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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
KOREAN ACADEMY OF SLEEP MEDICINE
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 2, Issue 2 - Dec 1995
Volume 2, Issue 1 - Jun 1995
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Neuropsychological Findings in Schizophrenia
Lee, Hee-Sang ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 2, issue 2, 1995, Pages 105~114
Schiophrenia is characterized by a variety of cognitive dysfunctions. A number of research findings suggest that schizophrenic patients have global deficits in cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, executive functions, and motor functions. These cognitive deficits, once they arise, tend to become relatively stable. In spite of much efforts to search for the cognitive dysfunctions in schizophrenia, there are no specific deficits or localizations found. It is necessary that future neuropsychological research of schizophrenia should include relationships between symptoms and cognitive dysfunctions and their relationships to treatment.
Neuropsychological Assessment for Children with Psychiatric Disorders
Shin, Min-Sup ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 2, issue 2, 1995, Pages 115~128
Present study reviewed various standardized neuropsychological assessment methods for children that are widely used in Korean child-psychiatric clinic settings to evaluate neurological problems, especially soft neurological signs that could not be identified by neurological techniques like CT, MRI. The characteristics of those neuropsychological test responses in children with psychiatric disorders that neurological factors are thought to play more important role than psychological factors in their etiology were examined. It is more important and required to establish the developmental norms for interpreting the results of neuropsychological tests and for identifying the signs of brain damage in case of children than adults. There are many difficulties in diagnosing brain dysfunction and conducting research for neurological problems in psychiatric disordered children due to lack of the standardized Korean version of neuropsyhological test for children, Therefore, several issues on developing the Korean version of neuropsyhological tests for children were discussed.
Clinical Applications of Neuropsychological Tests in Psychiatry - Focused on Neurosis -
Kim, Chan-Hyung ; Lee, Sung-Hoon ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 2, issue 2, 1995, Pages 129~132
The goal of neuropsychological tests is to identify the neuropsychological dysfunction in psychiatric disorders such as organic mental disorders and schizophrenia, to develop the exe-cutive and monitor treatment plan and to make a cognitive rehabilitation program. Also, it will provide a more useful information that neurpsychological tests will be applied to neurotic out-patients in combination with conventional psychological test. However, many researches should be performed to further clarify the usefulness of neuropsychological test in neurosis.
Brain Mechanisms Generating REM Sleep
Sohn, Jin-Wook ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 2, issue 2, 1995, Pages 133~137
The author reviews current knowledge about what REM sleep is and where and how it is generated. REM sleep is the state in which our most vivid dreams occur. REM sleep is identified by the simultaneous presence of a desynchronized cortical EEG, an absence of activity in the antigravity muscles(atonia), and periodic bursts of rapid eye movements. Another characteristic phenomena of REM sleep are the highly synchronized hippocampal EEG of theta frequency and the ponto-geniculo-occipital(PGO) spike. All these phenomena can be explained in terms of changes in neuronal activity. Transection studies have determined that the pons is sufficient for generating REM sleep. Lesion studies have identified a small region in the lateral pontine tegmentum corresponding to lateral portions of the nucleus reticularis pontis oralis(RPO) and the region immediately ventral to the locus coeruleus, which is required for REM sleep. Unit recording studies have found a population of cells within this region that is selectively active in REM sleep. Cholinergic neurons of the giant cell field of pontine tegmentum(ETG), which is 'REM a sleep-on cells', has shown to be critically involved in the generation of REM sleep. Noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus and serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe, which are called 'REM sleep-off cells', appear to act in a reciprocal manner to the cholinergic neurons. It is proposed that the periodic cessations of discharge of 'REM sleep-off cells' during REM sleep might be significant for the prevention of the desensitization of receptors of these neurons.
The Causes and Treatment of Complicated Chronic Insomnia
Lee, Sung-Hoon ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 2, issue 2, 1995, Pages 138~145
The causes of complicated chronic insomnia are very various and interact with vicious circle. Patient with this insomnia has generally a strong fear and frustration about failing to control of sleep and a deep mistrust toward doctor. To solve this complicated problems detailed history taking and sleep questionnaires are needed with objective polysomnography. Through these procedures, doctor should clarify causes of insomnia and explain them to patient in details and kindly. This process would be very helpful to restore the mistrustful relationship between patient and doctor and reduce patient's vague fear for insomnia. In treatment of complicated chronic insomnia, it is most important for patient to understand his problems and participate in the treatment schedule actively with assurance. Also doctor should encourage patient persistently not to be drop out. Most important factor for prognosis is patient's personality. Causes of complicated chronic insomnia are like these, overdose of hypnotics and sedatives, daily drinking alcohol with hypnotics, insomnia associated depression, delayed sleep phase syndrome, sleep state misperception, marked fear for insomnia, hyperarousal at bed, insomnia associated periodic leg movement and sleep apnea, chronic hypnotic insomnia, and immature personality. And possible treatments of these insomnias were discussed.
