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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Molecules and Cells
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Journal DOI :
Korea Society for Molecular and Cellular Biology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 38, Issue 12 - Dec 2015
Volume 38, Issue 8 - Aug 2015
Volume 38, Issue 7 - Jul 2015
Volume 38, Issue 6 - Jun 2015
Volume 38, Issue 5 - May 2015
Volume 38, Issue 4 - Apr 2015
Volume 38, Issue 3 - Mar 2015
Volume 38, Issue 2 - Feb 2015
Volume 38, Issue 1 - Jan 2015
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Life of T Follicular Helper Cells
Suh, Woong-Kyung ;
Molecules and Cells, volume 38, issue 3, 2015, Pages 195~201
DOI : 10.14348/molcells.2015.2331
Antibodies are powerful defense tools against pathogens but may cause autoimmune diseases when erroneously directed toward self-antigens. Thus, antibody producing cells are carefully selected, refined, and expanded in a highly regulated microenvironment (germinal center) in the peripheral lymphoid organs. A subset of T cells termed T follicular helper cells (Tfh) play a central role in instructing B cells to form a repertoire of antibody producing cells that provide life-long supply of high affinity, pathogenspecific antibodies. Therefore, understanding how Tfh cells arise and how they facilitate B cell selection and differentiation during germinal center reaction is critical to improve vaccines and better treat autoimmune diseases. In this review, I will summarise recent findings on molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying Tfh generation and function with an emphasis on T cell costimulation.
Turning Hepatic Cancer Stem Cells Inside Out - A Deeper Understanding through Multiple Perspectives
Chan, Lok-Hei ; Luk, Steve T. ; Ma, Stephanie ;
Molecules and Cells, volume 38, issue 3, 2015, Pages 202~209
DOI : 10.14348/molcells.2015.2356
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a highly malignant disease and the third leading cause of all cancer mortalities worldwide, often responses poorly to current treatments and results in dismal outcomes due to frequent chemoresistance and tumor relapse. The heterogeneity of HCC is an important attribute of the disease. It is the outcome of many factors, including the cross-talk between tumor cells within the tumor microenvironment and the acquisition and accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in tumor cells. In addition, there is accumulating evidence in recent years to show that the malignancy of HCC can be attributed partly to the presence of cancer stem cell (CSC). CSCs are capable to self-renew, differentiate and initiate tumor formation. The regulation of the stem cell-like properties by several important signaling pathways have been found to endow the tumor cells with an increased level of tumorigenicity, chemoresistance, and metastatic ability. In this review, we will discuss the recent findings on hepatic CSCs, with special emphasis on their putative origins, relationship with hepatitis viruses, regulatory signaling networks, tumor microenvironment, and how these factors control the stemness of hepatic CSCs. We will also discuss some novel therapeutic strategies targeted at hepatic CSCs for combating HCC and perspectives of future investigation.
Genome-Wide Analysis of DNA Methylation before- and after Exercise in the Thoroughbred Horse with MeDIP-Seq
Gim, Jeong-An ; Hong, Chang Pyo ; Kim, Dae-Soo ; Moon, Jae-Woo ; Choi, Yuri ; Eo, Jungwoo ; Kwon, Yun-Jeong ; Lee, Ja-Rang ; Jung, Yi-Deun ; Bae, Jin-Han ; Choi, Bong-Hwan ; Ko, Junsu ; Song, Sanghoon ; Ahn, Kung ; Ha, Hong-Seok ; Yang, Young Mok ; Lee, Hak-Kyo ; Park, Kyung-Do ; Do, Kyoung-Tag ; Han, Kyudong ; Yi, Joo Mi ; Cha, Hee-Jae ; Ayarpadikannan, Selvam ; Cho, Byung-Wook ; Bhak, Jong ; Kim, Heui-Soo ;
Molecules and Cells, volume 38, issue 3, 2015, Pages 210~220
DOI : 10.14348/molcells.2015.2138
Athletic performance is an important criteria used for the selection of superior horses. However, little is known about exercise-related epigenetic processes in the horse. DNA methylation is a key mechanism for regulating gene expression in response to environmental changes. We carried out comparative genomic analysis of genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in the blood samples of two different thoroughbred horses before and after exercise by methylated-DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeDIP-Seq). Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in the pre-and post-exercise blood samples of superior and inferior horses were identified. Exercise altered the methylation patterns. After 30 min of exercise, 596 genes were hypomethy-lated and 715 genes were hypermethylated in the superior horse, whereas in the inferior horse, 868 genes were hypomethylated and 794 genes were hypermethylated. These genes were analyzed based on gene ontology (GO) annotations and the exercise-related pathway patterns in the two horses were compared. After exercise, gene regions related to cell division and adhesion were hypermethylated in the superior horse, whereas regions related to cell signaling and transport were hypermethylated in the inferior horse. Analysis of the distribution of methylated CpG islands confirmed the hypomethylation in the gene-body methylation regions after exercise. The methylation patterns of transposable elements also changed after exercise. Long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) showed abundance of DMRs. Collectively, our results serve as a basis to study exercise-based reprogramming of epigenetic traits.
