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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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Journal DOI :
KOREAN ACADEMY OF SLEEP MEDICINE
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Volume & Issues
Volume 4, Issue 2 - Dec 1997
Volume 4, Issue 1 - Jun 1997
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Influence of Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders on Changes of Cardiovascular Function
Moon, Hwa-Sik ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 4, issue 2, 1997, Pages 129~139
The data collected to date indicate that sleep-related breathing disorders, including sleep-disordered breathing(sleep apnea) and underlying respiratory system diseases, are one of the important risk factors for cardiovascular dysfunction. Sleep-disordered breathing(sleep apnea) is now recognized as one of the leading causes of systemic hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, coronary heart disease, pulmonary hypertension, right heart failure, and stroke. Sleep may exert a profound effect on breathing in patients with underlying respiratory system disease including bronchopumonary diseases, chest wall abnormalities, central alveolar hypoventilation syndromes or respiratory neuromuscular disorders. Chronic hypoxia and hypercapnia in these patients may accelerate the development of long term cardiovascular complications such as cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary hypertension, and right heart failure(cor pulmonale). Several recent studies reported that sleep-related breathing disorders are associated with long-term cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Careful assessment of respiratory and cardiovascular function in these patients is critical. Aggressive and highly effective treatment of sleep-related breathing disorders using tracheostomy, mechanical ventilation, nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy(nCPAP), intercurrent oxygen therapy or other interventions can reduce the prevalence of cardiovascular dysfunction and the long-term mortality.
Neuropsychiatric Dysfunction in Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders
Yoon, In-Young ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 4, issue 2, 1997, Pages 140~146
Sleep-related breathing disorders, especially sleep apnea syndrome are complicated by neuropsychiatric dysfunction such as excessive daytime sleepiness, cognitive dysfunction, and depression. As the determinants of daytime sleepiness, sleep fragmentation is more influential than nocturnal hypoxia. Daytime sleepiness can be improved by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or surgery in up to 95% of the treated subjects. Both sleepiness and nocturnal hypoxia would cause cognitive dysfunction. While impairments in attention and verbal memory are more related with sleepiness and prominent in mild to moderate sleep apnea syndrome (SAS), impairments in general intellectual function and executive function are more related with nocturnal hypoxia and prominent in severe SAS. Several cognitive deficits related with nocturnal hypoxia may be irreversible despite CPAP or surgical treatments. So, early detection and early appropriate treatment of SAS would prevent sleepiness and cognitive deterioration.
Sleep-Wake Cycles in Man
Kim, Leen ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 4, issue 2, 1997, Pages 147~155
To assess the reliability of chronobiological models of sleep/wake regulation, it is necerssary that the models predict the data which has been studied in sleep research, and they should be generalized across all ages. To date, many adult human data on such models have accumulated, yet it is evident that a comprehensive theory of the biorhythmic aspects of sleep/wake states has not established. Circadian rhythms such as the time going to bed, sleep onset, slow wave sleep pressure, periodicity of REM sleep, daytime performance, and early evening alertness are resumed everyday. Even in adult humans, sleep is inherently polyphasic. In both the disentrained and entrained states, naps when allowed tend to recur in a temporally lawful manner. The monophasic sleep pattern of most industrial societies therefore appears to be purely of social origin. The endogenous biorhythmic nature of circasemidian sleep tendency is supported by the ubiquity of the phenomenon across all ages. The NREM/REM sleep cycle within sleep with its inherent physiological, endocrine, and neurochemical fluctuations represents the best-documented ultradian sleep rhythms. Also, a daytime ultradian variation in sleepiness with a periodicity similar to nocturnal NREM/REM cycle(BRAC hypothesis) is suggested. This review article provides a brief synoptic review of the evidences for circadian, circasemidian, and ultradian sleep/wake rhythms, and then the authour will suggest the issues which expedite fuller modeling of sleep/wake system, to be further discussed.
A Study on the Practice and Effects of Sleep Hygiene
Choi, Yun-Kyeung ; Kim, Leen ; Suh, Kwang-Yoon ; Shin, Dong-Kyun ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 4, issue 2, 1997, Pages 156~163
Objectives : The authors investigated the practice of sleep hygiene and its effectiveness in general population who had experienced insomnia. If we find the items which be little practiced but especially effective, we would establish empirical an and theoretical basis to design the treatment program for insomnia, therefore apply it in clinical practice. Methods : The 226 subjects who had experienced insomnia, were at the age above 18 in Seoul, Korea. The questionnaire included the demographic data, the experience of insomnia, and the practices and effects of sleep hygiene instruction. The interview was administered face to face by the investigators. Results : The subjects reported that they practiced many of the sleep hygiene items related with arousal in sleep setting, and that those items were effective. The items such as 'get regular exercise each day(H)', 'take a hot bath(H)', 'concentrate on the pleasant feeling of relaxation(A)' were not usually practiced, but these items were reported very effective for sleep. Conclusion : The findings suggested that there were sleep hygiene items which should be educated and directed to practice actively in treatment program for insomniacs. Some items, which were especially reported low practice but highly effective, would be recommended to be studied about each therapeutic effectiveness in follow-up studies.
