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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Molecules and Cells
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Society for Molecular and Cellular Biology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 38, Issue 12 - Dec 2015
Volume 38, Issue 8 - Aug 2015
Volume 38, Issue 7 - Jul 2015
Volume 38, Issue 6 - Jun 2015
Volume 38, Issue 5 - May 2015
Volume 38, Issue 4 - Apr 2015
Volume 38, Issue 3 - Mar 2015
Volume 38, Issue 2 - Feb 2015
Volume 38, Issue 1 - Jan 2015
Selecting the target year
Are Macrophages in Tumors Good Targets for Novel Therapeutic Approaches?
Alahari, Samthosh V. ; Dong, Shengli ; Alahari, Suresh K. ;
Molecules and Cells, volume 38, issue 2, 2015, Pages 95~104
DOI : 10.14348/molcells.2015.2298
The development of cancer has been an extensively researched topic over the past few decades. Although great strides have been made in cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, there is still much to be learned about cancer's micro-environmental mechanisms that contribute to cancer formation and aggressiveness. Macrophages, lymphocytes which originate from monocytes, are involved in the inflammatory response and often dispersed to areas of infection to fight harmful antigens and mutated cells in tissues. Macrophages have a plethora of roles including tissue development and repair, immune system functions, and inflammation. We discuss various pathways by which macrophages get activated, various approaches that can regulate the function of macrophages, and how these approaches can be helpful in developing new cancer therapies.
Structural Features of β2 Adrenergic Receptor: Crystal Structures and Beyond
Bang, Injin ; Choi, Hee-Jung ;
Molecules and Cells, volume 38, issue 2, 2015, Pages 105~111
DOI : 10.14348/molcells.2015.2301
The beta2-adrenergic receptor (
) belongs to the G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family, which is the largest family of cell surface receptors in humans. Extra attention has been focused on the human GPCRs because they have been studied as important protein targets for pharmaceutical drug development. In fact, approximately 40% of marketed drugs directly work on GPCRs. GPCRs respond to various extracellular stimuli, such as sensory signals, neurotransmitters, chemokines, and hormones, to induce structural changes at the cytoplasmic surface, activating downstream signaling pathways, primarily through interactions with heterotrimeric G proteins or through G-protein independent pathways, such as arrestin. Most GPCRs, except for rhodhopsin, which contains covalently linked 11 cis-retinal, bind to diffusible ligands, having various conformational states between inactive and active structures. The first human GPCR structure was determined using an inverse agonist bound
in 2007 and since then, more than 20 distinct GPCR structures have been solved. However, most GPCR structures were solved as inactive forms, and an agonist bound fully active structure is still hard to obtain. In a structural point of view,
is relatively well studied since its fully active structure as a complex with G protein as well as several inactive structures are available. The structural comparison of inactive and active states gives an important clue in understanding the activation mechanism of
. In this review, structural features of inactive and active states of
, the interaction of
with heterotrimeric G protein, and the comparison with
will be discussed.
14-3-3ζ Regulates Immune Response through Stat3 Signaling in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Han, Xinguang ; Han, Yongfu ; Jiao, Huifeng ; Jie, Yaqiong ;
Molecules and Cells, volume 38, issue 2, 2015, Pages 112~121
DOI : 10.14348/molcells.2015.2101
Ectopic expression of
has been found in various malignancies, including lung cancer, liver cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and so on. However, the effect of
in the regulation of interactions between tumor cells and the immune system has not been previously reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether and how
is implicated in tumor inflammation modulation and immune recognition evasion. In oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines and cancer tissues, we found that
is overexpressed. In OSCC cells,
knockdown resulted in the up-regulated expression of inflammatory cytokines. In contrast,
introduction attenuated cytokine expression in human normal keratinocytes and fibroblasts stimulated with interferon-
) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Furthermore, supernatants from
knockdown OSCC cells dramatically altered the response of peritoneal macrophages, dendritic cells and tumor-specific T cells. Interestingly, Stat3 was found to directly interact with
and its disruption relieved the inhibition induced by
in tumor inflammation. Taken together, our studies provide evidence that
may regulate tumor inflammation and immune response through Stat3 signaling in OSCC.
