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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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Journal DOI :
KOREAN ACADEMY OF SLEEP MEDICINE
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Volume & Issues
Volume 3, Issue 2 - Dec 1996
Volume 3, Issue 1 - Jun 1996
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The Clinical Usefulness of Electroencephalography : Comparison of Findings Electroencephalography with Findings of Brain Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Kang, Dong-Woo ; Lee, Young-Ho ; Choi, Young-Hee ; Chung, Young-Cho ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 3, issue 2, 1996, Pages 1~17
To demonstrate the clinical usefulness of electroencephalography (EEG) and factors increasing the usefulness of EEG, the authors evaluated each relationship between EEG related factors and clinical variables, and neuroimaging studies (CT and MRI)-related factors, and factors which are related with routine neurological examination for 207 patients who had been evaluated with both of EEG and neuroimaging study(CT or/and MRI). The results were as follows: 1) Abnormality of EEG findings had significant relationships with chief complaints, diagnosis, medication use, seizure attack, pathological reflex, and level of consciousness. However there were no significant correlations between abnormality of EEG findings and neuroimaging studies (CT and MRI)- related factors. 2) Laterality of EEG findings had significant relationships with abnormality, laterality, and focality of CT findings, and also with abnormality of MRI findings. But there were no significant correlations between laterality of EEG findings and clinical variables, and neurological examination-related factors. 3) Anterior-posterior distribution of EEG findings was significantly related with medication use. 4) Focality of EEG findings had significant relationships with sex, sensory dysfunction sign, and cerebellar dysfunction sign. But there were no significant correlations between focality of EEG findings and neuroimaging studies(CT and MRI) related factors. 5) Abnormal EEG pattern had significant correlations with various factors, such as age, chief complaints, duration from onset of symptom to taking MRI, seizure attack, abnormality and nature of lesion in CT findings, cortical atrophy in MRI findings, motor dysfunction sign, sensory dysfunction sign, and pathological reflex. 6) With abnormality on sleep activation, age, age of onset, seizure attack, ventricular enlargement in CT findings, and abnormality of MRI findings were significantly correlated. 7) With abnormality on hyperventilation activation, duration of illness and laterality of MRI findings were significantly correlated. Above results may suggest that abnormality of EEG findings is more closely related with functional change of the brain than structural changes of the brain and laterality of EEG findings is vice versa. And also that medication use has an influence on anterior versus posterior distribution of EEG findings and focality of EEG findings is not related with structural changes of the brain. Activation with sleep may be effective to show age differences and provocation of seizure activity and hyperventilation may be effective to detect the abnormal EEG findings by cerebrovascular insufficiency.
The Changes of Sleep-Wake Cycle from Jet-Lag by Age
Kim, Leen ; Lee, Seung-Hwan ; Suh, Kwang-Yoon ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 3, issue 2, 1996, Pages 18~31
Jet-lag can be defined as the cumulative physiological and psychological effects of rapid air travel across multiple time zones. Many reports have suggested that age-related changes in sleep reflect fundamental changes in the circadian system and in significant declines in slow wave sleep. Jet lag is a dramatic situation in which the changes of the phase of circadian process and homeostatic process of sleep occur. Thus the authors evaluatead the changes of sleep-wake cycle from jet lag by age. Thirty-eight healthy travellers were studied for 3 days before and 7 days after jet-flights across seven to ten time zone. They were aged 19-70, They trareled eastbound, Seoul to North America (USA, Canada). Sleep onset time, wake-up time, sleep latency, awakening frequency on night sleep, awakening duration on night sleep, sleepiness at wake-up and nap length were evaluated. Our results suggest that by the 7 to 10 time zone shift, the old age group was significantly influenced in sleep-wake cycles. The date on which subjective physical condition was recovered was
day after arrivals for old age group, while for young and middle age group,
day, respectively. In old age group, sleep onset time was later than baselines and could not recover untill 7th day. But in other groups, the recovery was within 5th day. Nap dura fion was longer in old age group through jet lag than younger age group. In other parameters, there was no definite difference among three age groups. Our results suggested that the old age was significantly influenced by the disharmony between internal body clock and sleep-wake cycle needed at the travel site. Thus we proved that recovery ability from jet lag was age-dependent as well as travelling direction-dependent. To demonstrate more definite evidence, EEG monitoring and staging of sleep were funthun encouraged.
