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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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Journal DOI :
KOREAN ACADEMY OF SLEEP MEDICINE
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Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Dec 2009
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Jun 2009
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Human Physiological Models of Insomnia
Sim, Hyun-Bo ; Yu, Bum-Hee ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 16, issue 1, 2009, Pages 5~9
Relatively little is known about the neurobiology of insomnia, despite its wide prevalence and broad medical impact. Although much is still to be learned about the pathophysiology of the disorder, identification, systematic assessment, and appropriate treatment are clearly beneficial to patients. Recent research, using quantitative EEG, polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) and neuroimaging techniques, suggests that some broad areas can be identified as possible pathophysiological models. Sleep-wake homeostat model hypothesizes a failure in homeostatic regulation of sleep, an attenuated increase in sleep drive with time awake, and/or defective sensing of sleep need. Circadian clock model hypothesizes a dysfunctional circadian clock, resulting in changes in the timing of sleep-wake propensity that are incompatible with normal sleep. Intrinsic sleep-wake state mechanism model suggests that abnormal function of insomnia comprises the systems responsible for expression of the sleep states themselves. Extrinsic over-ride mechanism (stress-response) model suggests that insomnia reflects the consequences of overactivity of one of the systems considered "extrinsic" to normal sleep-wake control. Many current therapies for insomnia are based on these physiological models. Several attempts have been made to create a physiological model that would explain this disorder and could be used as a foundation for treatment. However, it appeared that no model can fully explain and clarify all aspects of insomnia. Future research should be necessary to expand our knowledge on the biological dimensions of insomnia.
Cancer-Related Sleep Disorders
Seo, Wan-Seok ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 16, issue 1, 2009, Pages 10~15
Sleep problems and disorders are common in patients with cancer. Sleep of the cancer patients is affected by various factors, including thermoregulatory changes associated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, cancer related symptoms, such as pain, fatigue, and emotional difficulties. As one of the most common symptoms in cancer patients, fatigue is positively correlated with sleep difficulties. Cytokine is also frequently associated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. It provokes excessive daytime sleepiness and hypersomnia. Medications for controlling pain, depression, and anxiety can affect sleep of the cancer patients. Medications as well as behavior therapy are reported to be effective for controlling sleep problems, and the physicians need to be accustomed to use the modalities appropriately. This paper reviews causative factors, evaluation, and management of sleep problems and disorders, experienced by cancer patients.
Sleep Onset Period from the EEG Point of View
Lee, Hyun-Kwon ; Park, Doo-Heum ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 16, issue 1, 2009, Pages 16~21
In accordance with the development of EEG and polysomnography in the field of sleep research, the sleep onset period (SOP) between wakefulness and sleep has been considered an important part for understanding the physiology of sleep. SOP in the transition from wakefulness to sleep is a gradual process integrating various viewpoints such as behavior, EEG, physiology and subjective report. Particularly, based on understanding of EEG changes during sleep, SOP has been regarded as a pattern of topographical change in specific frequency and specific state in EEG. Studies on quantitative EEG (qEEG) and event-related potential (ERP) have suggested that SOP shows the changes of functional coordination at the specific cortical areas in qEEG and the changes of regular patterns in response to environmental stimulation in ERP. The development of sleep EEG and topographic mapping of EEG is expected to integrate various viewpoints of SOP and clarify the neurophysiologic mechanism of SOP further.
Respiratory Sleep Physiology
Kim, Jin-Woo ; Lee, Sang-Haak ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 16, issue 1, 2009, Pages 22~27
Regulation of respiration differs significantly between wakefulness and sleep. Respiration during wakefulness is influenced by not only automatic control but also voluntary and behavioral control. Sleep is associated with definite changes in respiratory function. With the onset of sleep, voluntary control of ventilation that overrides automatic control during wakefulness becomes terminated. Also ventilatory response to various stimuli including hypoxemia and hypercapnia is decreased. With these reasons respiration during sleep becomes fragile and unstable so that marked hypoxemia can be happened in patients with lung disease especially during REM sleep. Obstructive sleep apnea may also be developed if upper airway resistance is increased in addition to these blunted ventilatory responses.
Adult Attachment Styles and Insomnia
Kim, Dong-Wook ; Lee, Kyung-Hwa ; Cho, Seong-Jin ; Cho, In-Hee ; Koh, Seung-Hee ; Lee, Yu-Jin ; Kim, Jong-Hoon ; Kim, Seog-Ju ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 16, issue 1, 2009, Pages 28~35
Introduction: Human attachment is known to be closely associated with psychophysiological phenomenon. However, there have not been enough researches on the relationship of the attachment with sleep, especially with insomnia. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between adult attachment styles and insomnia in community-dwelling population. Methods: One hundred seventy seven community-dwelling adults (74 males and 103 females；mean age
) participated in the current study. To assess the attachment styles (secure, dismissing, preoccupied and fearful), self-reporting Relationship Style Questionnaires (RSQ) were completed by the participants. Presence, type, frequency and duration of insomnia in the last month were also investigated. Results: Compared to subjects without insomnia, subjects with insomnia had higher fearful attachment scores (t=2.87, p=0.005). Higher fearful attachment score were found in all subtypes of insomnia (sleep-onset insomnia, t=2.33, p=0.021；maintenance insomnia, t=2.92, p=0.004；terminal insomnia, t=2.89, p=0.004). Subjects with frequent (
per week) insomnia had higher fearful attachment scores than subjects with infrequent (
per week) insomnia (t=2.57, p=0.012). In addition, subjects with chronic insomnia (
months) had higher preoccupied attachment scores relative to subjects with transient insomnia (<6 months), (t=2.57, p=0.012). Conclusion: In the current study, attachment styles were different depending on the characteristics of insomnia. The fearful attachment was associated with the presence of insomnia, while the preoccupied attachment was associated with the chronicity of insomnia. These findings suggest that there may be some relationship between the adult attachment styles and the clinical features of insomnia.