Azasugar-Containing Phosphorothioate Oligonucleotide (AZPSON) DBM-2198 Inhibits Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Replication by Blocking HIV-1 gp120 without Affecting the V3 Region
Lee, Jinjoo ; Byeon, Se Eun ; Jung, Ju Yeol ; Kang, Myeong-Ho ; Park, Yu-Jin ; Jung, Kyeong-Eun ; Bae, Yong-Soo ;
Molecules and Cells, volume 38, issue 2, 2015, Pages 122~129
DOI : 10.14348/molcells.2015.2129
DBM-2198, a six-membered azasugar nucleotide (6-AZN)-containing phosphorothioate (P = S) oligonucleotide (AZPSON), was described in our previous publication [Lee et al. (2005)] with regard to its antiviral activity against a broad spectrum of HIV-1 variants. This report describes the mechanisms underlying the anti-HIV-1 properties of DBM-2198. The LTR-mediated reporter assay indicated that the anti-HIV-1 activity of DBM-2198 is attributed to an extracellular mode of action rather than intracellular sequence-specific antisense activity. Nevertheless, the antiviral properties of DBM-2198 and other AZPSONs were highly restricted to HIV-1. Unlike other P = S oligonucleotides, DBM-2198 caused no host cell activation upon administration to cultures. HIV-1 that was pre-incubated with DBM-2198 did not show any infectivity towards host cells whereas host cells pre-incubated with DBM-2198 remained susceptible to HIV-1 infection, suggesting that DBM-2198 acts on the virus particle rather than cell surface molecules in the inhibition of HIV-1 infection. Competition assays for binding to HIV-1 envelope protein with anti-gp120 and anti-V3 antibodies revealed that DBM-2198 acts on the viral attachment site of HIV-1 gp120, but not on the V3 region. This report provides a better understanding of the antiviral mechanism of DBM-2198 and may contribute to the development of a potential therapeutic drug against a broad spectrum of HIV-1 variants.
MicroRNA-576-3p Inhibits Proliferation in Bladder Cancer Cells by Targeting Cyclin D1
Liang, Zhen ; Li, Shiqi ; Xu, Xin ; Xu, Xianglai ; Wang, Xiao ; Wu, Jian ; Zhu, Yi ; Hu, Zhenghui ; Lin, Yiwei ; Mao, Yeqing ; Chen, Hong ; Luo, Jindan ; Liu, Ben ; Zheng, Xiangyi ; Xie, Liping ;
Molecules and Cells, volume 38, issue 2, 2015, Pages 130~137
DOI : 10.14348/molcells.2015.2146
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, endogenous RNAs that play important gene-regulatory roles by binding to the imperfectly complementary sequences at the 3'-UTR of mRNAs and directing their gene expression. Here, we first discovered that miR-576-3p was down-regulated in human bladder cancer cell lines compared with the non-malignant cell line. To better characterize the role of miR-576-3p in bladder cancer cells, we over-expressed or down-regulated miR-576-3p in bladder cancer cells by transfecting with chemically synthesized mimic or inhibitor. The overexpression of miR-576-3p remarkably inhibited cell proliferation via G1-phase arrest, and decreased both mRNA and protein levels of cyclin D1 which played a key role in G1/S phase transition. The knock-down of miR-576-3p significantly promoted the proliferation of bladder cancer cells by accelerating the progression of cell cycle and increased the expression of cyclin D1. Moreover, the dual-luciferase reporter assays indicated that miR-576-3p could directly target cyclin D1 through binding its 3'-UTR. All the results demonstrated that miR-576-3p might be a novel suppressor of bladder cancer cell proliferation through targeting cyclin D1.
