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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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KOREAN ACADEMY OF SLEEP MEDICINE
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Volume & Issues
Volume 14, Issue 2 - Dec 2007
Volume 14, Issue 1 - Jun 2007
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Sleep Physiology and Common Sleep Disorders in the Elderly
Kim, Leen ; Kang, Seung-Gul ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 14, issue 1, 2007, Pages 5~12
Sleep changes substantially with age. There is a phase advance in the circadian sleep cycle and increased waking after sleep onset. The elderly people wake more frequently during the night and experience fragmented sleep and excessive daytime sleepiness. The prevalence of sleep disorders increases with age, and the composition of sleep disorders in the elderly differs from that in the young. The most frequently encountered sleep disorders are psychophysiologic insomnia, sleep disturbance due to dementia, sleeprelated respiratory disorder, restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder, and REM sleep behavior disorder. To treat the elderly sleep problem appropriately, it is important to know how sleep pattern changes as we age and to understand the cause of sleep-related symptoms. This article will review the sleep physiology and common sleep disorders in the elderly.
Sleep Apnea in Older Adults
Moon, Hwa-Sik ; Lee, Sang-Haak ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 14, issue 1, 2007, Pages 13~19
Sleep disordered breathing is highly prevalent in the elderly and affects older men and women similarly. Nocturia, cardiovascular diseases, cognitive impairment, traffic accidents and repeated falls are common manifestations of sleep apnea in the elderly and sleep study may be indicated in these patients. When a sleep study is planned, reliable markers of respiratory efforts and a tibial EMG should be included because central sleep apneas and periodic leg movements are common in the elderly patients. Although cardiovascular morbidity and mortality seem to be lower in the elderly than in middle-aged adults, these may not be as low as commonly believed. Excessive daytime sleepiness, cognitive dysfunction and nocturia can be improved by effective treatment with continuous positive airway pressure and a therapeutic trial should be recommended to all symptomatic patients. It is still unclear whether sleep apnea in older adults is a specific entity or the same disease as in younger adults. Further clinical research is warranted.
Comparison of Sleep Indices between Both Wrist Actigraphies and Nocturnal Polysomnography
Shin, Byung-Hak ; Park, Doo-Heum ; Lee, Hyun-Kwon ; Yu, Jae-Hak ; Ryu, Seung-Ho ; Ha, Ji-Hyeon ; Shin, Hyeon-Sil ; Hong, Seok-Chan ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 14, issue 1, 2007, Pages 20~25
The present study compared the actigraphic indices between both wrist actigraphies (WATGs), and the sleep estimates between each WATG and nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG) to assess their differences and consistencies. We studied 22 right-handed subjects (mean age
, M：F=14：8) with untreated primary sleep disorders (primary insomnia=8, simple snorer=2, obstructive sleep apnea=12) undergone by overnight both WATGs and NPSG, simultaneously. Comparison and correlation were analyzed between right and left wrist actigraphic data. In the sleep estimates of both WATGs and NPSG, each WATG was compared and correlated with NPSG in sleep period time (SPT), total sleep time (TST), sleep latency (SL), sleep efficiency (SE) and wake time (WT). Sleep indices between both WATGs showed significant positive correlations with no correlations in SL and fragmentation index (FI). There were no differences in sleep indices between both WATGs. SPTs of both WATGs, SL of left WATG, and TST of right WATG showed positively significant correlations, and SE of right WATG did negatively significant correlation in sleep indices between each WATG and NPSG. As each WATG was compared to PSG, SPTs of both WATGs and WT of right WATG were decreased, and TST and SE of right WATG and SL of left WATG were increased. Inconsistent SL and FI between both WATGs indicate that the activities between both WATGs can differentially happen during wake or arousal. Inconsistent sleep estimates between each WATG and NPSG may indicate the limited usefulness in measuring and analyzing one-night sleep by using WATG.
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme(ACE) Gene Polymorphism and Seasonal Variation in Mood and Behavior
Jeon, Hye-Yeon ; Lee, Heon-Jeong ; Kang, Seung-Gul ; Kim, Leen ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 14, issue 1, 2007, Pages 26~32
Objectives: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism has been reported to be associated with depression and therapeutic outcome in depression. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ACE gene polymorphism is associated with seasonal variation in mood and behavior in a young Korean college student sample. Methods: 297 young Korean medical students were recruited in this study. All subjects were free of major medical and psychiatric problems. They were genotyped for the ACE gene polymorphism and evaluated the seasonal variation in mood and behavior by the Seasonality Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ). Results: Global Seasonality Score (GSS) of SPAQ between three genotypes were not different. However, comparison of the group that showed seasonality of mood and behavior during winter with the group that did not showed seasonality indicated significant difference in genotype distribution (
, p=0.034). The D allele non-carrier (ll genotype) frequency was significantly higher in winter seasonality group than non-seasonality group (
, p=0.010；odds ratio [OR]=2.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-4.28). Conclusion: These results suggest that the ACE gene polymorphism is related to winter-type seasonality in a Korean population.