A Study of Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome : Clinical and Polysomnographic Characteristics
Yang, Chang-Kook ; Clerk, Alex ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 3, issue 2, 1996, Pages 32~42
Objectives : Upper airway resistance syndrome(UARS) is a sleep-related breathing disorder characterized by abnormal negative intrathoracic pressure during sleep. Abnormally increased negative intrathoracic pressure results in microarousal and sleep fragmentation which underlay UARS-associated complaints of daytime fatigue and sleepiness. Although daytime dysfunction in patients with UARS is comparable to that of sleep apnea syndrome, UARS has been relatively unnoticed in clinical setting. That is why UARS is apt to be excluded in diagnosing of sleep-related breathing disorders since its respiratory disturbance index and arterial oxygen saturation are within normal limits. The current study presents a summary of clinical and polysomnographic characteristics found in patients with UARS. The present study aims (1) to explore characteristics of patients diagnosed with UARS, (2) to characterize the polysomnographic findings of UARS patients, and (3) to enhance the understanding of UARS through those clinical and laboratory characteristics. Methods : This was a retrospective study of 20 UARS patients (male 15, female 5) and 30 obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients (male 21, female 9) at the Stanford Sleep Disorders Clinic. We diagnosed patients as having UARS when they met critenia, RDI < 5 characteristic findings of an elevated esophageal pressure(
), frequent arousals secondary to an elevated esophageal pressure, and symptoms of daytime fatigue and sleepiness. We used polysomnographic value, which is standardized by Williams et al(1974), as normal control. Statiotical test were done with student t-tests. Results : (1) Mean age of UARS was
years and OSA was
years. UARS subject was significantly younger than OSA subject (p<0.05). (2) The total score of Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was UARS
. There was no significant difference between two groups. (3) The mean body mass index was UARS
. UARS had significantly lower meen body man index than OSAS subjects (p<0.05). (4) The polysomnographic parameters of UARS were not significantly different from those of OSA except RDI(p<0.001),
(p<0.001) and slow wave sleep latency (p<0.05). (5) Compared with normal control, Total sleep time in UARS subjects was significantly shorter (p<0.001), sleep efficiency index was significantly lower (p<0.001), total awakening percentage was significantly higher (p<0.001), and sleep stage 1 (p<0.001) were significantly higher. (6) OSA patients showed poor sleep quality and distinct abnormal sleep architectures compared with normal control. Conclusions : Conclusions from the above results are as follows : (1) UARS patients were younger and had lower body mass index when umpared with OSA patients. (2) The quality of sleep and sleep architectures of the UARS and OSA patients are significantly different from those of normal control. (3) ESS scores and awakening frequencies of UARS are similar with those of OSA, suggesting that daytime dysfunction of UARS patients may be comparable to those of OSA patients. (4) The RDI and the
which are important indicators in diagnosing sleep-related breathing disorders, of UARS subjects are close to normal value. (5) According to the the above results, we unclude that despite the absence of
drops and the absence of an elevated number of apnea and hypopnea, subjects developed clinical complaints which were associated with laborious breathing, elevated Pes nadir, and frequently snoring. (6) Accordingly, we suggest including LIARS in the differential diagnosis list when sleep related breathing disorder is suspected clinically and overnight polysomnographic findings except snoring and frequent microarousal are within normal limits.
Sleep and Dream Development in Children
Hong, Kang-E.M ; Kim, Soo-Jeong ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 3, issue 2, 1996, Pages 43~55
Since REM sleep was found to be closely related with dream, efforts have been made to find the neurophysiological mechanism and the psychological meaning of dream. However, since most researchers have paid attention to dreams of adults, there are relatively few studies devoted to those of developing children. In the prevent study, we reviewed the previous studies and hypotheses about sleep and dream in various aspects and summarized the characteristics of sleep and dream of children in developmental domain as followings. (1) Sleep development : Across childhood, sleep architecture and sleep-wakefulness cycles are progressively changed toward the patterns of adult. They become similar to adult patterns only in their adolescence. Thus, the sleep event sconsidered as abnormal in adults may be normal in children. (2) Dream development : First, the content and meaning of the dream change with increasing age and develop in parallel with children's ego function, especially cognitive developmental stages. Second, for the children, the reality and the dream are on the continuous spectrum of 'reality-imitation-play-fantasy-dream'. Third, dreaming is the pure assimilation process for the children and through dreaming they can adapt and accomodate the reality without emotion.
