Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
KOREAN ACADEMY OF SLEEP MEDICINE
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 10, Issue 2 - Dec 2003
Volume 10, Issue 1 - Jun 2003
Selecting the target year
Diagnosis and Treatment of Sleep Apnea
Lee, Sang-Haak ; Moon, Hwa-Sik ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 10, issue 1, 2003, Pages 5~11
Sleep apnea syndrome is a common clinical disorder characterized by intermittent cessation of airflow at nose and mouth during sleep. The clinical significance of this syndrome is that it is one of the most common causes of excessive daytime sleepiness. It can also cause neuropsychiatric, cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular complications. The standard for diagnosis of sleep apnea syndrome is nocturnal polysomnography. Because polysomnography is a time-consuming and expensive test, many efforts have been made to replace polysomnography with a simpler system of monitoring, but no method has yet been approved as a definitive investigation method. The goals of treatment for this syndrome are to eliminate excessive daytime sleepiness and to reduce the risk of possible cardiovascular complications. Continuous positive airway pressure is the most definite and widely accepted treatment for achieving these goals. Other treatments such as surgical treatment, oral appliances, and behavioral therapy may be useful for selected patients who are mildly affected.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Sleepiness
Cyn, Jae-Gong ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 10, issue 1, 2003, Pages 12~19
Sleepiness, or hypersomnia, is a relatively common complaint and one of the main problems of modern society. Accurate evaluation and diagnosis of sleepiness are important. The methods used for evaluating sleepiness are subjective measures or self-evaluations, performance decrease measures, sleep propensity measures, and arousal decrease measures. A clear and detailed history is important in differential diagnosis of sleepiness because symptoms of sleepiness may be expressed in terms of 'tiredness' or 'fatigue' that do not directly denote sleepiness. Comprehensive diagnostic evaluation is also invaluable because these symptoms may result from a variety of causes ranging from medical disorders to insufficient nocturnal sleep.
Behavior Therapy and Light Therapy of Insomnia
Seo, Wan-Seok ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 10, issue 1, 2003, Pages 20~25
Many people suffer from chronic insomnia. Inappropriate sleep causes attention difficulties, decreased work efficiency, and increased traffic accidents and disasters. Evaluating the precise causes of insomnia prior to treatment is very important, because chronic insomnia can be a secondary symptom of other medical, psychiatric, and sleep disorders. Medication and behavior therapy are not exclusive of each other, and both treatments are beneficial to some patients, but currently many physicians and patients tend to be dependent only on medication. While long-term medication causes various degrees of dependency, tolerance, and withdrawal symptoms, behavior therapy has a stable effect over a long period. Behavior therapy is one of the most important treatment modalities for chronic insomnia. It shortens sleep latency, and decreases frequency of awakening during sleep. The rationale and practice of currently used behavior therapy and light therapy will be reviewed in this study.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Restless Leg Syndrome and Periodic Limb Movement of Sleep
Ham, Byung-Joo ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 10, issue 1, 2003, Pages 26~31
Restless leg syndrome (RLS) and periodic limb movement of sleep (PLMS), often concurrent, come under diagnosed disorders of sleep and treatable condition. RLS symptoms are evoked in the limbs at rest and increase in the evening and during the night. PLMS is characterized by periodic episodes of repetitive limb movements caused by muscle contractions during sleep. RLS is often associated with a sleep complaint and PLMS. Both RLS and PLMS represent one of the most commonly encountered sleep disorders in a primary care setting. The circadian rhythm and the presence of PLMS cause sleep disturbances in RLS. The emphasis on pathophysiology includes consideration of central nervous system localization, neurotransmitter, and the role of iron metabolism. Dopaminergic agents are considered the treatment of choice for RLS and PLMS. With proper diagnosis and effective treatment patients' ability to fall asleep and maintain sleep improves, and their sense of well being increases.
Effects of Stress and Personality Characteristics on Sleep
Yoon, Ho-Kyoung ; Kang, Seung-Gul ; Ham, Byung-Joo ; Lee, Heon-Jeong ; Kwon, Ho-In ; Suh, Kwang-Yoon ; Kim, Leen ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 10, issue 1, 2003, Pages 32~38
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of stress and personality on sleep patterns, and further, to identify potential correlations between stress and personality characteristics. Methods: A total of 174 healthy college students were subjects for this study. Participants filled out the Daily Stress Inventory before sleep and the Modified Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index after sleep on three consecutive days. They also filled out the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16-PF), BDI (Beck Depression Inventory) and STAI (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory). Results: Minor stresses highly correlated with subjective sleep quality and symptoms of non-restorative sleep. However, total sleep time, sleep latency, awakening frequency, and frequency of dreams were not explained by stress scores. The O (guilty feeling), C (low ego strength) and Q4 (high anxiety) factors of the 16-PF also highly correlated with symptoms of non-restorative sleep and significantly affected sleep patterns. BDI and STAI scores also correlated with the above personality factors and minor stresses. Conclusion: This study showed that minor stresses impaired the restorative effects of sleep. Personality characteristics such as low ego strength, high levels of anxiety, and feelings of guilt were vulnerable to minor stresses. Minor stress, various personality characteristics, different coping patterns, and emotional response are highly correlated with each other and affect sleep patterns.
