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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Toxicology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 31, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 31, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 31, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 31, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
Selecting the target year
Total Diet Studies as a Tool for Ensuring Food Safety
Lee, Joon-Goo ; Kim, Sheen-Hee ; Kim, Hae-Jung ; Yoon, Hae-Jung ;
Toxicological Research, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 221~226
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2015.31.3.221
With the diversification and internationalization of the food industry and the increased focus on health from a majority of consumers, food safety policies are being implemented based on scientific evidence. Risk analysis represents the most useful scientific approach for making food safety decisions. Total diet study (TDS) is often used as a risk assessment tool to evaluate exposure to hazardous elements. Many countries perform TDSs to screen for chemicals in foods and analyze exposure trends to hazardous elements. TDSs differ from traditional food monitoring in two major aspects: chemicals are analyzed in food in the form in which it will be consumed and it is cost-effective in analyzing composite samples after processing multiple ingredients together. In Korea, TDSs have been conducted to estimate dietary intakes of heavy metals, pesticides, mycotoxins, persistent organic pollutants, and processing contaminants. TDSs need to be carried out periodically to ensure food safety.
Total Diet Study: For a Closer-to-real Estimate of Dietary Exposure to Chemical Substances
Kim, Cho-il ; Lee, Jeeyeon ; Kwon, Sungok ; Yoon, Hae-Jung ;
Toxicological Research, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 227~240
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2015.31.3.227
Recent amendment on the Food Sanitation Act in Korea mandated the Minister of Food & Drug Safety to secure the scientific basis for management and reevaluation of standards and specifications of foods. Especially because the current food safety control is limited within the scope of `Farm to Market` covering from production to retail in Korea, safety control at the plane of true `Farm to Fork` scope is urgently needed and should include `total diet` of population instead of individual food items. Therefore, `Total Diet Study (TDS)` which provides `closer-to-real` estimates of exposure to hazardous materials through analysis on table-ready (cooked) samples of foods would be the solution to more comprehensive food safety management, as suggested by World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Although the protection of diets from hazards must be considered as one of the most essential public health functions of any country, we may need to revisit the value of foods which has been too much underrated by the meaningless amount of some hazardous materials in Korea. Considering the primary value of foods lies on sustaining life, growth, development, and health promotion of human being, food safety control should be handled not only by the presence or absence of hazardous materials but also by maximizing the value of foods via balancing with the preservation of beneficial components in foods embracing total diet. In this regard, this article aims to provide an overview on TDS by describing procedures involved except chemical analysis which is beyond our scope. Also, details on the ongoing TDS in Korea are provided as an example. Although TDS itself might not be of keen interest for most readers, it is the main user of the safety reference values resulted from toxicological research in the public health perspective.
Furan in Thermally Processed Foods - A Review
Seok, Yun-Jeong ; Her, Jae-Young ; Kim, Yong-Gun ; Kim, Min Yeop ; Jeong, Soo Young ; Kim, Mina K. ; Lee, Jee-yeon ; Kim, Cho-il ; Yoon, Hae-Jung ; Lee, Kwang-Geun ;
Toxicological Research, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 241~253
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2015.31.3.241
) is a volatile compound formed mostly during the thermal processing of foods. The toxicity of furan has been well documented previously, and it was classified as "possible human carcinogen (Group 2B)" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Various pathways have been reported for the formation of furan, that is, thermal degradation and/or thermal rearrangement of carbohydrates in the presence of amino acids, thermal degradation of certain amino acids, including aspartic acid, threonine,
-alanine, serine, and cysteine, oxidation of ascorbic acid at higher temperatures, and oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and carotenoids. Owing to the complexity of the formation mechanism, a vast number of studies have been published on monitoring furan in commercial food products and on the potential strategies for reducing furan. Thus, we present a comprehensive review on the current status of commercial food monitoring databases and the possible furan reduction methods. Additionally, we review analytical methods for furan detection and the toxicity of furan.
Determination of Heterocyclic Amines and Acrylamide in Agricultural Products with Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Lee, Kyung-Jun ; Lee, Gae-Ho ; Kim, HaeSol ; Oh, Min-Seok ; Chu, Seok ; Hwang, In Ju ; Lee, Jee-yeon ; Choi, Ari ; Kim, Cho-il ; Park, Hyun-Mee ;
Toxicological Research, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 255~264
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2015.31.3.255
Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and acrylamide are unintended hazardous substances generated by heating or processing of foods and are known as carcinogenic and mutagenic agents by the animal experiments. A simple method was established for a rapid and accurate determination of 12 types of HCAs (IQ, MeIQ, Glu-P-1, Glu-P-2, MeIQx, Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2, PhIP,
, Harman and Norharman) and acrylamide in three food matrices (non-fat liquid, non-fat solid and fat solid) by isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In every sample, a mixture of internal standards including
was spiked for quantification of HCAs and
-acrylamide was also spiked for the analysis of acrylamide. HCAs and acrylamide in sample were extracted with acetonitrile and water, respectively, and then two solid-phase extraction cartridges, ChemElut: HLB for HCAs and Accucat: HLB for acrylamide, were used for efficiently removing interferences such as pigment, lipid, polar, nonpolar and ionic compounds. Established method was validated in terms of recovery, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and linearity. This method showed good precision (RSD < 20%), accuracy (71.8~119.1%) and recovery (66.0~118.9%). The detection limits were < 3.1 ng/g for all analytes. The correlation coefficients for all the HCAs and acrylamide were > 0.995, showing excellent linearity. These methods for the detection of HCAs and acrylamide by LC-MS/MS were applied to real samples and were successfully used for quantitative monitoring in the total diet study and this can be applied to risk assessment in various food matrices.