Sleep Behavior and Sleeplessness in Children
Lee, Sung-Hoon ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 3, issue 2, 1996, Pages 56~64
The sleeplessness in childhood is quite different from that in adulthood in terms of causes, developmental process, and treatment. Sleep behavior in childhood is strongly influenced by parental personality and familial and cultural background. In understanding and management of sleeplessness of children, it is especially important to understand the separation anxiety and the ways of its management in bedtime because bedtime routine with children one of separation process from parents. Co-sleeping, parental intervention, transional object and bedtime routines can be appeared in order to reduce the anxiety from bedtime separation. Causes of sleeplessness in infant and toddler are bad sleep-onset association, nocturnal drinking, colic, and food allergy. In preschool and school aged children, limit-setting sleep problem and fears and nightmare can be causes of sleeplessness. When good sleep environment and habits are established sound sleep and more mature personality can be developed.
Childhood Hypersomnia and Sleep Apnea Syndrome
Sohn, Chang-Ho ; Jeong, Do-Un ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 3, issue 2, 1996, Pages 65~76
Natural sleep pattern and its physiology in childhood are much different from those in adulthood. Several aspects of clinical evaluation for sleepiness in childhood are more difficult than in adulthood. These difficulties are due to several factors. First, excessive sleepiness in childhood do not always develop functional impairments. Second, objective test such as MSLT may not be reliable since it is hard to be certain that the child understand instructions. Third, sleepiness in children is often obscured by irritability. paradoxical hyperactivity, or behavioral disturbances. Anseguently, careful clinical evaluation is needed for the sleepy children. Usual causes of sleepiness in children are the disorders that induce insufficient sleep such as sleep apnea syndrome, schedule disorder, underlying medical and psychiatric disorder, and so forth. After excluding such factors, we can diagnose the hypersomnic disorders such as narcolepsy, Kleine-Levin syndrome, and idiopathic central nervous system hypersomnia. Among the variety of those causes of sleepiness, I reviewed the clinical difference of narcolepsy and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in childhood compared with in adulthood. Recognition of the childhood narcolepsy is difficult because even severely sleepy children often do not develop pathognomic cataplexy and associated REM phenomena until much later. Since childhood narcolepsy give srise to many psychological, academical problem. Practicers should be concerned about these aspects. Childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is different from adult obstructive sleep apnea syndrome too. Several aspects such as pathophysiology. clinical feature, diagnostic criteria, complication, management, and prognosis differ from those in the adult syndrome. An important feature of childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is the variety of severe complications such as behavioral disorders, cognitive impairment, cardiovascular symptoms, developmental delay, and ever death. Fortunately, surgical interventions like adenotosillectomy or UPPP are more effective for Childhood OSA than adult form. CPAP is a "safe, effective, and well-tolerated" treatment modality too. So if early detection and proper management of childhood OSA were done, the severe complication would be prevented or ever cured.
Medical Treatment of Sleep Apnea Syndrome
Moon, Hwa-Sik ; Choi, Young-Mee ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 3, issue 2, 1996, Pages 77~89
Data collected to date indicate that sleep apnea syndrome is a risk factor in the development of cardiovascular dysfunction such as systemic hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary hypertension, right heart failure, angina, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Several reports suggest that untreated patients with sleep apnea syndrome have a higher long-term mortality than treated patients and than normal subjects. But there are many controversies concerning the treatment of sleep apnea syndrome, and there is no universally accepted standard for effective treatment. We reviewed the current approaches and options in the medical treatment of sleep apnea syndrome.
Surgical Management of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome
Park, Young-Hak ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 3, issue 2, 1996, Pages 90~96
Oral Appliance Therapy of Snoring and Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Chung, Sung-Chang ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 3, issue 2, 1996, Pages 97~107