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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
KOREAN ACADEMY OF SLEEP MEDICINE
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 10, Issue 2 - Dec 2003
Volume 10, Issue 1 - Jun 2003
Selecting the target year
Effects of Chronic Insufficient Sleep on Society
Lee, Heon-Jeong ; Kim, Leen ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 10, issue 2, 2003, Pages 77~83
Industrialization has brought great changes in human life. Human sleep patterns have also been much influenced by industrialization and the invention of electricity and the light bulb. Insufficient sleep is a common problem with considerable health, social, and economical impacts on modern society. In this review, we will outline the present state of insufficient sleep in our society, especially catastrophic accidents related with chronic sleep insufficiency. We will discuss the effect of sleep deprivation on human performance by reviewing the literature. We will also emphasize the role of sleep specialists in this issue and highlight the areas in which the principles of sleep medicine can constructively improve public policy and public health.
Drowsy Driving and Traffic Accidents
Lee, Sang-Haak ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 10, issue 2, 2003, Pages 84~87
Drowsy driving is a major cause of automobile crashes and can lead to more serious injuries than other causes of traffic accidents. Factors increasing the risk of drowsy driving and related crashes include sleep loss, late night driving, untreated or unrecognized sleep disorders, use of sedating medications and consumption of alcohol. Young people, especially young males, shift workers, and people with untreated sleep apnea syndrome and narcolepsy are well known as the population groups at highest risk. To prevent drowsy driving and its consequences, getting adequate and quality sleep is both easier and much more successful than any remedial measure. Other helpful behaviors include avoidance of alcoholic beverages and limiting late night driving. Taking a short nap or consuming caffeine can make a short-term difference in driving alertness. In addition, information should be actively provided to the public about the importance of sleep disorders and their consequences. To reduce injuries and death caused by drowsy driving, it is a prerequisite to increase public awareness that drowsy driving can cause serious automobile crashes and has morbidity and mortality rates as high as those of drunk driving.
Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Children
Shin, Chol ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 10, issue 2, 2003, Pages 88~92
Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), including snoring, sleep apnea and upper airway resistance syndrome are common problems in children. The pathophysiological mechanism of SDB in children is unclear but may include hypoxemia and changes in sleep architecture. Children with SDB show reduced neurocognitive function, and memory and attentional capacity. Furthermore, these children show increased problematic behaviour and reduced school performance. Whether early recognition and treatment of SDB in children may improve neurocognitive function and school performance remains to be fully evaluated in the future.
Relationship between Sleep Insufficiency and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness
Choi, Yun-Kyeung ; Lee, Heon-Jeong ; Suh, Kwang-Yoon ; Kim, Leen ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 10, issue 2, 2003, Pages 93~99
Objectives：Sleep loss and excessive daytime sleepiness may have serious consequences, including traffic and industrial accidents, decreased productivity, learning disabilities and interpersonal problems. Yet despite these adverse effects, there are few epidemiological studies on sleep loss and daytime sleepiness in the general population of Korea. This study investigates the number of people who suffer from sleep insufficiency, how much recovery sleep occurs on weekends, and the relationship between the amount of recovery sleep and daytime sleepiness. Methods：A total 164 volunteers, aged 20 and over, were recruited by advertisement. The subjects were workers and college students living in Seoul, Korea. Subjects were excluded if they were aged over 60；if they had medical, neurological, psychiatric or sleep disorders that could cause insomnia or daytime sleepiness；if they were not following a regular sleep schedule；if they traveled abroad during the study；or if they did not leave home to work or were shift workers. They were interviewed and given a sleep log to complete on each of 14 consecutive mornings. They also completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) at noontime on the last day of the second week. All statistical data were analyzed by t-test,
-test or ANOVA, using SPSS/PC+. Results：The results showed that the subjects woke up at 6：50 (
：16) on weekdays, 7：09 (
：29) on Saturdays, and 8：12 (
：39) on Sundays and holidays. They took more frequent and longer naps on Sundays than on weekdays and Saturdays. The mean sleep duration was 6h 35 min. on week nights, with a mean increase of about 1h on weekends. Only 9.1% of the subjects spent more than 8h in bed on week nights, with 67% spending less than 7h, and 49.4% reported recovery sleep of more than 1h on Sundays. The subjects who reported recovery sleep of more than 2h on Sundays, showed significantly more excessive daytime sleepiness than those who reported less than 30 min (F=2.62, p<.05). Conclusions：These findings suggest that sleep insufficiency and excessive daytime sleepiness are relatively common in Korea, and that the people who get insufficient sleep on weekdays try to compensate for sleep loss with oversleeping and daytime napping on Sundays and holidays. It appeared that daily sleep insufficiency had a cumulative effect and increased daytime sleepiness.