Evaluation of Chemical Analysis Method and Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Content from Seafood and Dairy Products
Lee, So-Young ; Lee, Jee-Yeon ; Shin, Han-Seung ;
Toxicological Research, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 265~271
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2015.31.3.265
This study was carried out to investigate contents of 8 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from frequently consumed seafood and dairy products and to evaluate their chemical analysis methods. Samples were collected from markets of 9 cities in Korea chosen as the population reference and evaluated. The methodology involved saponification, extraction with n-hexane, clean-up on Sep-Pak silica cartridges and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry analysis. Validation proceeded on 2 matrices. Recoveries for 8 PAHs ranged from 86.87 to 103.57%. The limit of detection (LOD) 8 PAHs was
, and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 8 PAHs was
. The mean concentration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) was
from seafood and
from dairy products. The total PAHs concentration was
in seafood and
in dairy products.
Validation and Determination of the Contents of Acetaldehyde and Formaldehyde in Foods
Jeong, Hye-Seung ; Chung, Hyun ; Song, Sang-Hoon ; Kim, Cho-Il ; Lee, Joon-Goo ; Kim, Young-Suk ;
Toxicological Research, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 273~278
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2015.31.3.273
The aim of this study was to develop an efficient quantitative method for the determination of acetaldehyde (AA) and formaldehyde (FA) contents in solid and liquid food matrices. The determination of those compounds was validated and performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined by solid phase micro-extraction after derivatization with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoro-benzyl)-hydroxylamine hydrochloride. Validation was carried out in terms of limit of detection, limit of quantitation, linearity, precision, and recovery. Then their contents were analyzed in various food samples including 15 fruits, 22 milk products, 31 alcohol-free beverages, and 13 alcoholic beverages. The highest contents of AA and FA were determined in a white wine (40,607.02 ng/g) and an instant coffee (1,522.46 ng/g), respectively.
Distribution of Seven N-Nitrosamines in Food
Park, Jong-eun ; Seo, Jung-eun ; Lee, Jee-yeon ; Kwon, Hoonjeong ;
Toxicological Research, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 279~288
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2015.31.3.279
N-nitrosamines, which are classified as carcinogens by IARC and US EPA, can be easily found in various foods. They are reaction products between nitrogen oxide and secondary amines, but can also be generated during fermentation. Ever since the 1960s, when nitrite, used as a preservative in processed meats, was suspected to generate N-nitrosamines, the usage of the food additive has been debated. However, the benefit of nitrite in food supply could not be ignored and the risk-benefit analysis has become a key issue in the use of the additive. For a risk analysis, an accurate estimation of the hazardous material is necessary; therefore, analytical methods for nitrosamines have continuously evolved from the 1950s. Solid supported liquid-liquid extraction and solid phase extractions have replaced the distillation for the clean-up steps, and tandem mass spectrometry is employed for higher selectivity and sensitivity. In the present study, for a better estimation of N-nitrosamine intake, the total diet study samples were prepared for the N-nitrosamines analysis. In order to obtain the most sensitive results, a partial preparation procedure was developed and modified for different food matrices. Among seven N-nitrosamines (N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosomethylethylamine, N-nitrosodiethylamine, N-nitrosodibutylamine, N-nitrosopiperidine, N-nitrosopyrrolidine, and N-nitrosomorpholine) analyzed in the present study, N-nitrosodiethylamine has shown the highest detection rate in agricultural foods, while N-nitrosodimethylamine has appeared most frequently in livestock and fishery food products. The concentration of N-nitrosodimethylamine was the highest in seasoning.
Determination of Ethyl Carbamate in Alcoholic Beverages and Fermented Foods Sold in Korea
Ryu, Dayeon ; Choi, Bogyoung ; Kim, Eunjoo ; Park, Seri ; Paeng, Hwijin ; Kim, Cho-il ; Lee, Jee-yeon ; Yoon, Hae Jung ; Koh, Eunmi ;
Toxicological Research, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 289~297
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2015.31.3.289
Ethyl carbamate (EC) classified as a probable human carcinogen (Group 2A) is naturally formed in alcoholic beverages and fermented foods during fermentation process and/or during storage. The objective of this study was to analyze EC in 34 food items including 14 alcoholic beverages and 20 fermented foods sold in Korea. Each food was collected from 18 supermarkets in 9 metropolitan cities in Korea, and then made into composite. According to food composition and alcohol content, samples were divided into four matrices such as apple juice, milk, Soju (liquor containing about 20% alcohol), and rice porridge. The maximum EC value of
was found in Maesilju (liquor made from Maesil and Soju). Whisky and Bokbunjaju (Korean black raspberry wine) contained
, respectively. EC was not detected in other alcoholic beverages. Of 20 fermented foods, Japanese-style soy sauce had highest level of
and traditional one contained
. Soybean paste had
, however, EC was not found in other fermented foods.
