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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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KOREAN ACADEMY OF SLEEP MEDICINE
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Volume & Issues
Volume 3, Issue 2 - Dec 1996
Volume 3, Issue 1 - Jun 1996
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Eye Movement and Schizophrenia
Kim, Chul-Eung ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 3, issue 1, 1996, Pages 3~14
Eye movement dysfunction has been found in large numbers of schizophrenia patients and their first-degree relatives and can be studied without the interference of deficits in attention, motivation, clinical status and medication effects with relatively easy method. Eye movement dysfunction has been proposed as a useful way of expanding the schizophrenia phenotype in genetic studies. I review the literature on eye movement dysfunction with respect to syndrome and familial specificity and the quantitative assessment of eye tracking. I hope that the etiology and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia can be clarified through this eye movement study.
REM Sleep and Memory
Yang, Chang-Kook ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 3, issue 1, 1996, Pages 15~24
After rapid eye movement(REM) sleep was idenified in 1953, a lively interest developed concerning a possible role of this kind of sleep in memory processes. The author reviewed studies relating REM to memory/learning. Many studies in animals and humans gave substantial evidence for relating REM sleep to memory function. The evidence supporting the position taken in this paper comes from experiments showing that : (1) learning session is followed by the significant augmentation of REM sleep : (2) REM sleep deprivation, prior to learning or immediately thereafter, impairs the formation of a permanent memory/learning : (3) there is a vulnerable period of time(eg, REM sleep "window") following succussful learning, during which REM sleep deprivation results in memory impairment : (4) theta rhythm which develops during REM sleep induces long-term potentiation in hippocampus : (5) there are some evidences providing the relationship of neurotransmitter systems to the maintenance of REM sleep and memory storage processes.
Visual Evoked Potential and Personality
Lee, Sung-Hoon ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 3, issue 1, 1996, Pages 25~30
Personality can be understood in terms of cognitive and informational modulation. Augmenting and reducing evoked potential (AREP) has been known as the one of method to test this cognitive characteristic. Especially, many studies have been performed on the relationship between AREP and the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS) and the Eysenck Personality Questinnaire (EPQ), which are well known as the psychological tests of personality. Generally sensation seekers tend to be augmenters and low sensation seekers tend to the rend to be reducers of EP. However, there are some reports that EP reducers are more extraverted on the EPQ and more sensation-seeking on the SSS than EP augmenters. These results may imply regulatory function of brain can be different depending on brain areas. According to the result of author's studies it can be assumed that frontocentral area works consistently with personality trend whereas right posterior temporal area performs inhibitory regulation against personality trend.
Measuring and Predicting Success of Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients
Park, Young-Hak ; Park, So-Young ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 3, issue 1, 1996, Pages 31~37
Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty(UPPP) is an operation that is frequently performed for the patient of obstructive sleep apnea(OSA). A major problem has been to select those patients who will have a good response to UPPP. We compared preoperative and postoperative polysomnography(PSG) in 20 patients to evaluate the success rate of the operation. Each subject underwent a cephalometric roentgenogram, and fiberoptic nasopharyngoscopy with Mueller maneuver was applied in roentgenogram and fiberoptic nasopharyngoscopy with Mueller maneuver was applied in preop evaluation of patients with OSA. No PSG parameter could accurately predict the changes in sleep after UPPP. There were no significant differences between the responders and the nonresponders concerning the cephalometric analysis, the type of obstruction by Mueller maneuver, and body mass index(BMI). The conclusions of this study are thus that UPPP is an effective treatment for the OSAS with a high success rate, but that there is no single useful parameter predicting the success of the operation.
Neurocognitive Function in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients
Choi, Byeon-Hoon ; Kim, Leen ; Suh, Kwang-Yoon ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 3, issue 1, 1996, Pages 38~46
The purpose of this study is to investigate the neurocognitive dysfunction and the degree of severity according to the oxygen desaturation in obstructive sleep apnea patients. We performed nocturnal polysomnographic recording and administered 3 Vienna Test System subtest of Reaction unit, Continuous attention and Cognitrone to 11 obstructive sleep patients and 13 controls. The result were as follows: 1) On Continous attentin and Cognitrone, patients with obstructive sleep apnea showed significant lower score on correct answer, higher score on missed answer and prolonged reaction time than control. But, there was no significant difference on Reaction unit between two groups. 2) Among 3 groups divided by degree of oxygen desaturation, there were no significant differences on Reaction unit. As the oxygen saturation decreased however, the obstructive sleep apnea group revealed significantly poor performance score on continuous attention and cognitrone. We suggested that obstructive sleep apnea patients showed disturbed neurocognitive function with complex cognitive process and the severity of neurocognitive dysfunction was also correlated with oxygen desaturation.