A Fibrin Matrix Promotes the Differentiation of EMSCs Isolated from Nasal Respiratory Mucosa to Myelinating Phenotypical Schwann-Like Cells
Chen, Qian ; Zhang, Zhijian ; Liu, Jinbo ; He, Qinghua ; Zhou, Yuepeng ; Shao, Genbao ; Sun, Xianglan ; Cao, Xudong ; Gong, Aihua ; Jiang, Ping ;
Molecules and Cells, volume 38, issue 3, 2015, Pages 221~228
DOI : 10.14348/molcells.2015.2170
Because Schwann cells perform the triple tasks of myelination, axon guidance and neurotrophin synthesis, they are candidates for cell transplantation that might cure some types of nervous-system degenerative diseases or injuries. However, Schwann cells are difficult to obtain. As another option, ectomesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs) can be easily harvested from the nasal respiratory mucosa. Whether fibrin, an important transplantation vehicle, can improve the differentiation of EMSCs into Schwann-like cells (SLCs) deserves further research. EMSCs were isolated from rat nasal respiratory mucosa and were purified using anti-CD133 magnetic cell sorting. The purified cells strongly expressed HNK-1, nestin,
, S-100, and vimentin. Using nuclear staining, the MTT assay and Western blotting analysis of the expression of cell-cycle markers, the proliferation rate of EMSCs on a fibrin matrix was found to be significantly higher than that of cells grown on a plastic surface but insignificantly lower than that of cells grown on fibronectin. Additionally, the EMSCs grown on the fibrin matrix expressed myelination-related molecules, including myelin basic protein (MBP), 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) and galactocerebrosides (GalCer), more strongly than did those grown on fibronectin or a plastic surface. Furthermore, the EMSCs grown on the fibrin matrix synthesized more neurotrophins compared with those grown on fibronectin or a plastic surface. The expression level of integrin in EMSCs grown on fibrin was similar to that of cells grown on fibronectin but was higher than that of cells grown on a plastic surface. These results demonstrated that fibrin not only promoted EMSC proliferation but also the differentiation of EMSCs into the SLCs. Our findings suggested that fibrin has great promise as a cell transplantation vehicle for the treatment of some types of nervous system diseases or injuries.
Nicotinamide Exerts Antioxidative Effects on Senescent Cells
Kwak, Ju Yeon ; Ham, Hyun Joo ; Kim, Cheol Min ; Hwang, Eun Seong ;
Molecules and Cells, volume 38, issue 3, 2015, Pages 229~235
DOI : 10.14348/molcells.2015.2253
Nicotinamide (NAM) has been shown to suppress reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in primary human fibroblasts, thereby extending their replicative lifespan when added to the medium during long-term cultivation. Based on this finding, NAM is hypothesized to affect cellular senescence progression by keeping ROS accumulation low. In the current study, we asked whether NAM is indeed able to reduce ROS levels and senescence phenotypes in cells undergoing senescence progression and those already in senescence. We employed two different cellular models: MCF-7 cells undergoing senescence progression and human fibroblasts in a state of replicative senescence. In both models, NAM treatment substantially decreased ROS levels. In addition, NAM attenuated the expression of the assessed senescence phenotypes, excluding irreversible growth arrest. N-acetyl cysteine, a potent ROS scavenger, did not have comparable effects in the tested cell types. These data show that NAM has potent antioxidative as well as anti-senescent effects. Moreover, these findings suggest that NAM can reduce cellular deterioration caused by oxidative damage in postmitotic cells in vivo.