Raloxifene Induces Autophagy-Dependent Cell Death in Breast Cancer Cells via the Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase
Kim, Dong Eun ; Kim, Yunha ; Cho, Dong-Hyung ; Jeong, Seong-Yun ; Kim, Sung-Bae ; Suh, Nayoung ; Lee, Jung Shin ; Choi, Eun Kyung ; Koh, Jae-Young ; Hwang, Jung Jin ; Kim, Choung-Soo ;
Molecules and Cells, volume 38, issue 2, 2015, Pages 138~144
DOI : 10.14348/molcells.2015.2193
Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that binds to the estrogen receptor (ER), and exhibits potent anti-tumor and autophagy-inducing effects in breast cancer cells. However, the mechanism of raloxifene-induced cell death and autophagy is not well-established. So, we analyzed mechanism underlying death and autophagy induced by raloxifene in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Treatment with raloxifene significantly induced death in MCF-7 cells. Raloxifene accumulated GFP-LC3 puncta and increased the level of autophagic marker proteins, such as LC3-II, BECN1, and ATG12-ATG5 conjugates, indicating activated autophagy. Raloxifene also increased autophagic flux indicators, the cleavage of GFP from GFP-LC3 and only red fluorescence-positive puncta in mRFP-GFP-LC3-expressing cells. An autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3-MA), suppressed the level of LC3-II and blocked the formation of GFP-LC3 puncta. Moreover, siRNA targeting BECN1 markedly reversed cell death and the level of LC3-II increased by raloxifene. Besides, raloxifene-induced cell death was not related to cleavage of caspases-7, -9, and PARP. These results indicate that raloxifene activates autophagy-dependent cell death but not apoptosis. Interestingly, raloxifene decreased the level of intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and activated the AMPK/ULK1 pathway. However it was not suppressed the AKT/mTOR pathway. Addition of ATP decreased the phosphorylation of AMPK as well as the accumulation of LC3-II, finally attenuating raloxifene-induced cell death. Our current study demonstrates that raloxifene induces autophagy via the activation of AMPK by sensing decreases in ATP, and that the overactivation of autophagy promotes cell death and thereby mediates the anti-cancer effects of raloxifene in breast cancer cells.
NELL2 Function in the Protection of Cells against Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress
Kim, Dong Yeol ; Kim, Han Rae ; Kim, Kwang Kon ; Park, Jeong Woo ; Lee, Byung Ju ;
Molecules and Cells, volume 38, issue 2, 2015, Pages 145~150
DOI : 10.14348/molcells.2015.2216
Continuous intra- and extracellular stresses induce disorder of
homeostasis and accumulation of unfolded protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which results in ER stress. Severe long-term ER stress triggers apoptosis signaling pathways, resulting in cell death. Neural epidermal growth factor-like like protein 2 (NELL2) has been reported to be important in protection of cells from cell death-inducing environments. In this study, we investigated the cytoprotective effect of NELL2 in the context of ER stress induced by thapsigargin, a strong ER stress inducer, in Cos7 cells. Overexpression of NELL2 prevented ER stress-mediated apoptosis by decreasing expression of ER stress-induced C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and increasing ER chaperones. In this context, expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL was increased by NELL2, whereas NELL2 decreased expression of pro-apoptotic proteins, such as cleaved caspases 3 and 7. This anti-apoptotic effect of NELL2 is likely mediated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling, because its inhibitor, U0126, inhibited effects of NELL2 on the expression of anti- and pro-apoptotic proteins and on the protection from ER stress-induced cell death.
Galangin and Kaempferol Suppress Phorbol-12-Myristate-13-Acetate-Induced Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Expression in Human Fibrosarcoma HT-1080 Cells
Choi, Yu Jung ; Lee, Young Hun ; Lee, Seung-Taek ;
Molecules and Cells, volume 38, issue 2, 2015, Pages 151~155
DOI : 10.14348/molcells.2015.2229
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 degrades type IV collagen in the basement membrane and plays crucial roles in several pathological implications, including tumorigenesis and inflammation. In this study, we analyzed the effect of flavonols on MMP-9 expression in phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-induced human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells. Galangin and kaempferol efficiently decreased MMP-9 secretion, whereas fisetin only weakly decreased its secretion. Galangin and kaempferol did not affect cell viability at concentrations up to
. Luciferase reporter assays showed that galangin and kaempferol decrease transcription of MMP-9 mRNA. Moreover, galangin and kaempferol strongly reduce
phosphorylation and significantly decrease JNK phosphorylation. These results indicate that galangin and kaempferol suppress PMA-induced MMP-9 expression by blocking activation of NF-
and AP-1. Therefore, these flavonols could be used as chemopreventive agents to lower the risk of diseases involving MMP-9.