Preliminary Study of The Periodic Limb Movement Disorder Following Nasal CPAP : Is It Associated With Supine-Sleeping Position?
Yang, Chang-Kook ; Clerk, Alex A ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 4, issue 2, 1997, Pages 164~171
Introduction : Periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) is shown to common in patients with OSA and may become evident or worsened when treated with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Whether this is due to im proved sleep continuity. adverse nocturnal body positioning, uncovered by CPAP, or due to the CPAP stimulus is still debat-ed. We hypothesized that the increase in PLM activity following CPAP is associated with more supine-sleeping tendencies when being treated with CPAP. In the present work, we compared differences in the PLMD index (PLMI) and sleeping position of patients with sleep disordered breathing before and after CPAP treatment. Method : We studied 16 patients (mean age 46 yr, 9M, 7F) with OSA (11 patients) or UARS (5 patients) who either had PLMD on initial polysomnogram (baseline PSG) or on nasal CPAP trial (CPAP PSG). All periodic leg movements were scored on anterior tibialis EMG during sleep according to standard criteria (net duration; 0.5-5.0 seconds, intervals; 4-90 seconds. 4 consecutive movements). Paired t-tests compared PLMD index (PLMI), PLMD-related arousal index (PLMD-ArI), respiratory disturbance index (RDI), and supine sleeping position spent with baseline PSG and CPAP PSG. Results : Ten patients (63%) on baseline PSG and fifteen patients (94%) on CPAP PSG had documented PLMD (
) respectively with significant increase on CPAP PSG(p<0.05). Ten patients showed the emergence (6/10 patients) or substantial worsening (4/10 patients) of PLMD during CPAP trial. Mean CPAP pressure was
. PLMI tended to increase from baseline PSG to CPAP PSG, and significantly increase when excluding 2 outlier (baseline PSG,
vs CPAP PSG,
, p<0.1). PLMD-ArI showed no significant change, but a significant decrease was detected when excluding 2 outlier (p<0.1). There was no significant sleeping positional difference (supine vs non-supine) on baseline PSG, but significantly more supine position (supine vs non-supine, p<0.05) on CPAP PSG. There was no significant difference in PLMI during supine-sleeping and nonsupine-sleeping position on both of baseline PSG and CPAP PSG. There was also no significant difference in PLMI during supine-sleeping position between baseline PSG and CPAP PSG. With nasal CPAP, there was a highly significant reduction in the RDI (baseline PSG,
vs CPAP PSG,
, p<0.05). Conclusion : This preliminary data confirms previous findings that CPAP is a very effective treatment for OSA, and that PLMD is developed or worsened with treatment by CPAP. This data also indicates that supine-sleeping position is more common when being treated with CPAP. However, there was no clear evidence that supine position is the causal factor of increased PLMD with CPAP. It is, however, suggested that the relative movement limitation induced by CPAP treatment could be a contributory factor of PLMD.
Characteristics of Patients Who Need Hypnotics on the Night before Elective Surgery
Lee, Soo-In ; Yoon, Jin-Sang ; Lee, Hyung-Young ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 4, issue 2, 1997, Pages 172~180
Objects : This study was carried out to investigate characteristics of patients who need hypnotics on the night before elective surgery as well as contributing variables for the necessity of hypnotics. Methods : After reviewing the clinical charts of patients who were scheduled to receive surgery by general anesthesia the following day, researchers had semi structural interviews with patients. In addition, Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory(SSTAI), Beck Depression Inventory(BDI), Zung's Self-Rating Pain and Distress Scale(ZPDS), and Presleep and Postsleep Questionnaires were administered to patients. A total of 167 patients, who gave reliable information, were divided into two groups based on subjective judgement regarding the necessity for hypnotics on the night before surgery; 29 eligibles for hypnotics and 138 non-eligibles for hypnotics. Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients, some possible factors affecting sleep, psychological characteristics of patients and daytime status and nighttime sleep before surgery were compared between the two groups. In addition, discriminant function analysis was done to find the variables which would best discriminate among patients who differ in terms of necessity for hypnotics on the night before surgery. Results : There was no difference in demographic and clinical characteristics between the two groups; however, the satisfaction level with ward environment was significantly lower in the eligible group for hypnotics than the non-eligible group. Psychologically, the eligible group for hypnotics, compared to the non-eligible group, showed significantly more severe depression, pain, and distress; whereas anxiety level was not different between the two groups. For nighttime sleep before surgery, the eligible group for hypnotics, compared to the non-eligible group, expected poorer sleep before retiring and in fact, reported poorer sleep the following morning. In discriminant function analysis, 'expectation for sleep' and 'pain and distress' were the most potent contributors to discriminate the necessity of hypnotics. Conclusion : For the improvement of the patient's sleep on the night before elective surgery, giving hypnotics and/or analgesics should be determined by patient's opinion about the necessity of the drugs rather than by the therapist's own judgement or any other objective indices.