Caffeine Induces High Expression of cyp-35A Family Genes and Inhibits the Early Larval Development in Caenorhabditis elegans
Min, Hyemin ; Kawasaki, Ichiro ; Gong, Joomi ; Shim, Yhong-Hee ;
Molecules and Cells, volume 38, issue 3, 2015, Pages 236~242
DOI : 10.14348/molcells.2015.2282
Intake of caffeine during pregnancy can cause retardation of fetal development. Although the significant influence of caffeine on animal development is widely recognized, much remains unknown about its mode of action because of its pleiotropic effects on living organisms. In the present study, by using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism, the effects of caffeine on development were examined. Brood size, embryonic lethality, and percent larval development were investigated, and caffeine was found to inhibit the development of C. elegans at most of the stages in a dosage-dependent fashion. Upon treatment with 30 mM caffeine, the majority (
) of the L1 larvae were irreversibly arrested without further development. In contrast, many of the late-stage larvae survived and grew to adults when exposed to the same 30 mM caffeine. These results suggest that early-stage larvae are more susceptible to caffeine than later-stage larvae. To understand the metabolic responses to caffeine treatment, the levels of expression of cytochrome P450 (cyp) genes were examined with or without caffeine treatment using comparative microarray, and it was found that the expression of 24 cyp genes was increased by more than 2-fold (p < 0.05). Among them, induction of the cyp-35A gene family was the most prominent. Interestingly, depletion of the cyp-35A family genes one-by-one or in combination through RNA interference resulted in partial rescue from early larval developmental arrest caused by caffeine treatment, suggesting that the high-level induction of cyp-35A family genes can be fatal to the development of early-stage larvae.
Comparative Analysis of the Conserved Functions of Arabidopsis DRL1 and Yeast KTI12
Jun, Sang Eun ; Cho, Kiu-Hyung ; Hwang, Ji-Young ; Abdel-Fattah, Wael ; Hammermeister, Alexander ; Schaffrath, Raffael ; Bowman, John L. ; Kim, Gyung-Tae ;
Molecules and Cells, volume 38, issue 3, 2015, Pages 243~250
DOI : 10.14348/molcells.2015.2297
Patterning of the polar axis during the early leaf developmental stage is established by cell-to-cell communication between the shoot apical meristem (SAM) and the leaf primordia. In a previous study, we showed that the DRL1 gene, which encodes a homolog of the Elongator-associated protein KTI12 of yeast, acts as a positive regulator of adaxial leaf patterning and shoot meristem activity. To determine the evolutionally conserved functions of DRL1, we performed a comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of DRL1 and its yeast homolog, KTI12, and found that while overall homology was low, well-conserved domains were presented. DRL1 contained two conserved plant-specific domains. Expression of the DRL1 gene in a yeast KTI12-deficient yeast mutant suppressed the growth retardation phenotype, but did not rescue the caffeine sensitivity, indicating that the role of Arabidopsis Elongator-associated protein is partially conserved with yeast KTI12, but may have changed between yeast and plants in response to caffeine during the course of evolution. In addition, elevated expression of DRL1 gene triggered zymocin sensitivity, while overexpression of KTI12 maintained zymocin resistance, indicating that the function of Arabidopsis DRL1 may not overlap with yeast KTI12 with regards to toxin sensitivity. In this study, expression analysis showed that class-I KNOX genes were downregulated in the shoot apex, and that YAB and KAN were upregulated in leaves of the Arabidopsis drl1- 101 mutant. Our results provide insight into the communication network between the SAM and leaf primordia required for the establishment of leaf polarity by mediating histone acetylation or through other mechanisms.