Nocturnal Sleep Fragmentation in Narcoleptics and Its Clinical Implications
Park, Doo-Heum ; Sohn, Chang-Ho ; Jeong, Do-Un ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 3, issue 1, 1996, Pages 47~55
Narcolepsy is characterized by sleep attack with excessive daytime sleepiness(EDS), cataplexy, sleep paralysis, and hypnagogic hallucination. Paradoxically, narcoleptics tend to complain of frequent arousals and shallow sleep during the night time despite their excessive sleepiness. However, nocturnal sleep fragmentation in narcoleptics is relatively ignored in treatment strategies, compared with sleep attack/EDS and cataplexy. In our paper, we attempted to investigate further on the poor nocturnal sleep in narcoleptics and to discuss possible treatment interventions. Out of consecutively seen patients at Seoul National University Sleep Disorders Clinic and Division of Sleep Studies, we recruited 57 patients, clinically assessed as having sleep attack and/or EDS. Nocturnal polysomnography and multiple sleep latency test(MSLT) were done in each of the subjects. We selected 19 subjects finally diagnosed as narcolepsy(mean age
years, 16 men and 3 women) for this study, depending on the nocturnal polysomnographic and MSLT findings as well as clinical history and symptomatology. Any subject co-morbid with other hypersomnic sleep disorders such as sleep apnea or periodic limb movements during sleep was excluded. Sleep staging was done using Rechtschaffen and Kales criteria. Sleep parameters were calculated using PSDENT program(Stanford Sleep Clinic, version 1.2) and were compared with the age-matched normal values provided in the program. In narcoleptics, compared with the normal controls, total wake time was found to be significantly increased with significantly decreased sleep efficiency(p<.01, p<.05, respectively), despite no difference of sleep period time and total sleep time between the two groups. Stage 2 sleep%(p<.05), slow wave sleep%(p<.05), and REM sleep%(p<.01) were found to be significantly decreased in narcoleptics compared with normal controls, accompanied by the significant increase of stage 1 sleep%(p<.01). Age showed negative correlation with slow wave sleep%(p<.05). The findings in the present study indicate significant fragmentation of nocturnal sleep in narcoleptics. Reduction of REM sleep% and the total number of REM sleep periods suggests the disturbance of nocturnal REM sleep distribution in narcoleptics. No significant correlations between nocturnal polysomnographic and MSLT variables in narcoleptics suggest that nocturnal sleep disturbance in narcoleptics may be dealt with, in itself, in diagnosing and managing narcolepsy. With the objective demonstration of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of nocturnal and daytime sleep in narcoleptics, we suggest that more attention be paid to the nocturnal sleep fragmentation in narcoleptics and that appropriate treatment interventions such as active drug therapy and/or circadian rhythm-oriented sleep hygiene education be applied as needed.