The Changes of Traveller's Sleep-Wake Cycles by Jet Lag
Lee, Seung-Hwan ; Kim, Leen ; Sub, Kwang-Yoon ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 2, issue 2, 1995, Pages 146~155
Jet lag can be defined as the cumulative physiological and psychological effects of rapid air travel across multiple time zone. The consequences of jet lag include fatigue, general malaise, sleep disturbances, and reductions of cognitive and psychomotor performance, all of which have been documented in experimental biological and air crew personnel studies. Thus authors tried to study the jet lag of natural travellers by modified self reporting sleep log. Total 61 healthy travellers was studied for 3 days before and 7 days after jet-flights across seven to ten time zone. The eastbound travelling group was 38 persons, aged 19 -70 and westbound travelling group was 23 persons, aged 13 - 69. Sleep onset time, wake-up time, sleep latency, awakening frequency on night sleep, awakening duration on night sleep, sleepiness at wake-up and nap length were evaluated. Our results suggested that the 7 to 10 time zone shift gave significant influence to traveller's sleep-wake cycles. The date which subjective physical condition was recovered on was
day after arrivals for eastbound, while for westbound,
day. In eastbound travelling, sleep onset time became later than baselines and could not recover until 7th day. But in westbound, it became earlier than baseline and could recover until 6th day. The mean score of 24-hour sleepiness was greater in eastboumd than westbound. Therefore the eastbound travelling caused more sleep-wake cycle disturbance and daytime dysfunction than westbound travelling. In other parameters, there was no definite difference between east and westbound. From our results, it was suggested that the symptom severity of jet lag was dependent on the travelling direction. To demonstrate more definite evidence, large sized data collections and comparision by age difference were needed.
The Changes of Plasma Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Concentrations During Waking and Sleep in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome
Moon, Hwa-Sik ; Choi, Young-Mee ; Song, Jeong-Sup ; Park, Sung-Hak ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 2, issue 2, 1995, Pages 156~164
Objectives : Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome(OSAS) often complain of nocturnal enuresis. There are a few reports that OSAS patients have altered renal function, and there are some evidences that the increased release of atrial natriuretic peptide(ANP) may be involved in the pathogenesis of nocturnal urinary symptoms of OSAS patients. In this study, we measured plasma ANP concentrations during waking and sleep in OSAS patients and normal controls to investigate whether there were differences of ANP concentrations between OSAS patients and normal subjects. Methods : 27 patients with OSAS and 10 normal subjects were studied. All subjects underwent a full-night polysomnographic study. Venous blood samples were separately drawn during waking and sleep. Plasma ANP concentrations were measured using radioimmunoassay. Results : In OSAS patients, ANP concentrations during sleep(
) were significantly higher than ANP concentrations during waking(
)(p < 0.05). However, in normal subjects, there was no significant difference between ANP concentrations during waking(
) and sleep(
)(p > 0.05). There was no significant difference of ANP concentrations during waking between OSAS patients(
) and normal controls(
)(p > 0.05), and also there was no significant difference during sleep between OSAS patients(
) and normal subjects(
)(p > 0.05). Plasma ANP concentrations during sleep showed significant positive correlations with apnea index(r = 0.3846, p < 0.05) and respiratory disturbance index(r = 0.3939, p < 0.05) in OSAS patients. Conclusion : These data suggest that, in OSAS patients, plasma ANP concentrations during sleep are significantly higher than plasma ANP concentrations during waking, and there is a positive correlation between the plasma ANP concentration during sleep and the severity of sleep apnea.
EP Augmenting / Reducing : Personality Correlates and Topographic Distribution
Lee, Sung-Hoon ; Haier, Richard J. ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 2, issue 2, 1995, Pages 165~170
Augmenting-reducing evoked potentials(AREP) were studied in 38 college students to explore the topographic distribution between AR slope and personality. The Zuckerman Seeking Scale(SSS) and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire(EPQ) assessed personality. There was a significant positive correlation between AR slope and Extraversion-Introversion(E) in the frontocentral area ; the right posterior area showed a significant negative correlation with E. The Thrill and Adventure Seeking(TAS) subscale showed a significant negative correlation with slope in the right posterior temporal area. The average slope map of all subjects revealed a distribution showing more augmenting in frontocentral areas and more reducing in posterior areas.
State of Anxiety and Sleep on the Night before Surgery
Lee, Gil-Heum ; Yoon, Bo-Hyun ; Yoon, Jin-Sang ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 2, issue 2, 1995, Pages 171~179
Objectives : This study was carried out to determine whether the state anxiety may affect sleep on the night before surgery. Methods : The researcher examined the clinical charts of patients who were scheduled to receive surgery by general anesthesia the following day and then had semistructural interview with patients. In addition Spielberger's State Anxiety Inventory(1972), presleep questionnaire and postsleep questionnaire were administered to the patients. One hundred patients who responded to the questions were divided into three groups based on the state anxiety scores; low(n=35), middle(n=27) and high(n=38). Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients, some possible factors affecting sleep, daytime status and nighttime sleep before surgery were compared among three groups. Results : 1) There was no significant difference in demographic characteristics and some possible factors affecting sleep on the night before surgery among three groups. 2) In terms of clinical characteristics, the expectancy of surgical result was significantly different among three groups. More patients in low anxiety group than in middle and high anxiety groups, predicted surgical results as good, while more patients in middle and high anxiety groups than in low anxiety group could not predict their surgical results. 3) For daytime status, high anxiety group felt more tired compared to low anxiety group, but there was no significant difference in daytime nap among three groups. 4) For nighttime sleep before surgery, high anxiety group expected poor sleep and in fact, waked more frequently during sleep than low anxiety group. However there was no difference in bed time, sleep latency, rise time, total sleep time, sleep depth and sleep quality among three groups. 5) The need for hypnotics was higher before bedtime and also after rise in high anxiety group compared to low anxiety group. Conclusions : These results indicate that the individuals with high state anxiety before surgery have poor sleep and furthermore suggest that anxiolytics and/or hypnotics may be required to decrease anxiety and improve sleep for those with high state anxiety.