Brca2 Deficiency Leads to T Cell Loss and Immune Dysfunction
Jeong, Jun-Hyeon ; Jo, Areum ; Park, Pilgu ; Lee, Hyunsook ; Lee, Hae-Ock ;
Molecules and Cells, volume 38, issue 3, 2015, Pages 251~258
DOI : 10.14348/molcells.2015.2302
Germline mutations in the breast cancer type 2 susceptibility gene (BRCA2) are linked to familial breast cancer and the progressive bone marrow failure syndrome Fanconi anaemia. Established Brca2 mouse knockout models show embryonic lethality, but those with a truncating mutation at the C-terminus survive to birth and develop thymic lymphoma at an early age. To overcome early lethality and investigate the function of BRCA2, we used T cell-specific conditional Brca2 knockout mice, which were previously shown to develop thymic lymphoma at a low penetrance. In the current study we showed that the number of peripheral T cells, particularly na
ve pools, drastically declined with age. This decline was primarily ascribed to improper peripheral maintenance. Furthermore, heterozygous mice with one wild-type Brca2 allele manifested reduced T cell numbers, suggesting that Brca2 haploinsufficiency might also result in T cell loss. Our study reveals molecular events occurring in Brca2-deficient T cells and suggests that both heterozygous and homozygous Brca2 mutation may lead to dysfunction in T cell populations.
Expression of the Floral Repressor miRNA156 is Positively Regulated by the AGAMOUS-like Proteins AGL15 and AGL18
Serivichyaswat, Phanu ; Ryu, Hak-Seung ; Kim, Wanhui ; Kim, Soonkap ; Chung, Kyung Sook ; Kim, Jae Joon ; Ahn, Ji Hoon ;
Molecules and Cells, volume 38, issue 3, 2015, Pages 259~266
DOI : 10.14348/molcells.2015.2311
The regulation of flowering time has crucial implications for plant fitness. MicroRNA156 (miR156) represses the floral transition in Arabidopsis thaliana, but the mechanisms regulating its transcription remain unclear. Here, we show that two AGAMOUS-like proteins, AGL15 and AGL18, act as positive regulators of the expression of MIR156. Small RNA northern blot analysis revealed a significant decrease in the levels of mature miR156 in agl15 agl18 double mutants, but not in the single mutants, suggesting that AGL15 and AGL18 co-regulate miR156 expression. Histochemical analysis further indicated that the double mutants showed a reduction in MIR156 promoter strength. The double mutants also showed reduced abundance of pri-miR156a and pri-miR156c, two of the primary transcripts from MIR156 genes. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that AGL15 directly associated with the CArG motifs in the MIR156a/c promoters. AGL18 did not show binding affinity to the CArG motifs, but pull-down and yeast two-hybrid assays showed that AGL18 forms a heterodimer with AGL15. GFP reporter assays and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) showed that AGL15 and AGL18 co-localize in the nucleus and confirmed their in vivo interaction. Overexpression of miR156 did not affect the levels of AGL15 and AGL18 transcripts. Taking these data together, we present a model for the transcriptional regulation of MIR156. In this model, AGL15 and AGL18 may form a complex along with other proteins, and bind to the CArG motifs of the promoters of MIR156 to activate the MIR156 expression.
Osteogenic Potency of Nacre on Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Green, David W. ; Kwon, Hyuk-Jae ; Jung, Han-Sung ;
Molecules and Cells, volume 38, issue 3, 2015, Pages 267~272
DOI : 10.14348/molcells.2015.2315
Nacre seashell is a natural osteoinductive biomaterial with strong effects on osteoprogenitors, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts during bone tissue formation and morphogenesis. Although nacre has shown, in one study, to induce bridging of new bone across large non-union bone defects in 8 individual human patients, there have been no succeeding human surgical studies to confirm this outstanding potency. But the molecular mechanisms associated with nacre osteoinduction and the influence on bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC's), skeletal stem cells or bone marrow stromal cells remain elusive. In this study we highlight the phenotypic and biochemical effects of Pinctada maxima nacre chips and the global nacre soluble protein matrix (SPM) on primary human bone marrow-derived stromal cells (hBMSCs) in vitro. In static co-culture with nacre chips, the hBMSCs secreted Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) at levels that exceeded bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2) treatment. Concentrated preparation of SPM applied to Stro-1 selected hBMSC's led to rapid ALP secretions, at concentrations exceeding the untreated controls even in osteogenic conditions. Within 21 days the same population of Stro-1 selected hBMSCs proliferated and secreted collagens I-IV, indicating the premature onset of an osteoblast phenotype. The same SPM was found to promote unselected hBMSC differentiation with osteocalcin detected at 7 days, and proliferation increased at 7 days in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, nacre particles and nacre SPM induced the early stages of human bone cell differentiation, indicating that they may be promising soluble factors with osteoinductive capacity in primary human bone cell progenitors such as, hBMSC's.
