FU-resistant HT-29 cells, the expression of the mesenchymal marker fibronectin was significantly increased in these cells in comparision with that in the parental cells. Of interest, we also found a marked increase in the expression of EMT-inducing transcription factors Twist, Zeb1, and Zeb2. Finally, 5-FU-resistant cells showed enhanced migration in comparison with parental HT-29. Taken together, these results indicate that EMT could be associated with 5-FU resistance acquired by HT-29 cells. A specific role of each transcription factor found in this study will require further investigation.
Retinopathy Induced by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Rats Assessed by Micro-computed Tomography and Histopathology
Kim, Young Hee ; Kwak, Kyung A ; Kim, Tae Sung ; Seok, Ji Hyeon ; Roh, Hang Sik ; Lee, Jong-Kwon ; Jeong, Jayoung ; Meang, Eun Ho ; Hong, Jeong-sup ; Lee, Yun Seok ; Kang, Jin Seok ;
Toxicological Research, volume 31, issue 2, 2015, Pages 157~163
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2015.31.2.157
Nanotechnology has advanced at an extremely rapid pace over the past several years in numerous fields of research. However, the uptake of nanoparticles (NPs) into the body after administration through various routes may pose a risk to human health. In this study, we investigated the potential ocular toxicity of 20-nm, negatively- charged zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs in rats using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histopathological assessment. Animals were divided into four groups as control group, ZnO NPs treatment group (500 mg/kg/day), control recovery group, and ZnO NPs treatment and recovery group. Ocular samples were prepared from animals treated for 90 days (10 males and 10 females, respectively) and from recovery animals (5 males and 5 females, respectively) sacrificed at 14 days after final treatment and were compared to age-matched control animals. Micro-CT analyses represented the deposition and distribution of foreign materials in the eyes of rats treated with ZnO NPs, whereas control animals showed no such findings. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and energy dispersive spectrometry showed the intraocular foreign materials as zinc in treated rats, whereas control animals showed no zinc signal. Histopathological examination revealed the retinopathy in the eyes of rats treated with ZnO NPs. Neuronal nuclei expression was decreased in neurons of the ganglion cell layer of animals treated with ZnO NPs compared to the control group. Taken together, treatment with 20-nm, negatively-charged ZnO NPs increased retinopathy, associated with local distribution of them in ocular lesions.
Cornus officinalis Methanol Extract Upregulates Melanogenesis in Melan-a Cells
An, Yun Ah ; Hwang, Ji Yeon ; Lee, Jae Soon ; Kim, Young Chul ;
Toxicological Research, volume 31, issue 2, 2015, Pages 165~172
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2015.31.2.165
Cornus officinalis is widely distributed in Korea, and its fruit has been used to make as herbal drug for traditional medicine in Korea, Japan, and China because of its tonic, analgesic, and diuretic properties. However, the effects of C. officinalis methanol extract (COME) on melanogenesis remain poorly understood. We evaluated the melanogenic capability of COME in melan-a cells, which are immortalized mouse melanocytes. COME increased melanin synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with
of COME significantly increased melanin content by 36.1% (p < 0.001) to a level even higher than that (31.6%) of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine, a well-known pigmentation agent. COME also upregulated tyrosinase activity and its messenger RNA and protein expression. In addition, COME upregulated the expression of tyrosinase-related proteins 1 and 2 and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor-M messenger RNA expression. These results imply that COME may be appropriate for development as a natural product to treat hair graying.
Anti-aging Effect and Gene Expression Profiling of Aged Rats Treated with G. bimaculatus Extract
Ahn, Mi Young ; Hwang, Jae Sam ; Yun, Eun Young ; Kim, Min-Ji ; Park, Kun-Koo ;
Toxicological Research, volume 31, issue 2, 2015, Pages 173~180
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2015.31.2.173
Extract from Gryllus bimaculatus crickets inhibits oxidation at the DNA level, with reduced production of 8-hydroxy-2`-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Microarray analyses were performed with a rat 28K cDNA clone set array to identify the gene expression profiles of aged (10 months old) Wistar Kyoto rats treated for one month with 100 mg/kg G. bimaculatus ethanol extract to assess the effects. The extract produced a meaningful anti-edema effect, evident by the inhibition of creatinine phosphokinase activity. The weights of abdominal and ovarian adipose tissues were reduced and the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in adipose tissues was increased in an extract dose-dependent manner. Compared with untreated control rats, rats treated with the extract displayed the upregulation of 1053 genes including Fas (tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 6), Amigo3 (adhesion molecule with an immunoglobulin-like domain), Reticulon 4, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme (Hmgcr; a reductase), related anti-fatigue (enzyme metabolism), and Rtn antioxidant, and the downregulation of 73 genes including Ugt2b (UDP glycosyltransferase 2 family), Early growth response 1, and Glycoprotein m6a. Data suggest that G. bimaculatus extract may have value in lessening the effects of aging, resulting in a differential gene expression pattern indicative of a marked stress response and lower expression of metabolic and biosynthetic genes.
