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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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Journal DOI :
KOREAN ACADEMY OF SLEEP MEDICINE
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Volume & Issues
Volume 5, Issue 2 - Dec 1998
Volume 5, Issue 1 - Jun 1998
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The Neuroanatomy and Psychophysiology of Attention
Lee, Sung-Hoon ; Park, Yun-Jo ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 5, issue 2, 1998, Pages 119~133
Attentional processes facilitate cognitive and behavioral performance in several ways. Attention serves to reduce the amount of information to receive. Attention enables humans to direct themselves to appropriate aspects of external environmental events and internal operations. Attention facilitates the selection of salient information and the allocation of cognitive processing appropriate to that information. Attention is not a unitary process that can be localized to a single neuroanatomical region. Before the cortical registration of sensory information, activation of important subcortical structures occurs, which is called as an orienting response. Once sensory information reaches the sensory cortex, a large number of perceptual processes occur, which provide various levels of perceptual resolution of the critical features of the stimuli. After this preattentional processing, information is integrated within higher cortical(heteromodal) systems in inferior parietal and temporal lobes. At this stage, the processing characteristics can be modified, and the biases of the system have a direct impact on attentional selection. Information flow has been traced through sensory analysis to a processing stage that enables the new information to be focused and modified in relation to preexisting biases. The limbic and paralimbic system play significant roles in modulating attentional response. It is labeled with affective salience and is integrated according to ongoing pressures from the motivational drive system of the hypothalamus. The salience of information greatly influences the allocation of attention. The frontal lobe operate response selection system with a reciprocal interaction with both the attention system of the parietal lobe and the limbic system. In this attentional process, the search with the spatial field is organized and a sequence of attentional responses is generated. Affective, motivational and appectitive impulses from limbic system and hypothalamus trigger response intention, preparation, planning, initiation and control of frontal lobe on this process. The reticular system, which produces ascending activation, catalyzes the overall system and increases attentional capacity. Also additional energetic pressures are created by the hypothalamus. As psychophysiological measurement, skin conductance, pupil diameter, muscle tension, heart rate, alpha wave of EEG can be used. Event related potentials also provide physiological evidence of attention during information process. NI component appears to be an electrophysiological index of selective attention. P3 response is developed during the attention related to stimulus discrimination, evaluation and response.
Attention in Child Psychiatry
Shin, Min-Sup ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 5, issue 2, 1998, Pages 134~154
This paper first reviewed the definition, criteria, and neurological theories concerning the etiology of AD/HD, and the empirical studies dealing with the comorbidity of AD/HD with other psychiatric disorders. Secondly, results of studies using various neuropsychological tests for assessing the cognitive and behavioral problems in AD/HD children were examined, which suggest the possibility that dysfunction may exist in neural pathways involving many areas of the brain in AD/HD. However, because most of neuropsychological test used in Korea for ADHD children had been developed abroad, further study involving AD/HD, normal control, and other psychiatric control groups is needed to obtain developmental norms for interpreting the results, and to make more accurate diagnosis, and to clarify comorbidity of AD/HD with other disorders.
Attentional Dysfunction in Major Psychiatric Disorders
Ha, Kyoo-Seob ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 5, issue 2, 1998, Pages 155~169
Attentional dysfunction is considered as one of the core deficits in schizophrenic process. The findings, pathophysiological mechanisms, and their clinical implications of clinical and experimental neurocognitive tests for the attentional impairment in schizophrenics are reviewed. The influences of psychopathology, antipsychotic treatment, and chronic institutionalization are also included in the review. In contrast, there are only a few evidences that attentional dysfunction would be a core deficit of depressive, manic, and anxiety disorders. Some recent findings of attentional impairment in these disorders are reviewed.
Light Therapy : Basic Principle and Clinical Practice
Joe, Sook-Haeng ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 5, issue 2, 1998, Pages 170~176
Nowadays light therapy is accepted practice in the treatment for Seasonal Affective Disorder. The author reviewed the practical aspects of light therapy, latest treatment research on optimal parameters of light therapy and the mechanisms of action of light therapy. Therapeutic efficacy of light therapy using light visors & dawn simulators has been suggested but further studies are needed to clarify the efficacy. The treatment most strongly supported by research studies is light therapy using a light box to administer bright white light (2500 lux for 2 hours or 10000 lux for 30 minutes). Although some patients may be selective responders to morning light exposure, the optimal timing of light exposure still remains controversial. In practice, generally the duration of exposure can be increased or decreased as necessary and also the timing of exposure can be splitted (e.g. AM/PM usage) if optimal response is obtained. For most, a positive response of light therapy is usually noted within
and optimal response is obtained within 2 weeks. Generally the relapse of symptom occurs within days of discontinuation of light therapy, so to prevent relapse, light therapy should be continued throughout the winter season for typical seasonal affective disorder. Side effects of light therapy appear to be mild and well tolerated. Several theories for the mechanisms of action of light therapy at the basis of seasonal affective disorder had been suggested but remain still controversial. Further studies on the optimal parameters and the mechanisms of light therapy help us to better understand and treat not only seasonal affective disorders but also chronobiological disorders and nonseasonal affective disorders.