Antiangiogenic Activity of the Lipophilic Antimicrobial Peptides from an Endophytic Bacterial Strain Isolated from Red Pepper Leaf
Jung, Hye Jin ; Kim, Yonghyo ; Lee, Hyang Burm ; Kwon, Ho Jeong ;
Molecules and Cells, volume 38, issue 3, 2015, Pages 273~278
DOI : 10.14348/molcells.2015.2320
The induction of angiogenesis is a crucial step in tumor progression, and therefore, efficient inhibition of angiogenesis is considered a powerful strategy for the treatment of cancer. In the present study, we report that the lipophilic antimicrobial peptides from EML-CAP3, a new endophytic bacterial strain isolated from red pepper leaf (Capsicum annuum L.), exhibit potent antiangiogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo. The newly obtained antimicrobial peptides effectively inhibited the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells at subtoxic doses. Furthermore, the peptides suppressed the in vitro characteristics of angiogenesis such as endothelial cell invasion and tube formation stimulated by vascular endothelial growth factor, as well as neovascularization of the chorioallantoic membrane of growing chick embryos in vivo without showing cytotoxicity. Notably, the angiostatic peptides blocked tumor cell-induced angiogenesis by suppressing the expression levels of hypoxia-inducible
and its target gene, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). To our knowledge, our findings demonstrate for the first time that the antimicrobial peptides from EML-CAP3 possess antiangiogenic potential and may thus be used for the treatment of hypervascularized tumors.
Obatoclax Regulates the Proliferation and Fusion of Osteoclast Precursors through the Inhibition of ERK Activation by RANKL
Oh, Ju Hee ; Lee, Jae Yoon ; Park, Jin Hyeong ; No, Jeong Hyeon ; Lee, Na Kyung ;
Molecules and Cells, volume 38, issue 3, 2015, Pages 279~284
DOI : 10.14348/molcells.2015.2340
Obatoclax, a pan-Bcl2 inhibitor, shows antitumor activities in various solid malignancies. Bcl2-deficient mice have shown the importance of Bcl2 in osteoclasts, as the bone mass of the mice was increased by the induced apoptosis of osteoclasts. Despite the importance of Bcl2, the effects of obatoclax on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoclast precursors have not been studied extensively. Here, we describe the anti-proliferative effects of obatoclax on osteoclast precursors and its negative role on fusion of the cells. Stimulation with low doses of obatoclax significantly suppressed the proliferation of osteoclast precursors in a dose-dependent manner while the apoptosis was markedly increased. Its stimulation was sufficient to block the activation of ERK MAP kinase by RANKL. The same was true when PD98059, an ERK inhibitor, was administered to osteoclast precursors. The activation of JNK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase, necessary for osteoclast differentiation, by RANKL was not affected by obatoclax. Interestingly, whereas the number of TRAP-positive mononuclear cells was increased by both obatoclax and PD98059, fused, multinucleated cells larger than
in diameter containing more than 20 nuclei were completely reduced. Consistently, obatoclax failed to regulate the expression of osteoclast marker genes, including c-Fos, TRAP, RANK and CtsK. Instead, the expression of DC-STAMP and Atp6v0d2, genes that regulate osteoclast fusion, by RANKL was significantly abrogated by both obatoclax and PD98059. Taken together, these results suggest that obatoclax down-regulates the proliferation and fusion of osteoclast precursors through the inhibition of the ERK1/2 MAP kinase pathway.