Toxicity of Two Different Sized Lanthanum Oxides in Cultured Cells and Sprague-Dawley Rats
Lim, Cheol-Hong ;
Toxicological Research, volume 31, issue 2, 2015, Pages 181~189
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2015.31.2.181
In recent years, the use of both nano- and micro-sized lanthanum has been increasing in the production of optical glasses, batteries, alloys, etc. However, a hazard assessment has not been performed to determine the degree of toxicity of lanthanum. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the toxicity of both nano- and micro-sized lanthanum oxide in cultured cells and rats. After identifying the size and the morphology of lanthanum oxides, the toxicity of two different sized lanthanum oxides was compared in cultured RAW264.7 cells and A549 cells. The toxicity of the lanthanum oxides was also analyzed using rats. The half maximal inhibitory concentrations of micro-
in the RAW264.7 cells, with and without sonication, were 17.3 and 12.7 times higher than those of nano-
, respectively. Similar to the RAW264.7 cells, the toxicity of nano-
was stronger than that of micro-
in the A549 cells. We found that nano-
was absorbed in the lungs more and was eliminated more slowly than micro-
. At a dosage that did not affect the body weight, numbers of leukocytes, and concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase and albumin in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids, the weight of the lungs increased. Inflammatory effects on BAL decreased over time, but lung weight increased and the proteinosis of the lung became severe over time. The effects of particle size on the toxicity of lanthanum oxides in rats were less than in the cultured cells. In conclusion, smaller lanthanum oxides were more toxic in the cultured cells, and sonication decreased their size and increased their toxicity. The smaller-sized lanthanum was absorbed more into the lungs and caused more toxicity in the lungs. The histopathological symptoms caused by lanthanum oxide in the lungs did not go away and continued to worsen until 13 weeks after the initial exposure.
Effects of Pueraria lobata Root Ethanol Extract on Adipogenesis and Lipogenesis During 3T3-L1 Differentiation into Adipocytes
Lee, Chae Myoung ; Yoon, Mi Sook ; Kim, Young Chul ;
Toxicological Research, volume 31, issue 2, 2015, Pages 191~201
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2015.31.2.191
We evaluated the inhibitory effect of Pueraria lobata root ethanol extract (PLREE) on lipid accumulation during 3T3-L1 differentiation to adipocytes by measuring the intracellular expression of adipogenic, lipogenic, and lipolytic markers and lipid accumulation. The total polyphenol and flavonoid content of PLREE were 47 and 29 mg/g, respectively. The electron donating capacity of PLREE at
was 48.8%. Treatment of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with 100, 250, or
PLREE for 8 days dose-dependently promoted the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. In contrast, the lipid content of PLREE-treated cells was significantly reduced by 7.8% (p < 0.05), 35.6% (p < 0.001), and 42.2% (p < 0.001) following treatment with 100, 250, and
PLREE, respectively, as compared to differentiated control cells. PLREE upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor
mRNA and protein, and sterol regulator element-binding protein-1c mRNA levels, but did not affect CCAAT/enhancer binding-protein
mRNA levels. PLREE also downregulated acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA and protein, fatty acid synthase (FAS) protein, and leptin mRNA levels, but did not affect FAS mRNA expression. PLREE upregulated adipose triglyceride lipase mRNA and protein expression, and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) protein expression, but did not affect HSL mRNA expression. In conclusion, we found that PLREE enhanced adipogenesis, but reduced lipogenesis, resulting in decreased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells.
Subchronic Inhalation Toxicity of Trichloroacetonitrile on the Sprague Dawley Rats
Han, Jeong-Hee ; Chung, Yong-Hyun ; Lim, Cheol-Hong ;
Toxicological Research, volume 31, issue 2, 2015, Pages 203~211
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2015.31.2.203
Trichloroacetonitrile is used as an intermediate in insecticides, pesticides, and dyes. In Korea alone, over 10 tons are used annually. Its oral and dermal toxicity is classified as category 3 according to the globally harmonized system of classification and labelling of chemicals, and it is designated a toxic substance by the Ministry of Environment in Korea. There are no available inhalation toxicity data on trichloroacetonitrile. Thus, the present study performed inhalation tests to provide data for hazard and risk assessments. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to trichloroacetonitrile at concentrations of 4, 16, or 64 ppm for 6 hour per day 5 days per week for 13 weeks in a repeated study. As a result, salivation, shortness of breath, and wheezing were observed, and their body weights decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in the 16 and 64 ppm groups. All the rats in 64 ppm group were dead or moribund within 4 weeks of the exposure. Some significant changes were observed in blood hematology and serum biochemistry (e.g., prothrombin time, ratio of albumin and globulin, blood urea nitrogen, and triglycerides), but the values were within normal physiological ranges. The major target organs of trichloroacetonitrile were the nasal cavity, trachea, and lungs. The rats exposed to 16 ppm showed moderate histopathological changes in the transitional epithelium and olfactory epithelium of the nasal cavity. Nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) and respiratory epithelium were also changed. Respiratory lesions were common in the dead rats that had been exposed to the 64 ppm concentration. The dead animals also showed loss of cilia in the trachea, pneumonitis in the lung, and epithelial hyperplasia in the bronchi and bronchioles. In conclusion, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was estimated to be 4 ppm. The main target organs of trichloroacetonitrile were the nasal cavity, trachea, and lungs.
Toxic Effect of Cadmium Assay in Contaminated Soil Earthworm Cell Using Modified Sensor
Ly, Suw Young ; Kyung, Lee ; Kim, Chae Hwa ; Seo, Roma ; Lee, Soo Youn ; Kim, Lina ; Chae, Su min ; Choi, Sung Wook ; Kim, Ji Yoon ;
Toxicological Research, volume 31, issue 2, 2015, Pages 213~217
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2015.31.2.213
A voltammetric toxic metal of cadmium detection was studied using a fluorine doped graphite pencil electrode (FPE) in a seawater electrolyte. In this study, square wave (SW) stripping and chronoamerometry were used for determination of Cd(II) in seawater. Affordable pencils and an auxiliary electrode were used as reference. All experiments in this study could be performed at reasonable cost by using graphite pencil. The application was performed on the tissue of contaminated soil earthworm. The results show that the method can be applicable for vegetables and in vivo fluid or medicinal diagnosis.