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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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Journal DOI :
KOREAN ACADEMY OF SLEEP MEDICINE
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Volume & Issues
Volume 9, Issue 2 - Dec 2002
Volume 9, Issue 1 - Jun 2002
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Menstruation and Sleep
Park, Doo-Heum ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 9, issue 2, 2002, Pages 81~85
There are several factors which are more likely to have sleep disorders in fertile women with menstruation than adult men. Menstrual cycle plays an important role in them. We describe herein the overview about the association of menstrual cycle and sleep disorders by viewing the interactions of menstrual cycle and circadian rhythm. We review how menstrual cycle affects sleep-wake cycle by reviewing menstrual cycle and estrous cycle to understand these interactions. Menstrual cycle and estrous cycle are mainly affected by hormonal cycle and light-dark cycle, respectively and they are generally determined in monthly rhythm and annual rhythm, respectively. The determination of estrous cycle is also affected by cyclic changes of hormones besides light-dark cycle. Although sleep-wake cycle almost alternates according to estrous cycle in non-primate mammals, it is hardly affected by menstrual cycle in primate mammals as compared with estrous cycle. But menstrual cycle affects sleep-wake cycle via desynchronization of sleep-wake cycle and temperature rhythm. The decrease of amplitude and phasic change during luteal phase in the daily fluctuation of body core temperature can partially contribute to the induction of sleep disorders in fertile women. In addition to this, premenstrual syndrome which nearly happens during luteal phase commonly have sleep problems. Therefore, we suggest that menstrual cycle and PMS can partially contribute the increase of sleep disorders in fertile women.
Sleep in Pregnancy
Chung, Sang-Keun ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 9, issue 2, 2002, Pages 86~95
Various sleep-related problems are common in pregnant women. Sleep disorders may result in intrauterine growth restriction as well as harm to pregnant women. Pharmacotherapy of sleep disorders in pregnancy require cautious judgement. All physicians managing sleep-related problems of pregnant women in clinical practice need to understand sleep-related problems and their management in pregnancy. Therefore, I have reviewed the literature on normal sleep, sleep disorders and their management in pregnancy.
Sleep in Menopause
Lim, Weon-Jeong ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 9, issue 2, 2002, Pages 96~99
Menopause, the cessation of menstruation caused by the decline in estrogen production, occurs in 95% of women between 40 and 60 years. Sleep disturbance is a frequent complaint during the perimenopause period. In contrast to premenopausla women, menopausal women experience more reduction in the total sleep hours and report more sleep disturbances, such as insomnia, noctiria and sleep disordered breathing. But the prevalence, etiology and treatment of sleep disturbances in menopause are still controversal. So further investigations are required to elucidate the factors that account for the differences in sleep disturbance between premenopausal and postmenopausal women. There are suggestive data that estrogen and progesterone deficiency may increase the susceptibility for sleep disorder in menopause. Furthermore, there are suggestive evidence from observational studies and a limited number of randomized, controlled trials that hormone replacement therapy after menopause improves sleep. However, the clinical relevance of hormone replacement therapy is unproved. So the overall benefit of hormonal replacement in postmenopausal women with sleep related disorders should be individualized to avoid potential side effects. Several studies evaluated the role of melatonin, because this hormone has effects on core body temperature & insomnia. But the exact dosage and the effects of long-term use of melatonin are unclear. So, caution is indicated in melatonin administration.
Insomnia and Personality Trait
Ham, Byung-Joo ; Kim, Leen ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 9, issue 2, 2002, Pages 100~105
Personality traits in insomniac patients have been a subject of many studies. A number of these studies have used the MMPI and have demonstrated elevated scores on several clinical scales reflecting somatic concerns, somatization, depression, anxiety, worry and social alienation. And it was suggested that insomnia was due to a process of internalization of psychological distress. Another hypothesis about psychological mechanisms has focused upon worry. Excessive and uncontrollable cognitive activity seem to be a characteristic feature of many insomniacs. One author emphasized the role of the dependency need and found a characteristic pattern among insomniacs. The central feature of this pattern is frustration of dependency need. The purpose of this paper was to review possible personality variable that may be predisposing causal factors of insomnia. Several factors are suggested by many studies, but in order to explore their causal importance other experimental and longitudinal studies are needed.
