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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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Journal DOI :
KOREAN ACADEMY OF SLEEP MEDICINE
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Dec 2012
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Jun 2012
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The Effect of Sleep Loss on Energy and Metabolism
Kang, Seung-Gul ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 19, issue 1, 2012, Pages 5~10
The release of hormones and the metabolism of human body are controlled by the circadian rhythm related to sleep-wake cycle. Growth hormone, prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone, cortisol, glucose, and insulin-secretion rates fluctuate according to the sleep-wake cycle. In addition, sleep is related to the appetite regulation and carbohydrate and other energy metabolism. Hypocretin (orexin), an excitatory neuropeptide, regulates waking and diet intake, and the poor sleep increases diet intake. The short sleep duration increases one's body mass index and impairs the function of the endocrine and metabolism, causing increases in the risk of glucose intolerance and diabetes. The poor sleep quality and sleep disorders have similar impact on the metabolic function. In short, the sleep loss and the poor quality of sleep have a detrimental effect on the endocrine and energy metabolism. The improvement of sleep quality by the future research and appropriate clinical treatment would contribute to the decrease of the metabolic diseases such as diabetes.
An Introduction to Quantitative Analyses of Sleep EEG Via a Wavelet Method
Kim, Jong-Won ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 19, issue 1, 2012, Pages 11~17
Objective: Among various methods developed to quantitatively explore electroencephalograms (EEG), we focused on a wavelet method that was known to yield robust results under nonstationary conditions. The aim of this study was thus to introduce the wavelet method and demonstrate its potential use in clinical sleep studies. Method: This study involved artificial EEG specifically designed to validate the wavelet method. The method was performed to obtain time-dependent spectral power and phase angles of the signal. Synchrony of multichannel EEG was analyzed by an order parameter of the instantaneous phase. The standard methods, such as Fourier transformation and coherence, were also performed and compared with the wavelet method. The method was further validated with clinical EEG and ERP samples available as pilot studies at academic sleep centers. Result: The time-frequency plot and phase synchrony level obtained by the wavelet method clearly showed dynamic changes in the EEG waveforms artificially fabricated. When applied to clinical samples, the method successfully detected changes in spectral power across the sleep onset period and identified differences between the target and background ERP. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the wavelet method could be an alternative and/or complementary tool to the conventional Fourier method in quantifying and identifying EEG and ERP biomarkers robustly, especially when the signals were nonstationary in a short time scale (1-100 seconds).
Sedative Hypnotics Induced Parasomnias
Lee, Yu-Jin ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 19, issue 1, 2012, Pages 18~21
Parasomnias induced by hypnosedatives are rare but serious side effect. Such parasomnias have not been reported with all hypnosedatives. However, frequent use of hypnosedatives, particularly nonbenzodiazepine receptor agonists is associated with parasomnias. Associated symptoms are sleep eating, sleepwalking with object manipulation, sleep conversations, sleep driving, sleep sex and sleep shopping etc. Mechanisms include high affinity for
receptor, interruption of the consolidation phase of memory formation by drug, pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic drug-drug interaction and concomitant administration with alcohol. Managements for parasomnias induced by hypnosedatives involve stopping medication, switch to other medications or nonpharmacological treatment, lowest effective dose of NBRAs (Non-Benzodiazepine Receptor Agonists), taking into consideration drug-drug interactions, identification and treatment of underlying disease states.
The Clinical Characteristics Between the Positional Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients with the Non-positional Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients
Kang, Hyeon-Hui ; Kang, Ji-Young ; Lee, Sang-Haak ; Moon, Hwa-Sik ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 19, issue 1, 2012, Pages 22~26
Objectives: The percentage of positional sleep apnea in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) varies in different reports from 9% to 60%. If there is a positional dependency in patients with OSA, positional therapy alone could be successful in treating about 50% of all OSA cases. The aim of this report is to compare anthropomorphic and polysomnographic data between the positional sleep apnea group and non-positional sleep apnea group with OSA whose conditions were diagnosed in our sleep clinic. Methods: This is a retrospective study of anthropomorphic and polysomnographic data of patients with OSA who was performed a nocturnal polysomnography. Positional sleep apnea was defined as having a supine apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of twice or more compared to the AHI in the non-supine position. The patients were divided in the positional sleep apnea group and the non-positional sleep apnea group. Results: In 101 patients with OSA, 81 were male, and the mean age was
years. Seventy-six (75.2%) were diagnosed as the positional sleep apnea. Waist to hip ratio and body mass index (BMI) were significantly higher in non-positional sleep apnea group. The frequency of severe OSA was significantly higher in this group. In the positional sleep apnea group, nocturnal sleep quality was better preserved, and consequently these patients were less sleepy during daytime. AHI was significantly lower and minimal arterial oxygen saturation during sleep was significantly higher in this group. Conclusion: The percentage of positional sleep apnea in OSA was 75.2%. AHI, BMI, and waist to hip ratio were lower in the positional sleep apnea group. These patients have less severe breathing abnormalities than the non-positional sleep apnea group in polysomnography.