Tristetraprolin Inhibits the Growth of Human Glioma Cells through Downregulation of Urokinase Plasminogen Activator/Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor mRNAs
Ryu, Jinhyun ; Yoon, Nal Ae ; Lee, Yeon Kyung ; Jeong, Joo Yeon ; Kang, Seokmin ; Seong, Hyemin ; Choi, Jungil ; Park, Nammi ; Kim, Nayoung ; Cho, Wha Ja ; Paek, Sun Ha ; Cho, Gyeong Jae ; Choi, Wan Sung ; Park, Jae-Yong ; Park, Jeong Woo ; Kang, Sang Soo ;
Molecules and Cells, volume 38, issue 2, 2015, Pages 156~162
DOI : 10.14348/molcells.2015.2259
Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) play a major role in the infiltrative growth of glioblastoma. Downregulatoion of the uPA and uPAR has been reported to inhibit the growth glioblastoma. Here, we demonstrate that tristetraprolin (TTP) inhibits the growth of U87MG human glioma cells through downregulation of uPA and uPAR. Our results show that expression level of TTP is inversely correlated with those of uPA and uPAR in human glioma cells and tissues. TTP binds to the AU-rich elements within the 3' untranslated regions of uPA and uPAR and overexpression of TTP decreased the expression of uPA and uPAR through enhancing the degradation of their mRNAs. In addition, overexpression of TTP inhibited the growth and invasion of U87MG cells. Our findings implicate that TTP can be used as a promising therapeutic target to treat human glioma.
Lipoteichoic Acid Isolated from Lactobacillus plantarum Inhibits Melanogenesis in B16F10 Mouse Melanoma Cells
Kim, Hye Rim ; Kim, Hangeun ; Jung, Bong Jun ; You, Ga Eun ; Jang, Soojin ; Chung, Dae Kyun ;
Molecules and Cells, volume 38, issue 2, 2015, Pages 163~170
DOI : 10.14348/molcells.2015.2263
Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is a major component of the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria. Its effects on living organisms are different from those of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) found in Gram-negative bacteria. LTA contributes to immune regulatory effects including anti-aging. In this study, we showed that LTA isolated from Lactobacillus plantarum (pLTA) inhibited melanogenesis in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. pLTA reduced the cellular activity of tyrosinase and the expression of tyrosinase family members in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of microphthalmia- associated transcription factor (MITF), a key factor in the synthesis of melanin, was also decreased by pLTA. Further, we showed that pLTA activated melanogenesis signaling, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinse (PI3K)/AKT. In addition, the expression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) and HuR, which are important RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), was reduced. pLTA likely degrades MITF via regulation of melanogenic signaling and RNA stability of melanogenic proteins, resulting in the reduction of melanin. Thus, our data suggest that pLTA has therapeutic potential for treating hyperpigmentation disorders and can also be used as a cosmetic whitening agent.