Validation of an HPLC Analytical Method for Determination of Biogenic Amines in Agricultural Products and Monitoring of Biogenic Amines in Korean Fermented Agricultural Products
Yoon, Hyeock ; Park, Jung Hyuck ; Choi, Ari ; Hwang, Han-Joon ; Mah, Jae-Hyung ;
Toxicological Research, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 299~305
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2015.31.3.299
An HPLC analytical method was validated for the quantitative determination of biogenic amines in agricultural products. Four agricultural foods, including apple juice, Juk, corn oil and peanut butter, were selected as food matrices based on their water and fat contents (i.e., non-fatty liquid, non-fatty solid, fatty liquid and fatty solid, respectively). The precision, accuracy, recovery, limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were determined to test the validity of an HPLC procedure for the determination of biogenic amines, including tryptamine,
-phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine, in each matrix. The LODs and LOQs for the biogenic amines were within the range of 0.01~0.10 mg/kg and 0.02~0.31 mg/kg, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of intraday for biogenic amine concentrations ranged from 1.86 to 5.95%, whereas the RSD of interday ranged from 2.08 to 5.96%. Of the matrices spiked with biogenic amines, corn oil with tyramine and Juk with putrescine exhibited the least accuracy of 84.85% and recovery rate of 89.63%, respectively, at the lowest concentration (10 mg/kg). Therefore, the validation results fulfilled AOAC criteria and recommendations. Subsequently, the method was applied to the analysis of biogenic amines in fermented agricultural products for a total dietary survey in Korea. Although the results revealed that Korean traditional soy sauce and Doenjang contained relatively high levels of histamine, the amounts are of no concern if these fermented agricultural products serve as condiments.
Analysis of Trans Fat in Edible Oils with Cooking Process
Song, Juhee ; Park, Joohyeok ; Jung, Jinyeong ; Lee, Chankyu ; Gim, Seo Yeoung ; Ka, HyeJung ; Yi, BoRa ; Kim, Mi-Ja ; Kim, Cho-il ; Lee, JaeHwan ;
Toxicological Research, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 307~312
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2015.31.3.307
Trans fat is a unsaturated fatty acid with trans configuration and separated double bonds. Analytical methods have been introduced to analyze trans fat content in foods including infrared (IR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography (GC), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, reverses-phase silver ion high performance liquid chromatography, and silver nitrate thin layer chromatography. Currently, FT-IR spectroscopy and GC are mostly used methods. Trans fat content in 6 vegetable oils were analyzed and processing effects including baking, stir-frying, pan-frying, and frying on the formation of trans fat in corn oil was evaluated by GC. Among tested vegetable oils, corn oil has 0.25 g trans fat/100 g, whereas other oils including rapeseed, soybean, olive, perilla, and sesame oils did not have detectable amount of trans fat content. Among cooking methods, stir-frying increased trans fat in corn oil whereas baking, pan-frying, and frying procedures did not make changes in trans fat content compared to untreated corn oils. However, the trans fat content was so low and food label can be declared as `0` trans based on the regulation of Ministry of Food ad Drug Safety (MFDS) (< 2 g/100 g edible oil).
Analysis of 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP in Various Foodstuffs Using GC-MS
Kim, Wooseok ; Jeong, Yun A ; On, Jiwon ; Choi, Ari ; Lee, Jee-yeon ; Lee, Joon Goo ; Lee, Kwang-Geun ; Pyo, Heesoo ;
Toxicological Research, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 313~319
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2015.31.3.313
3-Monochloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) and 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol (1,3-DCP) are not only produced in the manufacturing process of foodstuffs such as hydrolyzed vegetable proteins and soy sauce but are also formed by heat processing in the presence of fat and low water activity. 3-MCPD exists both in free and ester forms, and the ester form has been also detected in various foods. Free 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP are classified as Group 2B by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Although there is no data confirming the toxicity of either compound in humans, their toxicity was evidenced in animal experimentation or in vitro. Although few studies have been conducted, free 3-MCPD has been shown to have neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, and carcinogenicity. In contrast, 1,3-DCP only has mutagenic activity. The purpose of this study was to analyze 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP in various foods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP were analyzed using phenyl boronic acid derivatization and the liquid-liquid extraction method, respectively. The analytical method for 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP was validated in terms of linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation, accuracy and precision. Consequently, the LODs of 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP in various matrices were identified to be in the ranges of 4.18~10.56 ng/g and 1.06~3.15 ng/g, respectively.