Standardization and Reliability and Validity of the Korean Edition of Profile of Mood States(K-POMS)
Kim, Eui-Joong ; Lee, Sang-Ick ; Jeong, Do-Un ; Shin, Min-Sup ; Yoon, In-Young ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 10, issue 1, 2003, Pages 39~51
Objectives: The Profile of Mood States (POMS) has been used broadly and frequently in various medical studies with various subjects. For the development and application of the Korean edition of POMS, called K-POMS, we translated POMS into Korean and then evaluated the reliability and validity of K-POMS. Methods: The subjects were 161 male students with a mean age of 18.1 years (15-30) and 244 female students with a mean age of 16.6 years (14-23). They were requested to perform K-POMS and SCL-90-R (Korean version) at the same time. Means, reliability coefficients, and test-retest correlations of K-POMS were calculated. Content validities, correlations with SCL-90-R, and discrimination validities in comparison with 76 depressive patients were obtained, and factor analyses were carried out. Results: Mean scores of Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) and some subscales (T, F, C, V factor) showed a significant difference between male and female students. The internal consistency coefficient (
) of the total 65 items was 0.93, and ranged from 0.67 to 0.90 for subscales. Test-retest correlations of 43 subjects ranged from 0.27 to 0.63. Seven psychiatrists rated the properness of the content of each item as more than moderate degree (mean scale points=2.66, in the range of 0 to 4). Every subscale of KPOMS exhibited significant correlation with the matching subscale of SCL-90-R. Mean scores of K-POMS of the total 405 subjects were significantly different from those of the 76 depressive subjects after age correction. Six factors were extracted, accounting for 51.2% of total variance. Factor 6 consisted of 6 items which came from various subscales of POMS and represented "uncertainty and helplessness," which may be somewhat different to depression or sadness proper. Conclusion: The validity and reliability of K-POMS could be confirmed. The significant difference in K-POMS scores between depressive subjects and normal subjects suggests that K-POMS can be used clinically for the evaluation and screening of depression. The main structure of K-POMS is very similar to that of POMS, except the Confusion-Bewilderment factor which shows weak factor consistency in K-POMS. This may reflect some emotional characteristic of Koreans such as an undifferentiated aspect of cognitive efficiency. The sixth factor newly extracted from K-POMS also may be indicative of an unique emotional aspect of young Koreans.
Automatic Detection of Stage 1 Sleep Utilizing Simultaneous Analyses of EEG Spectrum and Slow Eye Movement
Shin, Hong-Beom ; Han, Jong-Hee ; Jeong, Do-Un ; Park, Kwang-Suk ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 10, issue 1, 2003, Pages 52~60
Objectives: Stage 1 sleep provides important information regarding interpretation of nocturnal polysomnography, particularly sleep onset. It is a short transition period from wakeful consciousness to sleep. The lack of prominent sleep events characterizing stage 1 sleep is a major obstacle in automatic sleep stage scoring. In this study, utilization of simultaneous EEG and EOG processing and analyses to detect stage 1 sleep automatically were attempted. Methods: Relative powers of the alpha waves and the theta waves were calculated from spectral estimation. A relative power of alpha waves less than 50% or relative power of theta waves more than 23% was regarded as stage 1 sleep. SEM(slow eye movement) was defined as the duration of both-eye movement ranging from 1.5 to 4 seconds, and was also regarded as stage 1 sleep. If one of these three criteria was met, the epoch was regarded as stage 1 sleep. Results were compared to the manual rating results done by two polysomnography experts. Results: A total of 169 epochs were analyzed. The agreement rate for stage 1 sleep between automatic detection and manual scoring was 79.3% and Cohen’s Kappa was 0.586 (p<0.01). A significant portion (32%) of automatically detected stage 1 sleep included SEM. Conclusion: Generally, digitally-scored sleep staging shows accuracy up to 70%. Considering potential difficulty in stage 1 sleep scoring, accuracy of 79.3% in this study seems to be strong enough. Simultaneous analysis of EOG differentiates this study from previous ones which mainly depended on EEG analysis. The issue of close relationship between SEM and stage 1 sleep raised by Kinnari remains a valid one in this study.
Correlation Between the Prolongation of P300 Latency during Sleep Deprivation and Personality Variables
Lee, Heon-Jeong ; Jeon, Hye-Yeon ; Kim, Yong-Ku ; Suh, Kwang-Yoon ; Kim, Leen ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 10, issue 1, 2003, Pages 61~66
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the extent of prolongation in P300 latency by sleep deprivation and personality variables. Methods: Eighteen healthy male college students participated in this study. Subjects remained awake for 37 hours under continuous surveillance. In the morning and evening of two consecutive study days, P300 was checked four times. MMPI and STAI-T were checked in the morning of the first day. The 18 subjects were divided into two groups according to their extent of P300 prolongation by sleep deprivation: Group A consisted of short P300 latency prolonged subjects, and group B of long latency prolonged subjects. The MMPI profiles and STAI-T scores of these two groups were compared. Results: Group B showed significantly higher scores in the Mf subscale (t=-2.16, df=16, p=0.046) and Pa subscale (t=-2.61, df=16, p=0.019) than group A. Group B also showed higher F subscale scores at a marginally significant level (t=-2.11, df=16, p=0.052). Conclusion: These results suggest that subjects with higher scores in F, Mf, and Pa subscales tend to have delayed cognitive process and decreased efficiency of mental process by sleep deprivation. It can be hypothesized that individuals who are sensitive, passive, dependent, and easily projecting are susceptible to the deterioration of cognitive function by total sleep deprivation.