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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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KOREAN ACADEMY OF SLEEP MEDICINE
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Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Dec 2008
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Jun 2008
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Linear/Non-Linear Tools and Their Applications to Sleep EEG : Spectral, Detrended Fluctuation, and Synchrony Analyses
Kim, Jong-Won ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 15, issue 1, 2008, Pages 5~11
Sleep is an essential process maintaining the life cycle of the human. In parallel with physiological, cognitive, subjective, and behavioral changes that take place during the sleep, there are remarkable changes in the electroencephalogram (EEG) that reflect the underlying electro-physiological activity of the brain. However, analyzing EEG and relating the results to clinical observations is often very hard due to the complexity and a huge data amount. In this article, I introduce several linear and non-linear tools, developed to analyze a huge time series data in many scientific researches, and apply them to EEG to characterize various sleep states. In particular, the spectral analysis, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), and synchrony analysis are administered to EEG recorded during nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG) processes and daytime multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT). I report that 1) sleep stages could be differentiated by the spectral analysis and the DFA ; 2) the gradual transition from Wake to Sleep during the sleep onset could be illustrated by the spectral analysis and the DFA ; 3) electrophysiological properties of narcolepsy could be characterized by the DFA ; 4) hypnic jerks (sleep starts) could be quantified by the synchrony analysis.
Clinical Applications of Light Therapy for Sleep Disorders
Sohn, Chang-Ho ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 15, issue 1, 2008, Pages 12~16
Light therapy (also called light treatment or phototherapy) involves scheduled exposure to bright artificial light. Evidence-based treatments for sleep disorders especially for circadian rhythm sleep disorders include light therapy and pharmacotherapy. In clinical practice, many of patients with sleep problems tend to impair circadian rhythmicity. Considering that light is the most potent entraining agent of circadian rhythm, careful use of light therapy can be recommended for patients with several kinds of sleep disorders. I briefly review the possible therapeutic mechanisms and clinical applications of light therapy, focusing on circadian sleep disorders.
Overview of Periodic Limb Movements During Sleep
Cyn, Jae-Gong ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 15, issue 1, 2008, Pages 17~24
Periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS) are best described as repetitive stereotypical movements of the lower extremities characterized by dorsiflexion of the ankle, dorsiflexion of the toes and a partial flexion of the knee and sometimes the hip. The prevalence of PLMS is about 5-11% in adults and is predicted much higher than previously surveyed. They are also frequently found in various sleep disorders, several disorders not primarily affecting sleep, and patients taking psychiatric medications. Although they are rarely found in children, they are common findings in children referred to a pediatric sleep laboratory. The pathophysiology is strongly associated with decline of central dopaminergic function and closely related to arousal system during sleep. Benzodiazepines, levodopa, dopamine agonists and opioids are generally recommended for treatment but more controlled studies on the effectiveness are needed.
Comparison of REM Sleep-Dependent Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome with Sleep Stage Non-Dependent One in Women Patients
Park, Tae-Joon ; Jeong, Do-Un ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 15, issue 1, 2008, Pages 25~32
Objectives: A few studies have compared REM sleep-dependent obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (REM-OSA) with sleep stage non-dependent apnea syndrome (SND-OSA). Despite that REM-OSA might be more common in women than men, no studies have examined the probable characteristics of women patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). This study aimed at finding out the characteristics of REM-OSA in women by comparing it with SND-OSA. Methods: Fifty-three subjects diagnosed as OSAS (AHI>5 ; AHI : apnea-hypopnea index) with nocturnal polysomnography at the Center for Sleep and Chronobiology of the Seoul National University Hospital between October 2004 and February 2006 were studied. Of them, 44 subjects with OSAS severity of mild (5
2 and AHI-NR<15 (AHI-R : AHI during REM sleep, AHI-NR : AHI during non-REM sleep). We compared REM-OSA group with SND-OSA as well as the criteria-determined REM-OSA cases with the visually-determined ones. Results: Among 44 subjects, 28 persons (63.6%) turned out to have REM-OSA by our criteria and 24 persons (54.5%) by visual determination. Statistically significant differences (p<0.05) were found between REM-OSA and SND-OSA groups in AHI, hypopnea index, total sleep time, total wake time, sleep efficiency index, percents of stage 1, 2 and REM sleep, and REM latency. Percent of stage REM sleep (%REM) turned out to have influence on AHI ratio (AHI-R/AHI-NR) (B=0.537, p=0.002). REM-OSA was likely to be diagnosed in milder severity of OSAS (
, p<0.001) and those with higher %REM (
, p=0.001). There was no significant difference between the criteria-determined and the visually-determined cases of REM-OSA. Conclusion: We suggest that REM-OSA and SND-OSA patients be differentiated in terms of pathophysiology and treatment strategies. Visual determination of REM-OSA might be useful as the screening procedure of REM-OSA. Further studies on women with OSAS and REM-OSA need to be done.
Spectral Analysis of REM Sleep EEG in Narcolepsy and REM Sleep Behavior Disorder
Kim, Hyung-Il ; Jeong, Do-Un ; Park, Kwang-Suk ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 15, issue 1, 2008, Pages 33~38
Introduction: It has been proposed that narcolepsy and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) have overlapped symptom profile and pathophysiology. This study was aimed at measuring and comparing changes in EEG frequency band of REM sleep in narcolepsy and RBD, applying EEG spectral analysis method. Methods: Nine patients diagnosed as narcolepsy and the same number of RBD patients were studied. Spectral analysis of the REM sleep EEG was performed in each patient on 9 epochs selected evenly from the first, second, and third REM periods. Then, we compared frequency band percentages of REM sleep EEG in narcolepsy and RBD. Results: Narcolepsy patients had significantly higher delta frequency ratio than RBD ones (p=0.00). In alpha and beta2 frequency bands, RBD patients showed higher percentage than narcolepsy ones. Slow wave sleep was more prevalent in narcolepsy patients. But, no difference of REM sleep percentage was found between the two groups (p=0.93). Conclusion: Higher delta frequency ratio in REM sleep of narcolepsy patients than RBD ones reflects that sleep-promoting mechanism is more dominant in narcolepsy than in RBD.
Association Study Between Dopamine Transporter Gene 40 bp VNTR and Antipsychotics-Induced Restless Legs Syndrome
Kang, Seung-Gul ; Lee, Heon-Jeong ; Choi, Jung-Eun ; Kim, Leen ; Jung, In-Kwa ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 15, issue 1, 2008, Pages 39~43
Objectives: The pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome (RLS) is not obvious, but many promising theories involve dopaminergic deficiency and genetic causes. The RLS is presumed to occur more frequently among schizophrenic patients who take antipsychotics, most of which blocks the dopamine receptors. This study aimed to investigate whether dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) 40 base pair (bp) variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism is associated with the antipsychotic-induced RLS in schizophrenia. Methods: We determined the diagnosis of RLS among the 190 Korean schizophrenic patients by the diagnostic criteria of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG). Genotyping was performed for the 40bp VNTR in DAT1 gene using polymerase chain reaction. Results: We separated the schizophrenic patients into 44 patients with RLS and 146 patients without RLS. The genotype and allele frequencies did not differ significantly between two groups. Conclusions: These results suggest that DAT1 gene 40bp VNTR is not associated with the antipsychotic-induced RLS in schizophrenia. To confirm these results, larger-scale association study is needed in the future.