Heart Rate Variability and Lipid Profile in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder
Ahn, Eun-Jung ; Choi, Jin-Sook ; Jang, Yong-Lee ; Lee, Hae-Woo ; Sim, Hyun-Bo ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 19, issue 1, 2012, Pages 27~34
Objectives: The analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) is a useful non-invasive tool to investigate the autonomic nerve function. Previous studies on the relationship between HRV and depression have been reported controversial results. Similarly, the correlation between the serum lipids and depression is debatable. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between heart rate variability, lipid profile and depression. Methods: A total of 42 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 32 age and sex-matched normal subjects who had no previous history of major medical and mental illnesses were recruited for this study. A structured-interview was used to assess the general characteristics and psychiatric illness. HRV measures were assessed by time-domain and frequency-domain analyses. Psychological symptoms were measured using the Hamilton rating scale for anxiety (HAM-A), Hamilton rating scale for depression (HAM-D). In addition, the evaluation for lipid profile was performed by blood test. Results: In serum lipid profile test, MDD group showed higher cholesterol (
mg/dL, p=0.044), TG (
mg/dL, p=0.018), LDL (
, p=0.004) level than normal control group. In HRV time domain analyses, the standard deviation of the NN interval (SDNN) was decreased in MDD group than normal control group, but was not significant (
ms, p=0.078). ApEn (Approximate Entrophy) was significantly increased in MDD group than normal control group (
, p<0.001). ApEn was correlated with LDL level (r=0.277, p=0.028), HAM-D scores (r=0.534, p<0.001) and HAM-A scores (r=0.470, p<0.001). Conclusions: MDD patients showed increased ApEn, one of the HRV measurement. And this ApEn was correlated with LDL, HAM-D and HAM-A scores. In this study, the analysis of ApEn would be a useful test of MDD.
A Study of Psychiatric Problems of North Korean Refugees Who Visited a Psychiatric Clinic
Kang, Hee-Young ; Byeon, Seong-Hye ; Shin, Sang-Ho ; Kim, Hyun-Chung ; Lee, So-Hee ; Yoo, So-Young ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 19, issue 1, 2012, Pages 35~41
Purpose: According to the statistics announced by the Ministry of Unification, the number of North Korean refugees living in South Korea has increased by 200 on average monthly in 2010. The number of refugees increased only by 300 annually until 2000. The total number of refugees as of February 2012 was 20,956. This study aims to investigate the psychobiology of the North Korean refugees who consulted psychiatric clinics among those living daily life in South Korea. Methods: The subjects of this study were 85 North Korean refugees that consulted psychiatric clinics from January 1, 2005 to July 2011. This study obtained demographic and psychiatric information in a retrospective approach. Results: Among the 85 North Korean refugees, 75 (88.2%) were females and their average age was 48 years of age. A total of 16 (18.8%) were admitted to a clinic and among the inpatients, 4 were admitted twice and two were admitted three times. As for the claimed symptoms of outpatients, insomnia was shown in 47 (55.3%) patients, headaches in 37 (43.5%), anxiety in 20 (23.5%), depression in 19 (22.4%), etc. The major symptoms represented by inpatients were insomnia in 14 (87.5%) patients, depression in 12 (75%), and headaches in 8 (50%), etc. Conclusion: The most frequent psychiatric symptoms of North Korean refugees living in South Korea were insomnia and headaches. It suggests that when performing psychiatric diagnosis and treatment of North Korean refugees, we have to take into consideration the fact that they claimed the physical symptoms more than the emotional ones. Also, from the aspect that most symptoms of North Korean refugees were insomnia, more profound research on sleep is required in the future.
Defense Style and Insomnia
Joo, Sun-Sik ; Cho, Seong-Jin ; Lee, Yu-Jin ; Lee, So-Jin ; Kim, Seog-Ju ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 19, issue 1, 2012, Pages 42~46
Introduction: The objective of the present study was to investigate the defense style of insomnia patients and to grasp the differences in defense style between primary insomnia patients and insomnia patients with history of major depressive disorder. Methods: Forty three subjects with insomnia (11 subjects with primary insomnia and 32 subjects with major depressive disorder) and 138 control subjects participated in this study. To diagnose insomnia and major depressive disorder, interviews including structured clinical interview for DSM-IV (SCID-IV) were done. To assess the defense style, self-reported Korean version of Defense Style Questionnaire (K-DSQ) were completed by the participants. Results: Compared to normal controls, subjects with insomnia used more acting out (t=3.25, p<0.01), consumption (t=2.66, p<0.01), fantasy (t=3.51, p<0.001), resignation (t=5.42, p<0.001), suppression (t=3.28, p<0.01), projection (t=3.92, p<0.01), splitting (t=4.31, p<0.01), undoing (t=2.66, p<0.01), withdrawal (t=6.72, p<0.001) and isolation (t=3.80, p<0.001), and less omnipotence (t=4.08, p<0.001) and humor (t=3.20, p<0.01). Compared to normal controls, subjects with primary insomnia used more undoing and withdrawal. Compared to subjects with primary insomnia, subjects with insomnia with history of major depressive disorder used more resignation and withdrawal, and less humor. Conclusion: In the current study, there were differences in defenses between primary insomnia patients and insomnia patients with major depressive disorder history. To evaluate the pattern of defenses through the K-DSQ might provide important clues to differentiate these two conditions.