Analysis of Most Recent Dream Content Korean Early Adolescents by Hall/Van de Castle System
Song, Hyoung-Seok ; Chang, Sok-Ha ; Kang, Seung-Gul ; Park, Young-Min ; Lee, Heon-Jeong ; Kim, Leen ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 14, issue 1, 2007, Pages 33~41
Objectives: It has been known that the contents of dreams change according to neuro-developmental differences in sex, progression of age and various environments, unlike the established psychoanalytic theory. To investigate the changes, we collected "most recent dream report" and analyzed the contents of dreams by using Hall/Van de Castle System. Method: Most recent dream reports were gathered from age 12-14 years old, 2,673 middle school students (1,544 male 1,129 female) and analyzed those reports using Hall/Van de Castle System. The data were sorted in SAS and dream SAT. Result: There were prominent differences between male and female middle school students in Male/Female Percentage (male/ female；56%/35%), Familiarity Percentage (57%/69%), Aggression/Friendliness Percentage (79%/65%), Befriender Percentage (50%/33%), Physical Aggression Percentage (90%/70%), Indoor Setting Percentage (40%/55%), Negative Emotion Percentage (56%/68%) and Torso/Anatomy Percentage (51%/36%). There were significant differences in Male/Female Percentage (65%/44%), Friendliness, Physical Aggression and Self Negativity Percentage in male and there were significant differences in Friendliness, Familiarity and Friends Percent in female between 1st and 2nd grade. But, it showed much similar dream patterns between 2nd and 3rd grade in both gender. In male, Aggression/Character Index with male character is significantly increased by 2nd grade (1st/ 2nd/ 3rd；0.48/ 1.04/0.98), In female, Friendliness/Character Index with male character had significantly decreased by 2nd grade (0.38/ 0.19/0.20). Conclusion: There were apparent differences between age 12-14 years old male and female. Male adolescents have differences mostly in categories related with aggression, but female adolescents have differences in categories related with environment or character. It shows that developmental level of male are slower than female as of yet and male needs more active interpersonal relationship to find identity. Otherwise, the influences of passive attitude and actual circumferential environment are reflected in female's dream. There are no prominent differences among ages, but age 12-13 years old adolescents shows significant differences in interacting with the other gender. It means that circumferential environment and interpersonal relationship affect the contents of dreams and also the cognitive development related to age and sex. Afterwards, the development of dreams could be better understood through the neurocognitive study and dream analysis between other ages and nations.
Detrended Fluctuation Analysis on Sleep EEG of Healthy Subjects
Shin, Hong-Beom ; Jeong, Do-Un ; Kim, Eui-Joong ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 14, issue 1, 2007, Pages 42~48
Introduction: Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is used as a way of studying nonlinearity of EEG. In this study, DFA is applied on sleep EEG of normal subjects to look into its nonlinearity in terms of EEG channels and sleep stages. Method: Twelve healthy young subjects (age：
years old, male：female=7：5) have undergone nocturnal polysomnography (nPSG). EEG from nPSG was classified in terms of its channels and sleep stages and was analyzed by DFA. Scaling exponents (SEs) yielded by DFA were compared using linear mixed model analysis. Results: Scaling exponents (SEs) of sleep EEG were distributed around 1 showing long term temporal correlation and self-similarity. SE of C3 channel was bigger than that of O1 channel. As sleep stage progressed from stage 1 to slow wave sleep, SE increased accordingly. SE of stage REM sleep did not show significant difference when compared with that of stage 1 sleep. Conclusion: SEs of Normal sleep EEG showed nonlinear characteristic with scale-free fluctuation, long-range temporal correlation, self-similarity and self-organized criticality. SE from DFA differentiated sleep stages and EEG channels. It can be a useful tool in the research with sleep EEG.
A Case of Mitochondrial Myopathy Showing Severe Hypoxemia during REM Sleep
Kim, Ju-Sang ; Kim, Sung-Kyung ; Lee, Sang-Haak ; Ahn, Joong-Hyun ; Kim, Chi-Hong ; Moon, Hwa-Sik ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 14, issue 1, 2007, Pages 49~53
Mitochondrial myopathy is characterized by variable clinical manifestations from mild limb weakness to fatal respiratory failure and central nervous system sequela. But it is a rare event that sleep disordered breathing become a clue of diagnosis for mitochondrial myopathy. We report a case of a 21 year-old man who was diagnosed as mitochondrial myopathy during the investigation for the possible cause of chronic hypoventilation syndrome. Before being admitted to our hospital, he was suspected as having sleep apnea syndrome in another hospital. We re-evaluated the history, physical examination, laboratoy findings and polysomnography in detail. Severe hypoxemia was noted during REM sleep on nocturnal polysomnography and the diagnosis of mitochondrial myopathy was made by muscle biopsy in rectus abdominis muscle. We treated him with bilevel positive airway pressure therapy during sleep and it could reverse the hypoxemia during REM sleep. He could be discharged with improved condition and is being well with the use of this ventilatory assistance.