Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Toxicology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 32, Issue 3 - Jul 2016
Volume 32, Issue 2 - Apr 2016
Volume 32, Issue 1 - Jan 2016
Selecting the target year
Targeting Cancer Metabolism - Revisiting the Warburg Effects
Tran, Quangdon ; Lee, Hyunji ; Park, Jisoo ; Kim, Seon-Hwan ; Park, Jongsun ;
Toxicological Research, volume 32, issue 3, 2016, Pages 177~193
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2016.32.3.177
After more than half of century since the Warburg effect was described, this atypical metabolism has been standing true for almost every type of cancer, exhibiting higher glycolysis and lactate metabolism and defective mitochondrial ATP production. This phenomenon had attracted many scientists to the problem of elucidating the mechanism of, and reason for, this effect. Several models based on oncogenic studies have been proposed, such as the accumulation of mitochondrial gene mutations, the switch from oxidative phosphorylation respiration to glycolysis, the enhancement of lactate metabolism, and the alteration of glycolytic genes. Whether the Warburg phenomenon is the consequence of genetic dysregulation in cancer or the cause of cancer remains unknown. Moreover, the exact reasons and physiological values of this peculiar metabolism in cancer remain unclear. Although there are some pharmacological compounds, such as 2-deoxy-D-glucose, dichloroacetic acid, and 3-bromopyruvate, therapeutic strategies, including diet, have been developed based on targeting the Warburg effect. In this review, we will revisit the Warburg effect to determine how much scientists currently understand about this phenomenon and how we can treat the cancer based on targeting metabolism.
Allele Frequencies of the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Related to the Body Burden of Heavy Metals in the Korean Population and Their Ethnic Differences
Eom, Sang-Yong ; Lim, Ji-Ae ; Kim, Yong-Dae ; Choi, Byung-Sun ; Hwang, Myung Sil ; Park, Jung-Duck ; Kim, Heon ; Kwon, Ho-Jang ;
Toxicological Research, volume 32, issue 3, 2016, Pages 195~205
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2016.32.3.195
This study was performed to select single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to the body burden of heavy metals in Koreans, to provide Korean allele frequencies of selected SNPs, and to assess the difference in allele frequencies with other ethnicities. The candidate-gene approach method and genome-wide association screening were used to select SNPs related to the body burden of heavy metals. Genotyping analysis of the final 192 SNPs selected was performed on 1,483 subjects using the VeraCode Goldengate assay. Allele frequencies differences and genetic differentiations between the Korean population and Chinese (CHB), Japanese (JPT), Caucasian (CEU), and African (YIR) populations were tested by Fisher's exact test and fixation index (
), respectively. The Korean population was genetically similar to the CHB and JPT populations (
< 0.05, for all SNPs in both populations). However, a significant difference in the allele frequencies between the Korean and CEU and YIR populations were observed in 99 SNPs (60.7%) and 120 SNPs (73.6%), respectively. Ten (6.1%) and 26 (16.0%) SNPs had genetic differentiation (
> 0.05) among the Korean-CEU and Korean-YIR comparisons, respectively. The SNP with the largest
value between the Korean and African populations was cystathionine-
-synthase rs234709 (
: KOR-YIR, 0.309; KOR-CEU, 0.064). Our study suggests that interethnic differences exist in SNPs associated with heavy metals of Koreans, and it should be considered in future studies that address ethnic differences in heavy-metal concentrations in the body and genetic susceptibility to the body burden of heavy metals.
Inhibition of Cytochrome P450 by Propolis in Human Liver Microsomes
Ryu, Chang Seon ; Oh, Soo Jin ; Oh, Jung Min ; Lee, Ji-Yoon ; Lee, Sang Yoon ; Chae, Jung-woo ; Kwon, Kwang-il ; Kim, Sang Kyum ;
Toxicological Research, volume 32, issue 3, 2016, Pages 207~213
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2016.32.3.207
Although propolis is one of the most popular functional foods for human health, there have been no comprehensive studies of herb-drug interactions through cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition. The purpose of this study was to determine the inhibitory effects of propolis on the activities of CYP1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1 and 3A4 using pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs). Propolis inhibited CYP1A2, CYP2E1 and CYP2C19 with an
value of 6.9, 16.8, and
, respectively, whereas CYP2A6, 2B6, 2C9, 2D6, and 3A4 were unaffected. Based on half-maximal inhibitory concentration shifts between microsomes incubated with and without nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, propolis-induced CYP1A2, CYP2C19, and CYP2E1 inhibition was metabolism-independent. To evaluate the interaction potential between propolis and therapeutic drugs, the effects of propolis on metabolism of duloxetine, a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, were determined in HLMs. CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 are involved in hydroxylation of duloxetine to 4-hydroxy duloxetine, the major metabolite, which was decreased following propolis addition in HLMs. These results raise the possibility of interactions between propolis and therapeutic drugs metabolized by CYP1A2.