The influence of sleep and sleep apnea on memory function
Lee, Sung-Hoon ; Lee, Na-Young ; Park, Yun-Jo ; Jon, Duk-In ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 5, issue 2, 1998, Pages 177~184
Objectives : Disturbance of sleep with or without sleep apnea may impair the memory function. Sleep deficiency, sleepiness, sleep apnea and emotional problem in sleep disorders can induce an impairment of memory function. Methods : In this study, the polysomnographies were administered to 58 sleep apnea patients and 38 sleep disorder patients without sleep apnea. Their clinical symptoms were quantitatively evaluated. Short term and long term memory were evaluated before and after polysom no graphy with Digit symbol test and Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test. And correlations among various sleep, repiratory and clinical variables were statistically studied in order to explore which variables may influence on memory function. Results and Conclusions : Results are as follows. Depth of sleep cis positively correlated with memory function. As sleep apnea increases and average saturation of blood oxygen decreases, memory function is more impaired. Emotional depression, high blood pressure, obesity or alcohol impaired memory function. However, daytime sleepiness was not significantly correlated with memory function. The possible mechanisms how above factors influence on the memory function were discussed.
Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of EEG in Patients with Positive and Negative Schizophrenia
Chae, Jeong-Ho ; Pak, E-Jin ; Kim, Dai-Jin ; Jeong, Jae-Seung ; Kim, Soo-Yong ; Kim, Kwang-Soo ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 5, issue 2, 1998, Pages 185~193
Objectives : The hypothesis that the brain is a nonlinear dynamical system exhibiting deterministic chaos has offered new perspectives to the investigation of information processing in the brain of schizophrenic patients. It seemed worthwhile to estimate nonlinear measures of the electroencephalogram (EEG) in positive and negative schizophrenics, because nonlinear measures might serve as indicators of the specific brain function in schizophrenia according to specific psychopathologies. Method : Previous studies which estimated the chaoticity in the brain of schizophrenia with nonlinear methods recorded the EEGs at limited electrodes, so we tried to record EEGs from 16 channels for nonlinear analysis in 8 positive and 9 negative schizophrenics and 8 healthy control subjects. We employed a new method to calculate the nonlinear invariant measures. For limited noisy data, this algorithm was strikingly faster and more accurate than previous ones. Results : Our results showed that the patients with negative schizophrenia had lower the first positive Lyapunov exponents (
) than the positive schizophrnics and control subjects at
lead. Positive symptoms were positively correlated with
leads, and negatively correlated with
lead. Conclusion : These results suggest that if clinical variables such as psychopathology or neuroleptic medications would be well controlled, the nonlinear analysis of the EEGs in patients with schizophrenia seems to be a useful tool in analyzing EEG data to explore the neurodynamics.
Intelligence and Neuropsychological Tests Findings in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Kim, Chan-Hyung ; Lee, Sung-Hoon ; Kim, Ji-Woong ; Lee, Hee-Sang ; Kim, Kyung-Hee ; Lee, Hong-Shick ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 5, issue 2, 1998, Pages 194~201
Objectives : This study was aimed to investigate the differences in intelligence and neuropsychological test findings between patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder(OCD) and normal controls, and to find out brain functions. Methods : To examine the brain functions, Halsted Reitan neuropsychological test, computerized neuropsychological test, Wechsler Memory scale and K-WAIS were applied. Subjects of this study consisted of 12 patients with OCD and 17 normal controls who were matched for age, handedness and education year. Results : The verbal intelligence of OCD was significantly higher than that of normal controls. But there was no significant difference in total and performance intelligence between groups. The total time of tactual performance test in OCD was significantly delayed than that in normal controls. Also the visual recall of Wechsler memory scale in OCD was more impaired than that in normal controls. Conclusion : These findings support that visual-spatial memory, which is related to basal ganglia, is impaired in OCD.
A Case of Seasonal Affective Disorder with Hypersomnia -Polysomnographic Findings Before and After Light Therapy-
Joe, Sook-Haeng ; Kim, Leen ; Suh, Kwang-Yoon ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 5, issue 2, 1998, Pages 202~209
Authors report the findings of nocturnal polysomnography and multiple sleep latency test(MSLT) before and after morning light treatment in a winter depressive patient with hypersomnia. On polysomnographic recordings, the sleep pattern of this case before light treatment was similar to that of narcolepsy exhibited, sleep onset REM period(SOREMP). After treatment, the shortened REM latency changed to normal condition, but, deep sleep percentage did not changed, and stage 4 sleep percentage was decreased. Depressive symptoms were improved on clinical interview with Hamilton Depressive Rating Scale. Sleep log showed shortened sleep latency and reduced sleep duration. These findings suggest that although light treatment could alter the sleep structure in seasonal affective disorder with hypersomnia, it does not necessarily imply that antidepressant response of light treatment is result of change of sleep structure.
A Case Report on Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patient Using Intraoral Removable Appliance
Kang, Kook-Jin ; Oh, Kang-Seob ; Lee, Si-Hyung ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 5, issue 2, 1998, Pages 210~215
OSA(Obstructive Sleep Apnea) is a condition with repeated obstruction of the upper airway while sleeping. This obstruction of the upper airway may result if sleep-induced physiologic change in muscle activity is superimposed on various structural defects of the upper airway. Macroglossia, micrognathia, retrognathia, and decreased airway lumen have all been implicated in OSA. There are a variety of surgical and nonsurgical treatment modalities currently available for OSA. Recently the uvulopalatopharyngoplasty has achieved widespread use, but success rates vary and long-term effects are still unknown. Current nonsurgical treatment methods can be cumbersome and uncomfortable with variable responses. For this case. we diagnosed as OSA by using polysomnographic analysis and cephalometric analysis, and delivered intraoral removable appliance which is more conservative, reversible and easy to use for patient. And we got results that Apnea Index(AI) decreased from 14.4 to 3.1, Total Respiratory Disturbance Index(Total RDI) decreased from 18.1 to 7.0 and removal of chronic headache in daytime.