Spectral Analysis of Hidden EEG Arousal Activity in Periodic Leg Movements in Sleep without Microarousal
Cyn, Jae-Gong ; Seo, Wan-Seok ; Oh, Jung-Su ; Jeong, Do-Un ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 10, issue 2, 2003, Pages 100~107
Objectives: Periodic leg movements in sleep (PLMS) might be subdivided based upon whether or not they are associated with visible EEG microarousals (MA). MA is considered to be responsible for nonrestorative sleep and daytime fatigue. The American Sleep Disorders Association's (ASDA) scoring rules for MA based on visual analysis of the EEG changes suggest that MA should last more than 3 seconds. However, it has been suggested that visual analysis may not detect some changes in EEG activity. This study is aimed at measuring changes in EEG spectra during PLMS without MA in order to better understand the arousing response of PLMS. Methods: Ten drug-free patients (three men and seven women) diagnosed with PLMS by polysomnography were studied. Spectral analysis of the EEG was performed in each patient on 30 episodes of PLMS without MA, chosen randomly across the night in stage 2 non-REM sleep. We applied stricter criteria for MA compared to ASDA, by defining it as a return to alpha and theta frequency lasting at least 1 second. Results: The mean PLMS index was
. The mean PLMS duration was
seconds. Comparison of 4-second EEG activity both before and after the onset of PLMS without MA using independent t-test showed that the movements were associated with significant increase of relative activity in the delta band (p=0.000) and significant decrease of activity in the alpha (p=0.01) and sigma (p=0.000) bands. No significant decrease in the theta (p=0.05), beta (p=0.129), or gamma (p=0.062) bands was found. Conclusion: PLMS without MA was found to be associated with EEG change characterized by increase in the delta frequency band. This finding seems to be compatible with the hypothesis of an integrative hierarchy of arousal responses of Sforza's. Considering that the subjects had lower PLMS index and shorter PLMS duration than those of the previous study, it is suggested that an even less severe form of PLMS without MA could induce neurophysiologic change, which may potentially be of clinical significance.
Effects of Total Sleep Deprivation on Auditory Event-Related Potentials
Lee, Heon-Jeong ; Chun, Ho-Seok ; Kim, Leen ; Suh, Kwang-Yoon ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 10, issue 2, 2003, Pages 108~112
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate the psychophysiological effects of total sleep deprivation by using auditory event-related potentials. Methods: Twenty four healthy college students (18 men, 6 women) participated in this study. The subjects remained awake for 37 hours under continuous surveillance. In the morning and the evening of two consecutive study days, auditory event-related potentials were checked. Results: The latencies of P300 and N200 were significantly prolonged (p<0.001) and their amplitudes decreased (p<0.05) as a consequence of sleep deprivation. The amplitude of P200 was significantly increased during sleep deprivation (p<0.05). However, there was no significant change in the latency and amplitude of N100. Conclusion: Among the components of auditory event-related potentials, P300 and N200 are good indicators of sleep-deprived status. Further investigation is necessary to elucidate the neurophysiological mechanisms of these findings.
Antidepressant-Induced Somnambulism：A Case of Mirtazapine
Chung, Sang-Keun ; Oh, Keun-Young ; Cho, Kwang-Hyun ; Hwang, Ik-Keun ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 10, issue 2, 2003, Pages 113~115
Somnambulism is classified as a parasomnia and has been reported with the use of antidepressants and other psychotropics. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reports of somnambulism associated with the use of mirtazapine (a noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant；NaSSA). We experienced a case of the mirtazapine (30 mg/day)- induced somnambulism in a 65 year-old woman with major depressive disorder who has never been diagnosed as panic disorder, somnambulism, other parasomnias, neurological disorders (including epilepsy), and other medical diseases. The sleepwalking symptoms disappeared after the antidepressant was replaced with paroxetine (20 mg/day).