Comparison of Effects of Zolpidem, Triazolam, and Placebo on the Insomnia of Schizophrenic Inpatients.
Park, So-Young ; Sohn, Jin-Wook ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 4, issue 2, 1997, Pages 181~190
Zolpidem is a relatively new, short-acting, rapid onset, and nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics. Zolpidem selectively binds to the central benzodiazepine 1 (BZI) receptor subtype. The present study was designed to compare the hypnotic effects of zolpidem (10 mg), triazolam (0.25 mg), and placebo in 22 schizophrenic inpatients. Zolpidem, triazolam, and placebo were administered orally in a randomized, double-blind design. Compared with placebo, zolpidem and triazolam significantly decreased sleep latency (p<0.05), increased total sleep time (p<0.05), and increased improvement of satisfaction of sleep (p<0.05). Zolpidem decreased the number of awakenings significantly in comparison with placebo (p<0.05), but triazolam did not. In addition, both drugs were well tolerated and did not produce severe side effects. These results suggest that zolpidem is effective for transient insomnia of schizophrenic inpatients and zolpidem is superior to triazolam in hypnotic effect.
Effects of Movement Intervals on Sleep Architecture in Subjects with Periodic Limb Movements during Sleep
Sohn, Chang-Ho ; Lee, Myeong-Hi ; Park, Du-Heum ; Jeong, Do-Un ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 4, issue 2, 1997, Pages 191~200
Objectives : Periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) may cause arousals that may lead to non-restorative sleep. PLMS is characterized by long sleep latency, sleep fragmentation, frequent stage shifts, and rarity of stages 3/4 NREM sleep on polysomnography. However, controversies have existed and it still remains to be elaborated whether PLMS actually causes insomnia, since normal persons happen to have PLMS. Clinically, it would be crucial to know factors which might disturb sleep in PLMS. We became interested in Coleman's theory(1980) that invariant periodic movements disturb patients' sleep less. Though, Coleman's study seems to have been confounded by including PLMS patients with various co-morbid sleep disorders. Therefore, we attempted to study in patients only with PLMS the effects of movement patterns on sleep architecture. Methods : In 27 patients diagnosed as having PLMS only with clinical interview and nocturnal polysomnography, we studied the relationship between the movement patterns such as mean duration and variability of periodic limb movement's interval and the sleep architecture variables. Results : The shorter and the more regular the limb movement intervals were, the fewer arousals followed. The movement intervals of the older patients were shorter and more regular than the younger patients. The probability of the accompanying arousal with each limb movement increased as the duration and variance of the movement intervals increased. It decreased as the age and the frequency of limb movements increased. Among these factors the most significant one was the mean duration of the movement intervals. In other words, the shorter the movement intervals were, the less disturbed sleep was. Conclusion : PLMS frequency increases with aging but the probability of the accompanying arousal with each movement decreases with aging. Sleep-disturbing effects of PLMS depends more on the duration and variability of movement intervals than the PLMS frequency.
Sleep Habits and Insomnia-Associated Factors in Korean Adult Population: A Cross-sectional Survey of Three Rural Communities
Jeong, Do-Un ; Sohn, Chang-Ho ; Sung, Joo-Hon ; Chang, Song-Hun ; Lee, Kun-Sei ; Lee, Won-Jin ; Shin, Hai-Rim ; Lee, Bu-Ok ; Cho, Soo-Hun ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 4, issue 2, 1997, Pages 201~212
Objectives: We attempted to study sleep habits and insomnia-associated factors in Korean rural adult population. Methods : In 1,441 adult subjects of three rural communities selected by cluster sampling, we administered an epidemiologic survey using questionnaire methods from July 14, 1996 to July 28, 1996. Results : 1) Mean sleep latency and mean time to sleep again after awakening during nocturnal sleep were longer in females than in males. Females suffered more frequently from insomnia symptom, awakening during nocturnal sleep. morning headache, dysphoric mood in the morning, and the feeling of 'not refreshed' on waking-up than males. 2) The older age group (defined as those older than 65 years) was found to have earlier bed-time, longer sleep latency, more frequent nocturia, longer time to sleep again after awakening during nocturnal sleep, and more frequent insomnia symptom. 3) The presence of insomnia symptom more than once a week was significantly associated with suffering from physical illness, being divorced-separated-widowed, frequently feeling depressed, nocturia, or low education level. 4) In multiple logistic regression analysis, old age, being female, low education level, frequently feeling depressed, and nocturia were independently associated with the presence of insomnia symptom more than once a week. Conclusion : We conclude that, in a Korean rural adult population, insomnia symptom increases with age and females usually suffer more from insomnia symptom than males. In addition, low education level, feeling depressed mood frequently, and nocturia are found to be significantly associated independently with the presence of insomnia symptom more than once a week.