Comparison of Daytime Sleepiness between Normal Subjects and Patients with Sleep Disorders and Analysis of Its Clinical Implications
Lee, Jin-Sung ; Kim, Seog-Ju ; Choi, Jong-Bae ; Jeong, Do-Un ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 9, issue 2, 2002, Pages 106~114
Objectives: Daytime sleepiness is a common symptom and is associated with sleep behavior, sleep deprivation, and night shift, etc. It is also one of the most important symptoms of sleep disorders like obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). According to our survey on Korean literature, a few studies have dealt with daytime sleepiness, and we have not been able to locate any study comparing normal subjects with polysomnography-proven sleep disorder patients regarding daytime sleepiness. We aimed at comparing daytime sleepiness among normal healthy daytime workers, medical students being expected to have daytime sleepiness due to chronic sleep deprivation, and patients having sleep disorders diagnosed with polysomnography. We also studied the association between subjective daytime sleepiness and objective polysomnographic findings in patients with sleep disorders. Methods: One hundred three hospital workers, 137 medical students, and patients with sleep disorders were studied. Sleep disorders included OSA, periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS), insomnia, and narcolepsy. The degree of subjective sleepiness in each group was measured by the Korean version of Epworth sleepiness scale and compared. The relationship between polysomnographic findings reflecting severity of sleep disorder in each patient group and subjective sleepiness was analyzed. As for patients with narcolepsy, the relationship between the mean sleep latency and subjective sleepiness was studied. Results: There was a significant difference of ESS score (F=68.190, dF=5.752, p<0.001) among daytime workers, medical students, and sleep disorder patients. In OSA patient group, the degree of the sleepiness had no significant correlation either with mean O2 satuaration (p=0.062) or with RDI (p=0.807). In PLMS patient group, there was no correlation between periodic limb movement index (PLMI) and subjective sleepiness (p=0.761). In narcolepsy patient group, the subjective sleepiness had no correlation with mean sleep latency measured with MSLT (p=0.055). Conclusion: We found a significant difference of subjective sleepiness among daytime workers, medical students, and patients with sleep disorders. However, no consistent correlation was found between severity of subjective sleepiness and objective polysomnographic findings reflecting severity of each sleep disorder. This research confirms that the evaluation of subjective sleepiness is important clinically, but it cannot substitute the objective measures such as nocturnal polysomnography and MSLT.
Sleep Paralysis in Schizophrenia and Mood Disorder
Park, Jae-Hong ; Yang, Chang-Kook ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 9, issue 2, 2002, Pages 115~121
Objectives: Although sleep paralysis (SP) has been known as one of the symptoms of narcolepsy, recently it has become recognized as occurring frequently in the general population. However, the prevalence of SP and its associated factors in patients with major psychiatric disorders remain unknown. This study investigated the prevalence of SP and a variety of associated experiences in those patients. Methods: The subjects were 160 psychiatric patients and 143 age- and sex-matched controls. The Korean version SP questionnaire as well as the Sleep-Wake Schedule, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Insomnia Severity Index were administered to all the subjects. The patients were referred from Dong-A University Hospital and consisted of 74 diagnosed as schizophrenia (47.7%), 26 as bipolar disorder (16.8%) and 55 as major depression (35.5%). Results: Nearly 42% of the patient group and 39% of the control group had experienced at least one episode of SP in their lifetime, with no significant difference between the groups. However, the patient group had experienced SP more frequently than the control group. Among all subjects, no gender difference in SP incidence was found. The peak age of onset was in the range of 16-25 years for both groups. Over eight tenths of both groups reported hallucinations and over seven tenths of both groups experienced fear accompanying SP. Conclusion: This study shows that there is no difference in the lifetime prevalence of SP between psychiatric patients and the general population, whereas frequency of SP experience is higher in psychiatric patients. Terrifying hallucinations and fearful feelings frequently accompany SP in both groups.
Effects of Total Sleep Deprivation on Visual Discrimination
Lee, Heon-Jeong ; Yang, Jae-Won ; Lee, Bun-Hee ; Ham, Byung-Joo ; Suh, Kwang-Yoon ; Kim, Leen ;
Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, volume 9, issue 2, 2002, Pages 122~126
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the 37-hour sleep deprivation on visual discrimination using the Cybernetic Flicker Fusion Analyzer (FLIMK) and to see the correlation between this finding and various subjective scale scores. Methods: Twenty six subjects (20 men 6 women,
years of age) participated in this study. Subjects remained awake for 37 hours under continuous surveillance. In the morning and evening of two study days, the FLIMK and the self-reporting scale of sleepiness, fatigue, anxiety and mood states were instituted. Results: In FLIMK, the flicker fusion threshold was significantly decreased after sleep deprivation (F=7.66, p=0.01). The number of trials (responses) before reaching fusion frequency threshold was significantly increased after sleep deprivation (F=13.16, p=0.001). The reduction of fusion frequency was correlated with the increase of sleepiness and fatigue (p<0.05), and the number of the trials was correlated with the scores of negative mood, anxiety, and fatigue (p<0.05). Conclusions: These results suggest that 37 hour total sleep deprivation cause the decrement in visual discrimination. The decrease of the fusion frequency after sleep deprivation was correlated with sleepiness and fatigue. Further study is needed to enlighten the biological mechanism of the decrement in visual function after sleep deprivation.