Screening and Characterization of a Novel RNA Aptamer That Specifically Binds to Human Prostatic Acid Phosphatase and Human Prostate Cancer Cells
Kong, Hoon Young ; Byun, Jonghoe ;
Molecules and Cells, volume 38, issue 2, 2015, Pages 171~179
DOI : 10.14348/molcells.2015.2272
Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) expression increases proportionally with prostate cancer progression, making it useful in prognosticating intermediate to high-risk prostate cancers. A novel ligand that can specifically bind to PAP would be very helpful for guiding prostate cancer therapy. RNA aptamers bind to target molecules with high specificity and have key advantages such as low immunogenicity and easy synthesis. Here, human PAP-specific aptamers were screened from a 2'-fluoropyrimidine (FY)-modified RNA library by SELEX. The candidate aptamer families were identified within six rounds followed by analysis of their sequences and PAP-specific binding. A gel shift assay was used to identify PAP binding aptamers and the 6N aptamer specifically bound to PAP with a Kd value of 118 nM. RT-PCR and fluorescence labeling analyses revealed that the 6N aptamer bound to PAP-positive mammalian cells, such as PC-3 and LNCaP. IMR-90 negative control cells did not bind the 6N aptamer. Systematic minimization analyses revealed that 50 nucleotide sequences and their two hairpin structures in the 6N 2'-FY RNA aptamer were equally important for PAP binding. Renewed interest in PAP combined with the versatility of RNA aptamers, including conjugation of anti-cancer drugs and nano-imaging probes, could open up a new route for early theragnosis of prostate cancer.
Structure of the Tripartite Multidrug Efflux Pump AcrAB-TolC Suggests an Alternative Assembly Mode
Kim, Jin-Sik ; Jeong, Hyeongseop ; Song, Saemee ; Kim, Hye-Yeon ; Lee, Kangseok ; Hyun, Jaekyung ; Ha, Nam-Chul ;
Molecules and Cells, volume 38, issue 2, 2015, Pages 180~186
DOI : 10.14348/molcells.2015.2277
Escherichia coli AcrAB-TolC is a multidrug efflux pump that expels a wide range of toxic substrates. The dynamic nature of the binding or low affinity between the components has impeded elucidation of how the three components assemble in the functional state. Here, we created fusion proteins composed of AcrB, a transmembrane linker, and two copies of AcrA. The fusion protein exhibited acridine pumping activity, suggesting that the protein reflects the functional structure in vivo. To discern the assembling mode with TolC, the AcrBA fusion protein was incubated with TolC or a chimeric protein containing the TolC aperture tip region. Three-dimensional structures of the complex proteins were determined through transmission electron microscopy. The overall structure exemplifies the adaptor bridging model, wherein the funnel-like AcrA hexamer forms an intermeshing cogwheel interaction with the
-barrel tip region of TolC, and a direct interaction between AcrB and TolC is not allowed. These observations provide a structural blueprint for understanding multidrug resistance in pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria.
A Cytosolic Thioredoxin Acts as a Molecular Chaperone for Peroxisome Matrix Proteins as Well as Antioxidant in Peroxisome
Du, Hui ; Kim, Sunghan ; Hur, Yoon-Sun ; Lee, Myung-Sok ; Lee, Suk-Ha ; Cheon, Choong-Ill ;
Molecules and Cells, volume 38, issue 2, 2015, Pages 187~194
DOI : 10.14348/molcells.2015.2255
Thioredoxin (TRX) is a disulfide reductase present ubiquitously in all taxa and plays an important role as a regulator of cellular redox state. Recently, a redox-independent, chaperone function has also been reported for some thioredoxins. We previously identified nodulin-35, the subunit of soybean uricase, as an interacting target of a cytosolic soybean thioredoxin, GmTRX. Here we report the further characterization of the interaction, which turns out to be independent of the disulfide reductase function and results in the co-localization of GmTRX and nodulin-35 in peroxisomes, suggesting a possible function of GmTRX in peroxisomes. In addition, the chaperone function of GmTRX was demonstrated in in vitro molecular chaperone activity assays including the thermal denaturation assay and malate dehydrogenase aggregation assay. Our results demonstrate that the target of GmTRX is not only confined to the nodulin-35, but many other peroxisomal proteins, including catalase (AtCAT), transthyretin-like protein 1 (AtTTL1), and acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 4 (AtACX4), also interact with the GmTRX. Together with an increased uricase activity of nodulin-35 and reduced ROS accumulation observed in the presence of GmTRX in our results, especially under heat shock and oxidative stress conditions, it appears that GmTRX represents a novel thioredoxin that is co-localized to the peroxisomes, possibly providing functional integrity to peroxisomal proteins.