Isolation and Identification of Cytotoxic and Biological Active Toxin from the Puffer Fish Arothron stellatus
Veeruraj, Anguchamy ; Pugazhvendan, Sampath Renuga ; Ajithkumar, Thipramalai Thankappan ; Arumugam, Muthuvel ;
Toxicological Research, volume 32, issue 3, 2016, Pages 215~223
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2016.32.3.215
This study is to investigate the biological, biochemical and cytotoxic effects of puffer fish (Arothron stellatus) toxin extracts under in-vitro condition. Extracted toxins from various organs of puffer fish were purified by using active charcoal column, and Bio-gel-P2 column chromatography. The lethality of toxin was tested in crabs, which consists of neurotoxic compounds. The degree of the brine shrimp lethality assay was found directly proportional to the concentration of the toxin extracts, which was well supported by hemolytic assay. The experimental results suggested that the gonad was found higher toxins than the liver and muscles. The mortality rate of brine shrimp nauplii was increased with the raise of concentrations of toxin level. Among the different doses and time dependent cytotoxic effect of human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells were showed
of toxin, which was effectively inhibited cancer cell proliferation. HPLC and TLC analysis was revealed that the A. stellatus toxin contains tetrodotoxin (TTX), related compounds 4-epi TTX and anhydro-TTX. The present results suggested that the A. stellatus contain TTX as a major and anh-TTX as a minor toxin. It could be the potential candidate in the field of anticancer drug discovery against human cervical cancer cells. The present data is confirming that the puffer fish toxin as an interesting source of novel bioactive natural compounds with potent applications in pharmacology.
Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Essential Oil and its Component from Zingiber officinale Roscoe
Lee, Yongkyu ;
Toxicological Research, volume 32, issue 3, 2016, Pages 225~230
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2016.32.3.225
Zingiber officinale Roscoe has been widely used as a folk medicine to treat various diseases, including cancer. This study aims to re-examine the therapeutic potential of co-administration of natural products and cancer chemotherapeutics. Candidate material for this project,
-zingiberene, was extracted from Zingiber officinale Roscoe, and
-zingiberene makes up
of its total essential oil.
-Zingiberene showed low
) in HeLa, SiHa, MCF-7 and HL-60 cells each. These values are a little bit higher than
values of general essential oil in those cells. The treatment of
-zingiberene produced nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in SiHa cells, and the percentage of sub-diploid cells increased in a concentration-dependent manner in SiHa cells, hallmark features of apoptosis. Mitochondrial cytochrome c activation and an in vitro caspase-3 activity assay demonstrated that the activation of caspases accompanies the apoptotic effect of
-zingiberene, which mediates cell death. These results suggest that the apoptotic effect of
-zingiberene on SiHa cells may converge caspase-3 activation through the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into cytoplasm. It is considered that anti-proliferative effect of
-zingiberene is a result of apoptotic effects, and
-zingiberene is worth furthermore study to develop it as cancer chemotherapeutics.
A 24-Weeks Toxicity Study of Eryngium foetidum Linn. Leaves in Mice
Janwitthayanuchit, Kanittha ; Kupradinun, Piengchai ; Rungsipipat, Anudep ; Kettawan, Aikkarach ; Butryee, Chaniphun ;
Toxicological Research, volume 32, issue 3, 2016, Pages 231~237
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2016.32.3.231
Eryngium foetidum Linn. leaves (EF) are widely used in Thailand and many countries throughout Asia as a culinary seasoning and a traditional medicine. However, adverse effect of high dose consumption in long duration has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate chronic toxicity of EF in mice. Thirty-two ICR male mice were divided into 4 groups of 8 mice each. The mice were fed AIN-76 rodent diet, or AIN-76 rodent diet supplemented with ground freeze-dried EF at 0.8%, 1.6% and 3.2% that is equivalent to approximately 35, 73 and 155 times that of human consumption, respectively, at 97.5 percentile for a period of 24 weeks. At the end of experiment, the mice were euthanized and blood samples were collected for hematological and biochemical evaluations. Necropsy was performed while visceral organs such as lung, liver, kidneys, spleen etc. were collected, weighed and histopathologically examined. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) results of mice in 1.6% and 3.2% EF diet groups were significantly higher than the BUN of control group. No significant difference was noted in other biochemical and hematological properties between the treatment groups and control; all results were within normal range. Histopathology of almost all visceral organs showed no significant changes. However, tubulonephrosis and chronic interstitial nephritis were observed in the groups treated with 1.6% and 3.2% EF diet. Body weight was reduced significantly at week 12 to week 20 when compared to the control group while relative kidney weights were significantly increased. In conclusion, the consumption of EF in diet at high doses illustrated the adverse effect on some biochemical parameters and histopathology in mice. Our findings suggested that EF daily consumption for 24 weeks, at higher doses than the 0.8% EF diet (35 times of human consumption), might cause adverse effect on kidney function in mice.