A Study on the Differences of Cognitive Functions, Neurobehavioral Symptoms and Daily Living Functions According to the Lateralization of Lesion in Patients with Non-Traumatic Subcortical Cerebrovascular Disease
Park, Young-Soo ; Lee, Young-Ho ; Choi, Young-Hee ; Ko, Dae-Kwan ; Chung, Young-Cho ; Park, Byoung-Kwan ; Kim, Soo-Ji ; Chung, Suk-Haui ; Ko, Byoung-Hee ; Song, Il-Byoung ; Park, Kun-Woo ; Lee, Dae-Hie ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 3, issue 1, 1996, Pages 56~67
Objectives : This study was designed to find clinical factors that could be differentiated by the lateralization of lesion and also find clinical factors to predict the lateralization of lesion. Methods : The subjects were 65 cooperative inpatients and outpatients with non-traumatic subcortical cerebrovascular disease without neurologic and psychiatric history from January 1995 to September 1995 ; 48 patients in Kyung Hee University, Oriental Medicine Hospital, 35 patients in Anam Hospital, Korea University were examined as subjects, but authors excluded 20 patients whose data were incomplete or who had uncertain lesions on brain CT or MRI. The 65 patients were divided into three groups-group with left hemispheric lesion, group with right hemispheric lesion, group with both hemispheric lesion-according to the finding of brain imaging study. Their cognitive functions were evaluated by the Benton Neuropsychological Assessment(BNA), their subjective neurobehavioral symptoms by Symptom Check List-90-R(SCL-90-R), their objective neurobehavioral symptoms by Neurobehavioral Rating Scale, and their daily living functions by Geriatric Evaluation by Relative's Rating Instrument(GERRl) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale(IADLs). Results : The results were as follows : 1) The results of cognitive function test indicated that the group with right hemispheric lesion showed low functions in Tactile Form Perception(left), the group with left hemispheric lesion showed low functions in Finger localization(right), the group with right hemispheric lesion showed low functions in Finger Localization(left). 2) Though, there were little significant differences in subjective neurobehavioral symptoms, the group with right hemispheric lesion showed higher scores in all symptoms except hostility. 3) Though, there were little significant differences in objective neurobehavioral symptoms, the group with both hemispheric lesion showed higher scores in cognition, guilty/disinhibition, the group with left hemispheric lesion showed higher scores in lability of mood, the group with right hemispheric lesion showed highest scores in psychotism, neurotism, agitation-hostility and decreased motivation/emotional withdrawal. 4) There were little significant differences among three groups in Daily Living Functions, but the group with right hemispheric lesion showed the lowest functions in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. 5) As a result of discriminant analysis on each factor's contribution to the prediction of lesion, Finger Localization(left), Phoneme Discrimination and Tactile Form Perception(right) showed that they had the potentiality to predict lesion. Conclusion : The results suggest that there are little significant differences among the groups of three non-traumatic subcortical cerebrovascular disease in cognitive functions, but the group with right hemispheric lesion showed more serious and various changes in subjective and objective neurobehavioral symptoms, and showed low functions in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. This results suggest the possibility that the decline of the daily living function in the group with right hemispheric lesion were due to various symptoms, not due to cognitive dysfunction. The confirmation of the possibility should be worked out through the follow-up study of some groups containing cortical lesion. Apart from these findings, Finger Localization, Tactile Form Perception(right) and Phoneme Discrimination suggest that they can be used as clinically valuable cognitive parameters that predict the lateralization of lesion in non-traumatic cerebrovascular disease.
A Study on the Clinical Usefulness of MMSE and BCRS for Cognitive Function Test in Patients with Non-Traumatic Subcortical Cerebrovascular Disease
Choi, Hong ; Lee, Young-Ho ; Choi, Young-Hee ; Ko, Dae-Kwan ; Chung, Young-Cho ; Park, Byoung-Kwan ; Kim, Soo-Ji ; Chung, Sook-Haui ; Ko, Byoung-Hee ; Song, Il-Byoung ; Park, Kun-Woo ; Lee, Dae-Hie ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 3, issue 1, 1996, Pages 68~78
Objective : The Mini-Mental State Examination(MMSE) and Brief Cognitive Rating Scale(BCRS) are frequently using screening tests fur evaluating the cognitive function in clinical practice and research. The authors tried to evaluate the clinical usefulness of these tests for the patients with non-traumatic subcortical cerebrovascular disease. Method : We administered the MMSE and BCRS to 85 patients and 195 normal control group. In order to compare the test results according to the lesion site, we divided patients into left sided lesion group(21 patients), right sided lesion group(31 patients) and both sided lesion group(13 patients). Their cognitive function was evaluated by the BNA and daily living functional activity was examined by the IADLs(Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale)and GERRI(Geriatric Evaluation by Relative's Rating Instrument). Results : The results are as follows : 1) In the BNA, the patients scored significantly lower than control group at all items(except Right-Left Orientation and Motor Impersistence), but there were no difference in the MMSE(total score and all 5 items), and only 2 items(recent memory and self-care) were significantly different between two groups in the BCRS. 2) In the comparison by lateralization, there were significant differences among three groups at 3 items(Left Tactile Form Perception, Left Finger Localization and Right Finger Localization) in the BNA. But, there were no difference in the MMSE and BCRS. 3) In the correlation between daily living functioning and the MMSE/BCRS, control group showed no relation(except item of cognitive functioning), but patient group was significantly correlated with 3 items(social functioning, instrumental activities of daily living and cognitive functioning). Conclusions : These findings suggest that MMSE and BCRS are not useful as the test for cognitive function and discrimination of lateralization in patients with non-traumatic subcortical cerebrovascular disease. However, scores of these tests may be related with the functional level(such as daily living function) of patients.
Polysomnographic Findings in Kleine-Levin Syndrome
Lee, Sung-Hoon ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 3, issue 1, 1996, Pages 79~84
Kleine-Levin syndrome is a disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of hypersomnia, hyperphagia and hypersexuality that typically occur weeks or months apart. A 17-years-old male showed these episodes and took nocturnal polysomnography(NPSG) and multiple sleep latency test(MSLT). As results of NPSG, sleep latency was 82.5min, sleep efficiency was 82.5min, sleep efficiency was 82.5%, latency and percentage of REM sleep were 106.5min and 14.6% and percentage of slow wave sleep was 12.7%. In 4 times MLST, average of sleep latency and REM latency were 8min 7sec and 5min 20sec with 3 times sleep onset REM period(SOREMP). These findings are consistent with these of Keine-Levin syndrome. And the possible causes and classification of this syndrome were discussed.
A Case of Childhood Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome with Co-morbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Treated with Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Treatment
Sohn, Chang-Ho ; Shin, Min-Sup ; Hong, Kang-E ; Jeong, Do-Un ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 3, issue 1, 1996, Pages 85~95
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome(OSAS) in childhood is unique and different n-om that in adulthood in several aspects, including pathophysiology, clinical features, diagnostic criteria, complications, management, and prognosis. Characteristic features of childhood OSAS in comparison with the adult form are the variety of severe complications such as developmental delay, more prominent behavioral and cognitive impairments, vivid cardiovascular symptoms, and increased death risk, warranting a special attention to the possible diagnosis of OSAS in children who snore. However, the childhood OSAS is often neglected and unrecognized. We, therefore, report a case of very severe OSAS in a 5-year-old boy who was sucessfully treated with continuous positive airway pressure(CPAP) treatment. Interestingly, the patient was comor-bid with the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Prior to the initial visit to us, adenotonsillectomy had been done at the age of 4 with no significant improvement of apneic symptoms and heavy snoring. On the initial diagnostic procedures, marked degree of snoring was audible even in the daytime wake state and the patient was observed to be very hyperactive. Increased pulmonary vascularity with borderline cardiomegaly was noted on chest X-ray. The baseline polysomnography revealed that the patient was very sleep-apneic and snored very heavily, with the respiratory disturbance index(RDI) of 46.9 per hour of sleep, the mean SaO2 of 78.8%, and the lowest SaO2 of 40.0%(the lowest detectable oxygen level by the applied oxymeter). The second night polysomnography was done for CPAP titration and the optimal pressure turned out to be
. The applied CPAP treatment was well tolerated by the patient and was found to be very effective in alleviating heavy snoring and severe repetitive sleep apneas. After 18 months of the CPAP treatment, the patient was followed up with nocturnal polysomnography(baseline and CPAP nights) and clinical examination. Sleep apneas were still present without CPAP on the baseline night. However, the severity of OSAS was significantly decreased(RDI of 15.7, mean SaO2 of 96.2%, and the lowest SaO2 of 83.0%), compared to the initial polysomnographic findings before initiation of long-term CPAP treatment. Wechsler intelligence tests done before and after the CPAP treatment were compared with each other and surprising improvement of intelligence(total 9 points, performance 16 points) was noted. Clinically he was found to be markedly improved in his attention deficit hyperactive behavior after CPAP treatment, but with minimal change of TOVA(test of variables of attention) scores except conversion of reaction time score into normal range. On the chest X-ray taken after 18 months of CPAP application, the initial cardiopulmonary abnormalities were not found at all. We found that the CPAP treatment in a young child is very effective, safe, and well-tolerated and also improves the co-morbid attention deficit hyperactive symptoms. Overall, the growth and development of the child has been facilitated with the long-term use of CPAP. Cardiovascular complications induced by OSAS have been also normalized with CPAP treatment. We suggest that early diagnosis and active treatment intervention of OSAS in children are crucial in preventing and ameliorating possible serious complications caused by repetitive sleep apneas and consequent hypoxic damage during sleep.