Propolis Inhibits Neurite Outgrowth in Differentiating SH-SY5Y Human Neuroblastoma Cells
Kim, Han Bit ; Yoo, Byung Sun ;
Toxicological Research, volume 32, issue 3, 2016, Pages 239~243
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2016.32.3.239
Propolis is a multicomponent, active, complex resinous substance collected by honeybees from a variety of plant sources. We have studied the effect of propolis on neurite outgrowth of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells induced to differentiate by all-trans-retinoic acid (RA). Propolis, at a concentration of
, had no significant effect on the viability of differentiating SH-SY5Y cells. However, the neurite outgrowth of the differentiating SH-SY5Y cells treated with propolis (
) for 48 hr was significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of RA-stimulated differentiating SH-SY5Y cells with 0.3 to
propolis resulted in decreased level of transglutaminase and 43-kDa growth-associated protein (GAP-43) in a dose-dependent manner. The results indicate that propolis is able to inhibit neurite outgrowth of differentiating SH-SY5Y cells.
Subacute Inhalation Toxicity of 3-Methylpentane
Chung, Yong Hyun ; Shin, Seo-Ho ; Han, Jeong Hee ; Lee, Yong-Hoon ;
Toxicological Research, volume 32, issue 3, 2016, Pages 245~250
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2016.32.3.245
, CAS No. 96-14-0), isomer of hexane, is a colorless liquid originating naturally from petroleum or natural gas liquids. 3-Methylpentane has been used as a solvent in organic synthesis, as a lubricant, and as a raw material for producing carbon black. There is limited information available on the inhalation toxicity of 3-methylpentane, and the aim of this study was to determine its subacute inhalation toxicity. According to OECD Test Guideline 412 (subacute inhalation toxicity: 28-day study), Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to 0, 284, 1,135, and 4,540 ppm of 3-methylpentane for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks via whole-body inhalation. Mortality, clinical signs, body weights, food consumption, hematology, serum chemistry, organ weights, and gross and histopathological findings were compared between control and all exposure groups. No mortality or remarkable clinical signs were observed during the study. No gross or histopathological lesions, or adverse effects on body weight, food consumption, hematology, serum chemistry, and organ weights were observed in any male or female rats in all exposure groups, although some statistically significant changes were observed in food consumption, serum chemistry, and organ weights. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) for 3-methylpentane above 4,540 ppm/6 hr/day, 5 days/week for rats.
Tumorigenicity Evaluation of Umbilical Cord Blood-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Park, Sang-Jin ; Kim, Hyun-Jung ; Kim, Woojin ; Kim, Ok-Sun ; Lee, Sunyeong ; Han, Su-Yeon ; Jeong, Eun Ju ; Park, Hyun-shin ; Kim, Hea-Won ; Moon, Kyoung-Sik ;
Toxicological Research, volume 32, issue 3, 2016, Pages 251~258
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2016.32.3.251
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been identified in multiple types of tissue and exhibit characteristic self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation abilities. However, the possibility of oncogenic transformation after transplantation is concerning. In this study, we investigated the tumorigenic potential of umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs (hUCB-MSCs) relative to MRC-5 and HeLa cells (negative and positive controls, respectively) both in vitro and in vivo. To evaluate tumorigenicity in vitro, anchorage-independent growth was assessed using the soft agar colony formation assay. hUCB-MSCs and MRC-5 cells formed few colonies, while HeLa cells formed a greater number of larger colonies, indicating that hUCB-MSCs and MRC-5 cells do not have anchorage-independent proliferation potential. To detect tumorigenicity in vivo, hUCB-MSCs were implanted as a single subcutaneous injection into BALB/c-nu mice. No tumor formation was observed in mice transplanted with hUCB-MSCs or MRC-5 cells based on macro- and microscopic examinations; however, all mice transplanted with HeLa cells developed tumors that stained positive for a human gene according to immunohistochemical analysis. In conclusion, hUCB-MSCs do not exhibit tumorigenic potential based on in vitro and in vivo assays under our experimental conditions, providing further evidence of their safety for clinical applications.
A Web-based Alternative Non-animal Method Database for Safety Cosmetic Evaluations
Kim, Seung Won ; Kim, Bae-Hwan ;
Toxicological Research, volume 32, issue 3, 2016, Pages 259~267
DOI : 10.5487/TR.2016.32.3.259
Animal testing was used traditionally in the cosmetics industry to confirm product safety, but has begun to be banned; alternative methods to replace animal experiments are either in development, or are being validated, worldwide. Research data related to test substances are critical for developing novel alternative tests. Moreover, safety information on cosmetic materials has neither been collected in a database nor shared among researchers. Therefore, it is imperative to build and share a database of safety information on toxicological mechanisms and pathways collected through in vivo, in vitro, and in silico methods. We developed the CAMSEC database (named after the research team; the Consortium of Alternative Methods for Safety Evaluation of Cosmetics) to fulfill this purpose. On the same website, our aim is to provide updates on current alternative research methods in Korea. The database will not be used directly to conduct safety evaluations, but researchers or regulatory individuals can use it to facilitate their work in formulating safety evaluations for cosmetic materials. We hope this database will help establish new alternative research methods to conduct efficient safety evaluations of cosmetic materials.